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Public Document No. 25 



REPORT 



"commissioners 

on jjrvibxJY-ui. 

Fisheries and Game 



Year endinc4 December 31, 1908. 



mfo 






BOSTON: 
WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 
1909. 



\ \ 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 






COMMISSIONERS ON FISHERIES AND GAME. 



GEORGE W. FIELD, Sharon, Chairman. 
JOHN W. DELANO, Marion. 
GEORGE H. GARFIELD, Brockton. 

Chief Deputy Commissioner. 
WILLIAM W. NIXON, Cambridge. 

Clerk. 
W. RAYMOND COLLINS, Boston. 

DAVID L. BELDING, Chatham, Biologist. 
FERDINAND C. LANE, Wellfleet, Assistant Biologist. 
ARTHUR MERRILL, Sutton, Superintendent. 

Office : Room 158, State House, Boston. 

Telephone: Haymarket 2700. 



iv OBITUARY. 



On March 16, 1908, the senior commissioner, the Hon. 
Edward A. Brackett of Winchester, passed away, at the age 
of eighty-nine. For the past thirty-nine years Mr. Brackett's 
best efforts have been spent in the service of the State. 

Born in Vassalboro, Me., 1818, of Quaker parentage, his 
naturally strong artistic proclivities, early manifested, were 
frowned upon, his father striving in vain to have him trained 
in some " useful trade. " The early years of manhood were 
those of a struggling artist, — a sculptor, — with a strong 
predilection for poetic expression, as is evinced in his master- 
piece, " The Shipwrecked Mother and Child," now in the 
Worcester Art Museum; and also in the faculty of giving so 
much expression to his busts, one of which, that of Washington 
Allston, is on the main staircase of the Metropolitan Museum 
of New York. (A duplicate in marble is also in the Worcester 
Museum.) One of his notable busts was that of John Brown, 
the measurements for which were taken in the prison a few 
clays before Brown's execution. Mr. Brackett went to Charles- 
ton, Va., for this purpose during the trial, at a time when the 
feeling against the north was so strong that it was at the risk 
of his life that a Boston man ventured there. He made many 
other busts, including those of President William Henry Har- 
rison, of the poets William Cullen Bryant, Richard H. Dana, 
Henry W. Longfellow, of Gen. B. F. Butler, Wendell Phillips 
and William Lloyd Garrison. He never made a memorandum 
of his art works, and they .have been so scattered that but few of 
them can be traced. In 1861 Gov. John A. Andrew appointed 
him first lieutenant and battalion quartermaster in the First 
Massachusetts Cavalry. The following March he resigned, in 
consequence of reorganization of the cavalry, and returned 
home. 



OBITUARY. v 

Always abreast with advanced thought, his innate mental 
tendency was that of a pioneer; he continually had some new 
avocation, e.g., some experiment to work out, — running a 
winter greenhouse for grapes, cucumbers, roses and smilax; 
then rearing bees; again taking up some new psychological 
fad,- as mesmerism, psychic subjects, etc. The pioneering work 
of Seth Green upon the maintenance of the shad and salmon 
by artificial propagation and the application of his discoveries 
and methods to the Connecticut and Merrimac rivers early 
attracted Mr. Brackett's interest, and he constructed a minia- 
ture hatchery in an old freight car, with runs, etc., and a 
small pond near, all supplied with good spring water, with which 
he could carry on his studies and experiments. This soon 
came to the ears of Colonel Lyman, the first member of the 
then newly. created Commission on Inland Fisheries, and he was 
asked to work with and for them until 1869, when he was 
appointed a member of the Board by Governor Claflin. The 
" toy " hatchery became the nucleus of the present Winchester 
hatchery, the first State hatchery. The special form of a 
fishway devised by Mr. Brackett is still continued in successful 
operation both in the United States and Europe. His hatching 
tray also served as the type form, which has been modified in 
various directions to meet special needs. 

The giving up of his art work, involving the dismantling of 
his studio, was one of the bitter trials of his life; but he 
resolutely laid aside his preference, and threw himself into 
the work that had come to him, making himself so efficient 
and of such authority that in his eighty-seventh year he re- 
ceived his eighth consecutive appointment for five years each. 

Mr. Brackett served on the commission thirty-eight years 
and eight months, and for twenty-seven years, from 1872 to 
1899, as chairman. His interests as commissioner were not 
confined to the inland fisheries, but he personally and actively 
investigated the changing conditions surrounding our native 
birds, particularly the game birds. The importance of game 
birds as a source of recreation and food supply led Mr. 
Brackett, through Mr. S. Forehand of Worcester, to secure 
from Judge Denny from Oregon in 1895 the pheasant (P. 



vi OBITUARY. 

torquatus), which has become successfully naturalized in this 
State. 

The dominant traits of character were versatility, rugged 
integrity and perseverance in surmounting obstacles, a sunny 
optimism and friendliness, — the characteristics of " a good 
neighbor/' — which made him a notably successful public 
servant. 

The following resolutions were adopted by the Board : — 

Whereas, The passing of the senior member of this commission, Hon. 
E. A. Brackett, who, for thirty-eight years and eight months, with con- 
spicuous energy, fidelity and integrity served the Commonwealth, and 
for twenty-seven years, so long as his strength permitted, as the leader 
in thought and action in the work of this commission; and 

Whereas, This Board, ever since his retirement from active partici- 
pation in the daily routine, has depended upon his mature deliberation, 
ripe experience and wise counsels; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That, while bowing reverently to the decree of the Divine 
will, the undersigned, members of this board, deeply feel the personal 
loss, the warm friendly greeting and the ripened counsel of our ven- 
erated colleague, and extend their profound sympathy to his family 
and relatives. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the records, and a 
copy thereof be sent to the widow. 

George W. Field. 
John W. Delano. 



On July 8, 1908, His Excellency Governor Guild nominated, 
for the term of five years, ex-Senator George IT. Garfield of 
Brockton, as a member of the Commission on Fisheries and 
Game, and on the 15th the appointment was confirmed. 



CONTENTS 



Report. page 

General considerations, 1 

Expenditures, 2 

Mollusk fisheries, 2 

Dogfish 4 

Lobster fisheries, 4 

Inland fisheries, 5 

Game birds, 7 

Deer, 8 

Conservation of the song, insectivorous and game birds, valuable mam- 
mals, food and game fishes, 8 

Marine fisheries, 10 

Education relating to fisheries, 11 

The Gloucester fisheries, 13 

Edible and bait mollusks, 17 

Reports, .17 

Assistants, 18 

Courtesies, 18 

Location of the work in 1908, 18 

The laboratory at Wellfleet, 18 

Conditions at Wellfleet, 18 

Work at Wellfleet, 19 

The oyster, 19 

The quahaug, . . . . . . . . . . 20 

The clam, 22 

The scallop, 22 

The biological survey 22 

Shellfish food, water analysis, . . 22 

Work at Monomoy Point, 23 

Clams, 23 

Quahaugs, 23 

Oysters, 23 

Scallops, 23 

Coast work 23 

Educational work 24 

Exhibits at fairs, 24 

School exhibits, 24 

Lectures, 24 

Investigation not hatching, 24 

The Fish and Game Commission v. the fisherman, .... 25 

The lobster problem, 25 

Collection and purchase of lobsters with eggs attached 46 



viii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Inland fisheries, 49 

Trout 49 

Migratory fish, 54 

Pollution, 55 

Game and insectivorous birds, 56 

Enforcement of law, .81 

Deputy fish and game commissioners, 81 

Comparative table of law enforcement, 86 

Classification of arrests, . . 86 

Game in cold storage, 87 

Deer statistics 90 

Moneys received and paid to Treasurer, 91 

Inspection of fish, 91 

Recommendations for legislation, 91 

Courtesies, 94 

Appendices. 

A. List of commissioners, 101 

B. Distribution of food fish, . . 109 

Ponds stocked and closed, . 114 

Ponds restocked 114 

C. Distribution of pheasants, . 115 

D. Distribution of Belgian hares, 118 

E. Arrests and convictions 119 

F. Returns from shore pound and net fisheries, 131 



Stye (HommontDcaltt) o( ittassatl)U0Ctts. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully sub- 
mit this their forty-third annual report. 

General Considerations. 
The special duty of the commissioners is to deal with those 
relations which already exist, and the new problems which are 
constantly arising concerning the wise utilization of valuable 
assets of the Commonwealth, involving the intelligent conserva- 
tion, protection and utilization of the inland fisheries and game, 
valuable as a source of food and recreation; the protection 
of the insectivorous birds, which are directly and indirectly 
of incalculable benefit to all classes of our citizens ; and the 
conservation, development and economic utilization of our sea 
and shore fisheries. We aim to perform our duties in such a 
manner as to act co-ordinately with other State and municipal 
officials. Without narrow-minded specialization we strive to 
study the subjects under our charge, and seek to merit the con- 
fidence not only of the general public but also of the legislative 
and executive branches of our government, who from the force 
of the circumstances cannot always command the time necessary 
to study the fish and game problems at first hand and in the 
broadest and most detailed manner. We are of the opinion that 
this department can and should be made self-supporting. The 
small tax levied upon hunters (chapter 317, Acts of 1905, as 
amended by chapter 402, Acts of 1908, relative to unnatural- 
ized, foreign-born persons; chapter 198, Acts of 1907, relative 
to non-resident hunters ; and chapter 484, Acts of 1908, relative 



2 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

to registration of resident hunters) shonld not only provide 
better protection for farmers, property owners and the useful 
birds, and check in a measurable degree disastrous forest fires 
by increasing the number of paid wardens (who in effect are 
a special rural police) in active service, but should provide funds 
for more effective stocking of waters with food fish and of covers 
with birds. The initiation of a system whereby the public fish- 
ing rights on the seashore may be leased for the purpose of 
increasing the yield of the mollusks from tidal flats, thus de- 
veloping better business conditions in the shore towns, with 
increased opportunities for employment to our citizens, should 
yield a return to the citizens of the Commonwealth far in excess 
of the total annual expenditures of this commission. Of the 
subjects especially considered this year, detailed statements are 
given elsewhere in this report. These may be briefly sum- 
marized as follows : — 

Expenditures. — The exact details of all expenditures are 
published in the annual report of the Auditor of the Common- 
wealth. In general, $6,000 was expended for the benefit of the 
sea and shore fisheries; $5,700 for maintenance of inland re- 
sources for the purchase and propagation of trout, quail, grouse 
and pheasants ; $30,000 for the enforcement of the fish, game 
and bird laws on land and sea ; $4,000 for the protection of the 
adult female lobsters by purchase of those caught when carrying 
eggs ; $5,100 for salaries of the commissioners ; and $4,100 for 
printing, postage, travelling expenses of the commissioners and 
for clerical and office expenses. The total amount of fines was 
$6,957.50; and of all other additional moneys received and 
turned into the treasury of the Commonwealth, $2,735. 

Mollusk Fisheries. — In 1905 the Legislature ordered a bio- 
logical survey of the coastal areas below high-water mark, in 
order to ascertain : — 

( 1 ) The present and past conditions of the mollusk fisheries. 

(2) The possibilities of increasing the annual production by 
(a) increasing the annual yield per acre; (b) suitable methods 
of securing an annual yield from areas at present unproductive. 

(3) Ascertaining definite methods of increasing production 
by study of : — 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 3 

(a) Life histories of the economic mollusks, particularly the 
oyster, clam, quahaug and scallop. 

(b) Methods of feeding and rate of growth. 

(c) Effects of unfavorable conditions; e.g., pollution. 

(d) Methods of checking ravages of enemies; e.g., starfish, 
" drills," " winkles," etc. 

A report to the Legislature upon this work states, in general, 
that of upwards of 60,000 acres of shellfish ground only about 
3,552 acres are to-day yielding anything approximating the 
natural yield, i.e., from $100 to $800 profit per annum; while 
upwards of 40,000 acres are producing at least 90 per cent less 
than normal production; and about 15,000 acres at present 
unsuitable could at an expense of $50 to $300 per acre be made 
to yield from $100 to $500 profit annually. Under such devel- 
opment and utilization employment would be furnished to about 
20,000 skilled and unskilled laborers, as compared with 2,184 
in 1907 ; and a total production valued in the hands of the pro- 
ducers at $6,000,000 annually, instead of $752,000, as in 1907. 

The results from more than 300 experimental plots prove con- 
clusively that clams (Mya arenaria) and quahaugs (Venus 
mercenaria) can by appropriate methods be as successfully culti- 
vated as are oysters to-day, or as any farm crop ; that the value 
of a quahaug crop upon arrival at a marketable size often ex- 
ceeds $1,800 per acre; and that the annual profit should average 
not less than $200 per acre. 

These fisheries are prosecuted upon what is now in the east 
the last remnant of the public domain, viz., between high and 
low tide marks. The titles to the uplands have been acquired 
by individuals, and are subject to individual control and respon- 
sibility; and the title of the riparian owner extends to mean 
low-water mark, or to 100 rods beyond the mean high-water mark 
in cases where more than 100 rods of tidal flats are exposed by 
the average tide, but the riparian owner does not have an exclu- 
sive control of the fishing, fowling and boating. He may 
participate in these only on equal terms with the public, and 
subject to the disposing right of the General Court. Similarly, 
State laws have been enacted by which areas below high-water 
mark may be leased for oyster cultivation, but the lease holder 
can claim as his property only the oysters grown thereon. 



4 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Curiously enough, present laws permit the cultivation of oysters 
in the waters below low-tide mark, but not clams, quahaugs or 
scallops, either below or above low-water mark. It would be 
quite as logical for the State to permit the farmer to grow only 
corn. 

The fisheries (which include the mollusk fisheries) are still 
public, and subject to the disposing action of the Legislature. 
If the Legislature should by appropriate laws make possible 
intensive cultivation of shellfish, e.g., the oyster, clam, quahaug, 
scallop and lobster, in the area below high-water mark, under 
proper safeguards devised to secure public and private rights, 
there would follow : — 

(1) Increased opportunities for skilled and unskilled labor. 

(2) Increased yield per acre above the natural productive- 
ness. 

(3) Increased daily profits in proportion to the time and 
labor of the fishermen. 

(4) Increased definiteness of supply, thus permitting the 
fishermen to take advantage of market conditions. 

(5) Increased income to town from taxable property on the 
shellfish beds. 

(6) Increased subsidiary industries. 

(7) Increased revenue to citizens, communities and State, 
from leases of public domain. 

An extended discussion is to be found in a special report to 
the General Court upon the mollusk fisheries of Massachusetts. 

Dogfish. — As stated in our previous reports, the aggregate 
annual damage during the past five years to Massachusetts' sea- 
fishing interests cannot be less than $5,000,000. Some unsuc- 
cessful attempts have been made by oil and fertilizer manu- 
facturers in Massachusetts to utilize the dogfish. The chief 
obstacles have been lack of a regular and definite source of 
supply, and a lack of knowledge of the best and cheapest meth- 
ods of securing the maximum yield of oil and fish scrap for 
fertilizer. Scientific studies are now under way for the purpose 
of furnishing a standard by which manufacturers may test the 
efficiency of their processes of extracting oil and making fish 
scrap for use in commercial fertilizers. 

Lobster Fisheries. — As a direct result of the first annual 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 5 

Conference of the Governors of the Xew England States, held 
at Boston. Nov. 23, 24, 1908, at a convention of the commis- 
sioners of the States of Elaine. Xew Hampshire. ]\Iassaehuse:~~. 
Bhode Island and Connecticut, the following resolutions were 
adopted : — 

That in the opinion of this convention a close season during a por- 
tion of the year is of greatest advantage to those who are in a position 
to deal with the lobster as a marketable commodity, but is of relatively 
little value in augmenting the total annual supply of lobsters, for the 
reason that the lobster is a slow breeder, and that the breeding season 
extends over at least ten months of the year. 

If measurement is to be made the standard of legal length, the 
principle should be the measurement of the shell of the body, exclu- 
sive of the tail. 

That it is the opinion of this convention that the artificial propaga- 
tion and maintenance of the lobster up to at least the fourth si - 
in the development is of fundamental importance to the maintenance 
of the lobster fisheries of the United States. 

That the Chair appoint the chairman or a representative from each 
of the commissions of the different States to confer within a short time, 
either by meeting or letter, as it seems best, with the Xew York 
commission concerning a uniform law relative to the legal length of 
the lobster, and report to this body. 

That the chairman of this meeting is instructed to confer, either by 
letter or otherwise, with the commissioner of Xew York. Looking 
towards the adoption of uniform laws on lines passed upon at this 
convention. 

That it is the opinion of this convention that all the States should 
adopt the law which fixes at not less than i 3 4 inches, as measured 
by the Maine standard, the size of lobsters legally taken. 

That it is the opinion of this convention that it is advisable to li mse 
all lobster fishermen, dealers, smack captains and persons catching 
or transporting lobsters. 

TTe respectfully invite your special consideration of these 
resolutions, and we earnestly reco mm end that appropriate legis- 
lation be speedily enacted. 

Inland Fisheries. — As a result of drought, directly trace- 
able in very considerable measure to unwise methods of dei r- 
estation of our hills, many of the smaller brooks and the upper 
reaches of larger brooks, which are the nurseries of brook trout, 
have been entirely depopulated. In addition, we again re] - t 



6 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the statements given in the previous reports, that we should not 
be longer compelled to maintain unwise, inadequate and unbusi- 
ness-like methods of stocking public waters. We respectfully 
urge consideration of an improved system of stocking, whereby 
certain well-known and suitable waters, definitely designated 
as public waters under the control of the Commonwealth, and 
adequately protected and stocked, are maintained at their high- 
est productive capacity. 

Our present system of propagating, rearing and distributing 
fish is antiquated, and, while entirely adequate to meet the con- 
ditions under which it was developed, was not planned with a 
view to future extension of facilities, and has become entirely 
incapable of meeting the present demands. Greater results can 
be obtained from one model hatchery, having a sufficient water 
supply to maintain a stock of selected brood fish, and with 
hatching house, trays and rearing pools sufficient to turn out 
annually 5,000,000 fry, at least 250,000 fmgerling trout, and at 
least 1,000,000 white perch. 

Many inquiries have been made relative to the State hatch- 
eries, which were established by special acts of the Legislature, 
as follows: resolve 114, Acts of 1896, appropriating $3,000 for 
the establishment of a hatchery at Hadley; resolve 74, Acts of 
1897, appropriating $3,000 for the establishment of a hatchery 
at Winchester; resolve 60, Acts of 1898, appropriating $2,500 
for the establishment of a hatchery at Adams. 

Previous to 1893 approximately 400,000 fry were annually 
received from the hatchery at Plymouth, X. H., the cost of 
maintenance of which the State of Massachusetts shared equally 
with Xew Hampshire. Since the establishment of the hatch- 
eries at Winchester, Hadley and Adams the annual output from 
each has averaged about 200,000 trout fry. At the time of the 
establishment of those hatcheries there were practically no com- 
mercial hatcheries in the State, and the price at which the fish 
could be bought was at least five times that at which they may be 
bought at present. The total cost of maintaining the three small 
hatcheries for the rearing of fry only is less than $1,100 an- 
nually. The average aggregate output for the three hatcheries 
is about 600,000 fry, which at $1.50 per thousand would make 
the total yield valued at $900. The cost of distribution from 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— Xo. 25. 7 

these three hatcheries, situated respectively in the eastern, the 
middle western and western part of the State, is very much less 
than if the entire distribution were made from the eastern part 
of the State, as might be necessary if the fish were purchased; 
so that, in our opinion, there is practically no difference in the 
cost of buying the fish and the cost of hatching by the State. 

We are informed by the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics 
of Labor that wild trout are taken in this State to the value of 
$66,000 per annum, at a total cost to the Commonwealth of 
about $5,000 in the maintenance of the above three hatcheries 
and of the Sutton hatchery, which latter annually produces 
about 200,000 fry and from 70,000 to 115,000 fingerlings, or a 
total for the State of 800,000 to 900,000 fry and 70,000 to 
115,000 fingerlings. 

The chief difficulties in the maintenance of fish in Massachu- 
setts waters are connected with the excessive pollution of the 
larger streams and the deforestation of the mountain slopes, 
resulting in the drying up of the nursery brooks. There is 
absolutely no question that a larger plant of cultivated fish 
would be more economical to the State, and is beyond question 
necessary in order to secure proper results. 

In reference to the abandonment of the hatcheries at Win- 
chester, Adams and Hadley, the commissioners are of the 
opinion that it is not expedient at present to discontinue these 
hatcheries, for the reasons stated above ; and we are further of 
the opinion that we would have no right to abandon them until 
ordered to do so by legislative act. 

Game Birds. — In the pioneering work of devising methods 
of rearing game birds in captivity much progress has been made. 
The area available for rearing the birds has been so circum- 
scribed and so subject to infectious diseases, from long occupa- 
tion, that many untoward losses have been experienced which 
would not have occurred in a location suitable for breeding 
quail and ruffed grouse, where the ground and air were uncon- 
taminated by disease germs from domestic poultry and the 
birds safe from the abandoned cat. A movement to establish 
" sanctuaries," wherein native birds may breed in safety, is 
under way. The State reservations should be increased and 
utilized, particularly for breeding and feeding refuges for native 



8 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

birds. TVe venture to express the opinion that the breeding of 
pheasants perhaps may ultimately be safely left to private indi- 
viduals. 

Deer. — While it is certainly a fact that the wild lands of 
the State are well adapted for producing an annual crop of wild 
deer, an undue increase will without doubt entail hardship upon 
farmers and property owners. Every possible safeguard should 
be adopted to protect property and the rights of property owners. 
In the near future it may be necessary to control the increase 
of deer. A general open season, even for a very few days, would 
bring out an indiscriminate rush of inexperienced and irrespon- 
sible hunters. To prevent untoward results it may be necessary 
to issue a special license for deer hunting, with a fee sufficient 
to limit it to persons of responsibility, and to ensure to the State 
reimbursement for moneys paid to land owners for damage to 
crops by deer. 

Conservation of the Song, Insectivorous and Game Birds, 
Valuable Mammals, Food and Game Fishes. — Destruction of 
the evergreen forests, unrestricted shooting, rats, squirrels and 
mice, the introduction of cats, and infectious diseases, have com- 
pletely exterminated the wild turkey and passenger pigeon; the 
pinnated grouse and the upland plover are possibly beyond 
recall ; the ruffed grouse, woodcock and quail are steadily dimin- 
ishing. Of these possibly there remains an average of 5 or 10 
per square mile, as compared with an original population of 50 
or 100, or even more. Though formerly a breeding ground for 
the Canada goose, black ducks and wood ducks, our shortsight- 
edness in shooting birds on their northern migration now per- 
mits relatively very few to stop here. Favorably located at the 
junction of two of the great paths of bird migration, and on 
account of the locally congested population, Massachusetts has 
an unusual percentage of her territory still unspoiled for raising 
the optimum crop of game and insectivorous birds. More com- 
plete utilization of these conditions would be of permanent value 
not alone to farmers, but to all classes of the community. It 
seems probable that the avian population (exclusive of the 
English sparrow) has now sunk to one-tenth or possibly one- 
hundredth of its natural number previous to the year 1620. 
Manv of the conditions which caused this alarming decrease are 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 9 

still active, and the decline still goes on, though perhaps at a 
somewhat diminished rate. The value of the insectivorous and 
song birds is entirely beyond estimation : but some approximate 
figures may be made of the value of the game birds, in addition 
to their beneficial capacity for destroying noxious insects. We 
are of the opinion that Massachusetts should produce an annual 
crop of at least 25,000 ruffed grouse (valued at $25,000 as 
food), at least 20,000 quail (valued at $5,000 as food, or better 
at ten times that amount as insect destroyers on the farm), and 
at least 25.000 black and wood ducks (valued at $15,000). and in 
addition the wild lands should produce an annual crop of 1.000 
wild deer (valued at $25,000 as food). Besides this, there is 
reason to believe that not far from 50,000 to 100,000 jDeople 
hunt and fish more or less in this State; and if it can be prose- 
cuted with reasonable success here, between one and two mil- 
lions of dollars will be spent annually in this State, instead of 
being diverted elsewhere for similar purposes of recreation. 

Massachusetts is well studded with over 1.100 lakes and 
ponds. Of these, 860 are " State ponds " above 20 acres, and 
free to the public for fishing. The trout streams are numerous 
and very accessible. The State Bureau of Statistics of Labor 
is authority for the statement that the value of the wild trout 
taken in this Commonwealth in the year 1906 by hook and line 
was $66,000. The food value of the bass, pickerel, perch, horn- 
pouts and eels is probably at least $10,000. We are safe in 
saying that not one of these ponds and streams is producing any- 
where near its maximum capacity. Scientific knowledge of the 
rate of growth of the minute and even microscopic plants and 
animals, the fundamental food supply for young fish, is im- 
portant, for the reason that the quantity of such plants and 
animals largely determines the number of adult fish which 
a given area of water can support. Reasonably complete knowl- 
edge of such facts is necessary before adequate and economical 
results can be secured by stocking. It is, however, absolutely 
certain that well-advised methods of stocking, based upon ac- 
curate knowledge, should increase at least tenfold the yield of 
edible and same fish in Massachusetts waters. 



10 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Marijste Fisheries. 
The commissioners have made a first-hand study of the prac- 
tices in the Maritime Provinces, especially in reference to han- 
dling the dogfish, and incidentally to the lobster and mollusk 
fisheries in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island. They personally observed and studied 
the dogfish plant at Clark's Harbor and at Canso and Shippegan. 
These factories buy dogfish at $4 per ton and fish waste at $3 
per ton, and turn them into oil and fish scrap, a small portion 
of which is sold to near-by farmers at $25 per ton, but the great 
bulk of oil and fertilizer is sold in the United States. The 
annual product varies from 100 to 300 tons of dried fish scrap, 
or sufficient to furnish nitrogen for 500 to 1,500 tons of com- 
plete commercial fertilizer. In addition to the benefits to agri- 
culture by the production of fertilizer, the fisheries are relieved 
of a very considerable number of enemies; i.e., each ton of dog- 
fish scrap represents the destruction of approximately 37,000 
dogfish. Every dogfish living to-day is being maintained at pub- 
lic expense as a boarder at nature's table, eating and destroying 
on an average not less than 1 to 5 pounds daily of commer- 
cially valuable food fish, worth at least, at a very conservative 
figure, 1 cent per pound. Thus it may be properly inferred that 
the dogfish destroy more fish than are caught by the combined 
fishing fleets of the world. Public attention is awakening to the 
fact that many of our most valued sources of food are certainly 
becoming depleted, viz., lobster, bluefish, mackerel, etc., and 
that it is absolutely essential to assist nature in order to main- 
tain the supply. It is a sound economic principle that man may 
increase the natural supply of animal-plants suitable for human 
food, by developing new methods of protecting the eggs, the 
young and the adults from the natural enemies. This principle 
has been reduced to practice in the case of the domesticated 
animals and plants, and of the trout, salmon and other fish. The 
dogfish has become so destructive to our marine fisheries that 
some relief is necessary. Dogfish are not at present brought in 
commercial quantities to market, for the reason that no methods 
have been developed to make them commercially profitable. 
Gloucester and Boston, Mass., have the largest markets for salt 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 11 

and fresh fish in North America; and naturally there should 
exist facilities for caring for waste products, from which oil, 
glue and fertilizer can be made. The dogfish can be profitably 
handled, even if treated in the same class as fish waste ; though 
it is valued as a food fish in many countries, and the dried fins 
are sold at a high price (25 cents per pound) in the Orient, 
where they are regarded as a special delicacy. 

Education relating to Fisheries. — One of the most essential 
requisites for the intelligent conservation of our marine re- 
sources is a well-defined system of education, adapted not alone 
for giving instruction in the principles and practices of fish- 
eries enterprises, but of conveying to the public trustworthy 
statements pertaining to the legislative, civic, economic and 
sanitary problems involved; a fisheries museum, built up in a 
manner adapted for imparting knowledge, rather than merely 
as a collection of curiosities ; a library of technical books and 
journals relative to the fisheries and allied subjects; models of 
the latest and most approved types of boats and gear of all 
descriptions ; illustrated lectures and practical discussions and 
demonstrations upon pertinent subjects both in the line of 
handling the raw materials and of manufactured products of 
the fisheries ; and a staff of competent scientists, who would be 
available for rapid and comprehensive investigation of prob- 
lems which require special scientific training. The commercial 
and economic value of our fisheries cannot be overestimated. 
Other nations have developed fisheries schools and institutes, 
which are rendering efficient service. 

The visit to Massachusetts of the delegates to the Fisheries 
Congress, and the many admirable demonstrations of fisheries 
methods provided at Boston, and particularly at Gloucester, 
were greatly admired by all, and proved to be a most effective 
advertisement of the practical knowledge, experience, skill, 
enterprise and efficient organization of those who are respon- 
sible for maintaining the prestige of the Massachusetts fisheries, 
and of the unsurpassed qualities of the products manufactured 
from the results of these fisheries. The delegates were vastly 
impressed with the admirable sanitary precautions taken to 
ensure cleanliness and healthfullness in the special preparations 
sold in cans and other packages, as well as the scientific develop- 



12 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



ment of efficient methods of utilizing the incidental products 
formerly wasted. The rapid development of such trade is a 
tribute to the ability of the men at the helms, both on the sea 
and in the office, and to the industry, intelligence and fidelity 
of the employees, and promises prosperity not alone to the 
people living in special trade centers, but healthful and eco- 
nomical food to all the public at large, as well as a marked check 
upon the unwise and wasteful methods and utter disregard for 
the future supply which too often notoriously characterize the 
fishing trade. 

The fisheries shared in the general market depression. While 
the catches were up to the general average, prices were below 
the normal. 

Boston continues pre-eminently the market for fresh fish. The 
fleet included 302 sailing vessels, 1 steam otter trawler, 1 gas- 
olene auxiliary steamer and 154 miscellaneous boats, chiefly 
gasolene. 

The catch of fresh fish landed at Boston, as compiled by the 
Boston Fish Bureau, is shown below : — 

Ground Fish. 



Year. 


Haddock. 


Cod. 


Hake. 


Cusk. 


Pollock. 


Halibut. 


Total. 


1908, . 
1907, . 


37,581,600 
36,082,200 


27,502,000 
29,274,950 


11,365,800 
9,963,400 


1,668,100 
2,324,200 


6,617,400 
4,244,100 


301,550 
215,630 


85,036,450 
82,104,480 



Total Quantity of Fresh Fish of All Kinds landed at Boston. 



Year. 


Arrivals. 


Ground Fish. 


Other Fish. 


Totals. 


1903, 


3,818 


74,039,865 


6,227,007 


80,266,872 


1904, 


4,056 


75,920,980 


6,173,186 


82,094,166 


1905, 


4,280 


94,194,930 


7,111,765 


101,306,695 


1906, 


4,505 


86,956,350 


2,737,020 


89,693,370 


1907, 


4,383 


81,104,480 


6,006,556 


88,111,036 


1908 


4,500 


85,036,450 


6,841,130 


91,877,580 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



Best Stock of Massachusetts Vessels for Cod fisheries. 



Vessel. 


Captain. 


Gross Stock. 


"Tattler," 

"Arethusa (knockabout)," 

"J. J. Flaherty," 

" Smuggler," 


Alden Geel 

Clayton Morrisey, 

Fred LeBlanc, 

Fred A. Morrisey 


$24,364 
23,389 
17,798 
15,558 



Best Stock of Massachusetts Vessels for Fresh or " Shack " Fisheries. 



Vessel. 



Captain. 



Gross Stock. 



"Mary C. Santos," 
"Mary E. Cooney," 
" Pontiac," 
"Thos. S. Gorton," 
"W. M. Goodspeed," 



Manuel C. Santos, . 
Frank Cooney, 
Enos Nickerson, . 
William H. Thomas, 
George Perry, 



$40,100 
32,000 
32,000 
31,190 

29,000 



The Gloucester Fisheries. — The notable feature of the year 
in Gloucester, the home of the salt fish industries, was the ill 
success of the mackerel seiners, which was partially balanced 
by unusually good fortune in the banks codfishery, so that the 
total catch of the Gloucester fleet, in round numbers, was 
100,000,000 pounds, generally regarded as an average and satis- 
factory catch. The value on the dock was not less than $5,000,- 
000, which was increased to $8,000,000 by various processes of 
packing and manufacture. 

The fishing season of 1908 at Gloucester was productive of 
many big stocks in the various branches of the fishery, and in 
some instances long-standing records were broken. Of course 
it is not to be supposed that these stocks represent fairly what 
the fleet did as a whole. Those mentioned below are the high 
liners in the different branches of the fishery, together with 
others that were up in the front rank, and as such are worthy 
of mention and credit. 

In the mackerel fleet the schooner " A. M. Nicholson/' com- 
manded by the famous Capt. Solomon Jacobs, carried off the 
high line honor, with a stock of $21,000, each member of the 



14 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

crew sharing $438. Captain Jacobs has held the honor of high 
line of the mackerel fleet more times than any skipper, and, 
although now one of the oldest in Tears as well as in point of 
service, is still able to keep in the front rank in this most trying 
and uncertain fishery. 

Other notable stocks in this fishery were as follows : — 

Schooner "Monarch," Capt. John F. Vautier. $18,017.18 
stock and $360.74 share. 

Schooner " Ingoniar," Capt. Wallace Parsons, $17,983.58 
stock and $403.74 share. 

Schooner " Elizabeth Silsbee," Capt. John A. McKinnon, 
$16,874.58 stock and $336:88 share. 

Schooner ''Electric Flash,*'' Capt. William Bissert, $16,- 
184.60 stock and $361.81 share. 

Schooner " dintonia," Capt. Ealph Webber, $13,711 stock 
and $292.72 share. 

Schooner " Plata," Capt. Douglass McLean, $13,120.45 
stock and $280.93 share. 

In the salt bank trawl codfishery the high liner was the new 
knockabout schooner, " Arethusa," Capt. Clayton Morrisey, 
one of the finest fishing vessels ever built. Her photograph was 
given in our report for 1907. This craft made two trips to the 
banks, sailing on the first February 27, returning June 20 and 
weighing off 389,000 pounds of salt cod; then sailing again 
June 30, returning October 27 and weighing off 350,000 pounds; 
giving her a seasons total catch of 739,000 pounds, — an unus- 
ually large amount. On this was made the remarkable stock of 
$23,398.62, considered the largest season's work ever made at 
salt bank cod trawling. The crew made the notable share of 
$611.36. 

Previous to going on her first bank trip, the " Arethusa's " 
maiden endeavor was a frozen herring trip to Newfoundland. 
After taking out her second bank trip last fall she again went 
on a Newfoundland trip, this time for salt herring, returning 
December 19. Since she was launched, thirteen months ago. 
she has made the remarkable stock of about $40,000. Capt, 
Clayton Morrisey, her commander, is one of the most notable 
fianires in the Xorth Atlantic fisheries, and although one of the 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 15 

youngest, lias carried off the high line honor for many seasons 
in succession. 

Another excellent stock in this fishery was that of the 
schooner " Smuggler/' Capt. Fred A. Morrisey, $15,558.98, 
the average share being $424, as result of the two trips. 

Schooner " J. J. Flaherty/' Capt. Fred LeBlanc, on one 
trawl and one dory handline trip made the fine stock of $17,- 
798.23, the average share being $328.12. 

In the salt bank dory handline fishery another record was 
broken, the schooner " Tattler/' Capt. Alden Geel, being the 
craft to perform the feat. Captain Geel made two trips, weigh- 
ing off 674,764 pounds of salt cod and stocking $24,364.09, the 
high line share being $611.51. Previous to this the record had 
been held since 1902 by Capt. John Mclnnis, who in three trips 
that season in the schooner " Talisman " stocked $24,291.28, his 
high line share being $710.49, while 745,475 pounds of salt cod 
were weighed off as the result of the three trips. 

Some notable single trips in the salt cod line in 1908 were as 
follows : — 

Schooner " Ella M. Goodwin," Capt. James Goodwin, en- 
gaged in dory handlining, sailed July 1 and returned October 5, 
a very quick trip, weighing off 336,013 pounds of salt cod 
stocking $12,276.23, the average share being $248.19. The 
high liner of the crew, Edward Atkinson, made a share of 
$324.64, while four others of the crew went over the $300 mark. 

Schooner " Arcadia," Capt. William Wharton, on a deck 
handline salt cod fishing trip to Western Bank weighed off 
108,000 pounds of salt cod, stocking $3,800. On this trip the 
high line share was $150, while several of the crew made over 
$100. This -is accounted the largest and most remunerative salt 
cod deck handline trip ever landed. 

Schooner " Aloha," Capt, John Mclnnis, on a late salt cod 
dory handline trip to Grand Bank and Virgin Eocks weighed 
off 334,000 pounds of salt cod, stocking $11,712.07, the high 
line share being $283.51. 

In the fresh halibut fishery the highliner from this port was 
the schooner " Cavalier," Capt. Eobert Porper, with a stock of 
$21,248.32, the crew sharing: $430.26. 



16 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Schooner " Monitor/' Capt. John McKay, in the fresh hali- 
but fishery stocked $18,986.67, the crew sharing $409.89. 

The high line of the fresh halibut fleet is the schooner 
" Mooween " of Dnxbnry, commanded by Capt. Daniel Mc- 
Donald of this city. The " Mooween's " stock for 1908 was in 
the neighborhood of $2-1,000, the share of the crew being $593. 

In the Georges halibut fishery the schooner " Kineo," Capt. 
John G. Stream, is again the high liner, with a stock of $22,- 
540.08 and a crew share of $564.32. 

Other good stocks in this fishery last season were : — 

Schooner "Niagara," Capt. Fred Thompson, $20,301.23 
stock and $516.52 share. 

Schooner " Teazer," Capt. Peter Dunsky, stocked $20,787.76, 
the crew sharing $506.61. 

Schooner " Paragon," Capt. William Hermon, stocked 
$19,818, the crew sharing $428.75. 

In the flitched halibut fleet the highliner was the schooner 
" S. P. Willard," Capt. Augustus Peterson, with a stock of 
$11,857.12, the crew sharing $298.83. 

Other good stocks in this branch of the fishery were : — 

Schooner " Fannie A. Smith," Capt. Joseph V. Bonia, $10,- 
849.74 stock and $253.96 share. 

Schooner " Admiral Dewey," Capt. James Hayes, $9,013.17 
stock and $227.26 share. 

The high line of the straight Georges handline fleet was the 
schooner " W. H. Moody," Capt. Andrew Gorveneau, with a 
stock of $9,932.33, the crew's average share being $257.12. 

The high line of the " drift " or Rips salt cod fishing fleet 
was the schooner " Vol and," Capt. Allen Doleman, with a stock 
of $13,401.65, the average share of the crew being $373.85. 

Other vessels making good stocks and good shares in this 
branch of the fishery were : — 

Schooner " Jubilee," Capt. Oscar Lyons, $12,078.32 stock 
and an average crew share of $339.21. 

Schooner " Norman Fisher," Capt. John Williams, $10,- 
463.44 stock. 

The schooner " Etta Mildred," Capt. John Swim, has a stock 
of about $8,000, and with a fair catch on the trip upon which 
she is now absent she will be up among the leaders. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 17 

The high line of the haddock and shack fleet from this port is 
the schooner " Thomas S. Gorton/ 7 Capt. William H. Thomas, 
with a stock of $31,190.68. ' 

Of the market boat fleet, the high liner is the schooner " Mary 
E. Cooney," Capt. Frank Cooney, with a stock of $34,000 and 
a crew share of the splendid sum of $1,115. 

Edible and Bait Mollusks. 
Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Massachusetts Department of Fish- 
eries and Game, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — I respectfully submit the following report of the shell- 
fish investigations for the year 1908. 

The work of the biological staff of the Fish and Game Commission 
during the past season has been largely devoted to the study of the 
marine life of our coast. While considerable attention has been given 
to the relation of the various forms of sea life to the commercial 
fisheries, the main object of the work has been an investigation of 
the edible shellfish common in our tidal waters. This has been rendered 
necessary by the fact that the natural supply of shellfish, overtaxed 
by the exhaustive demands of the market, is fast diminishing, and 
unless the proper remedy is speedily imposed will soon reach the 
point of commercial extinction. Investigators who have been engaged 
in this type of work for years, and have a thorough knowledge of the 
prevailing conditions, believe that under a system of shellfish culture 
a far greater production can be brought about by the aid of man than 
can ever result under natural agencies. To this end many of the ex- 
periments of the past summer were directed, with the result that a 
practical solution of this important question has been presented in 
another report. 

Reports. — In addition to this report, which covers in a general 
way the work of the past year, several pamphlets, dealing in a more 
specific manner with some of the important problems relating to the 
shellfisheries, are in preparation. It is the aim of these reports to 
present in concise form the mass of material accumulated in four 
years' study of the life history and habits of the edible shellfish. The 
essential object of these experiments, as clearly demonstrated in the 
reports, has been to provide practical methods for checking the waste 
of our natural resources and for building up the shellfish industries 
of the Commonwealth. Inasmuch as the work in question was under- 
taken for public benefit, and since its fulfillment in a great measure 
depends upon presenting this knowledge to the people at large, it 
follows that all the good which might properly result from these 
labors will be lost if this information is not widely disseminated. It 
is therefore necessary that ample appropriations be made whereby 



18 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

these reports can be placed in the hands of every man in whose in- 
terests these experiments were undertaken and for whose benefit these 
papers were designed. 

Assistants. — Two permanent assistants were appointed in 1908 to 
the biological investigation staff. Previous to this time the department 
of research had been conducted by the biologist, with temporary 
assistants during the summer months. F. C. Lane, A.B., of Boston 
University, was appointed assistant biologist, and Mr. Alvah A. 
Perkins was engaged as assistant. Prof. William G. Vinal of Marshall 
College was engaged as scientific assistant during the summer. The 
work of all the assistants was of the highest order and deserving of 
commendation. 

Courtesies. — The commission wishes to express its deep apprecia- 
tion to Mr. L. D. Baker of Wellfleet for providing suitable laboratory 
facilities, as well as for many other courtesies. Acknowledgment is 
also made to Capt. Z. A. Howes of Wellfleet for many valuable sug- 
gestions, as well as to the oystermen and quahaugers of Wellfleet for 
their hearty co-operation and courteous treatment. At Plymouth the 
co mm ission is indebted to Mr. Frank F. Cole for his kindly oversight 
of the experimental clam beds. 

Location of the Work in 1908. — While still continuing the work 
at the Monomoy Point laboratory and on the various experimental 
plots for studying the growth of mollusks along the coast, central 
headquarters were established for the summer at Wellfleet, which offered 
abundant opportunities for shellfish investigation. As an important 
part of the 1908 work consisted in the study of the spawning, life 
history and growth of the quahaug, it seemed desirable to locate at 
this place, which has long enjoyed the distinction of being the fore- 
most quahaug fishing town in the State, and whose spacious bay 
possessed a variety of natural conditions favorable for the investiga- 
tion of this important shellfish. 

The Laboratory at Wellfleet. — Through the kindness of Mr. L. D. 
Baker the commission was given, free of expense, the privilege of 
occupying one of the buildings on Commercial Wharf. The largest 
of the three rooms, an apartment of some 30 by 20 feet, was con- 
verted into an excellent laboratory by the erection of suitable tables 
and benches for microscopy, while the central part of the room was 
given up to a series of tanks, hatching jars and aquaria, which were 
supplied with running salt water through a system of galvanized-iron 
pipes. The laboratory was further equipped with a stove and a sink 
supplied with running fresh water. In one corner a small office 8 
by 10 feet was partitioned off, affording space for desk, filing systems, 
etc. Adjoining the laboratory were two smaller rooms, which furnished 
sleeping accommodations for four persons. 

Conditions at Wellfleet. — Wellfleet Bay, a body of water some five 
miles long, fed by three large creeks, offers many interesting problems 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 

in shellfish culture and presents a variety of conditions especially- 
favorable for experimental work. A striking feature is the great dif- 
ference in tides, the mean rise and fall being over 10 feet, which 
leaves at low water a large area of tidal flats, in some instances ex- 
tending over a mile from shore. These flats, except for razor clams 
and a few scattering quahaugs, are practically devoid of shellfish life. 
The soft clam is found in only a few localities and nowhere to render 
digging extremely profitable. On the edges of the flats and in the 
channels extending far out into deep water quahaugs are found in 
large, though fast-diminishing quantities. Here in the deep water an 
extensive quahaug fishery is carried on by the aid of long-handled 
rakes manipulated from power or sail boats. In the more quiet waters 
are many oyster grants, which support a prosperous business, while 
scallops are occasionally found on the flats, but rarely in sufficient 
quantities to render their capture profitable. 

Work at Wellfleet. — The work at Wellfleet during the past year 
consisted for the most part in a general study of the life history, 
growth and habits of the quahaug, clam and oyster, an investigation 
of the food of the edible shellfish, and various minor experiments on 
the scallop and other forms of marine life. In order to give a com- 
prehensive account of the work it will be necessary to deal with each 
shellfish separately. 

(a) The Oyster. — The main problem which presents itself in deal- 
ing with the oyster was a purely practical one, namely, a study of 
the causes influencing the set in Wellfleet harbor. For years this 
problem had completely baffled the local oystermen, and many of the 
planters maintained that the harbor was utterly unadapted for the 
capture of oyster spat. All were enthusiastic in wishing success to 
the investigations and co-operating with us in the work. While all 
the causes influencing oyster set may never be determined, even a 
partial solution of the difficulty, so as to enable the grower to con- 
trol the set even to the slightest extent, would be worth thousands 
of dollars to this community. 

In order to attack the problem in as effective a manner as possible 
in the limited time at our disposal we first made a comprehensive 
reconnaissance of the harbor to familiarize ourselves with its physical 
features, such as the configuration of the coast line, the formation 
of sand bars and flats at low tide, the various currents and eddies, 
registering their velocity at different times of tide in the apparently 
favorable localities. While this work was carried on in conjunction 
with the experiments on quahaugs, as only part of the time could 
be given to it, we were able in a general way to pick out, from our 
knowledge of the case as well as from the past experience of the local 
oystermen, the precise localities where the spat would be most likely 
to set. Meanwhile, by keeping careful note of the spawning of the 
oysters in the bay, both by microscopical examination of the oyster 



20 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

itself and the floating larvae, taken by means of tow nets of silk 
bolting cloth, we were able to time our future experiments accordingly. 
When the ripeness of the spawn and the prevalence of the small fry 
in the water indicated that the young oysters were ready to set, a series 
of spat collectors, seventy in number, was immediately put down in the 
localities most favorable for set. The particular type of collector 
which seems best adapted to the requirements of the case is simple 
in construction, consisting of a small heap of shells covered with a 
strip of galvanized wire netting held in place by stakes at each corner. 
It was necessary to cover the shells with the wire netting to prevent 
them from being washed away by the strong currents and scattered 
over the flats. The results from the use of these collectors were highly 
successful. Though some were washed completely away and others 
buried in sand and slime, the practicability of catching oyster spat 
on a commercial scale in Wellfleet harbor was demonstrated. 

In completing the results of our investigations along this line we 
did not confine our observations to the spat collectors alone but took 
careful note of the set wherever found on rocks, stakes, shells, etc., 
along the shore. In this manner the entire set area of the harbor 
was mapped out in such a way as to show its relative abundance. 
It is only through observations of this character carried on for a series 
of years that anything definite will ever be learned of this important 
problem, and this is but the first step in the Wellfleet problem. 

From the work briefly outlined above, as well as from other ex- 
periments in the laboratory, fairly accurate conclusions were worked 
out as to the following points : duration of the spawning season at 
Wellfleet, areas best adapted for catching set, factors influencing the 
set, and possibilities of commercial spat collecting. Of course no 
records covering but a single year, however accurate, can be con- 
sidered reliable, and it will be necessary to supplement the experiments 
already made with others in the future before final results are ob- 
tainable. 

(b) The Quahaug. — The biological survey of 1907 brought out very 
clearly the important fact that the quahaug industry of the State, 
worth nearly $200,000 a year, is seriously threatened by the extinction 
of the natural supply unless some radical remedy is soon applied. 
As the result of cultural experiments conducted for the past three 
years the Fish and Game Commission has advocated putting the qua- 
haug industry on a basis similar to that of the oyster industry, i.e., 
upon a system of grants leased to private individuals who shall depend 
to a greater or less extent upon the cultivation of quahaugs for a 
livelihood. It is not our purpose to discuss this system at any length 
here. We have already done so in other reports and will continue to 
do so from time to time. Neither do we advocate in any sense the 
system of oyster culture of the present day as applying to quahaug 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 21 

culture, as there are many defects in the former system which should 
be done away with. 

The question of " seed " raises a fundamental difference between 
quahaug and oyster culture. While it is possible to purchase oyster 
" seed " in large quantities, it is practically impossible to purchase 
any quahaug " seed " at all. The capture or raising of small qua- 
haugs, entirely unlike that of the oyster, has never been successfully 
carried out on a large scale. It follows, then, that however necessary 
to the welfare of the quahaug industry in this State the inauguration 
of grants would be, such a system must inevitably fail of complete 
success unless some practical method can be devised for obtaining 
large quantities of the " seed." The solution of this problem proved 
an extremely difficult undertaking, and the result of the summer's work 
was in many regards extremely unsatisfactory. Knowing that an 
adult quahaug yields several million eggs in one season, and that 
under natural conditions most of these perish, we attempted to assist 
nature at her weakest point of resistance, and accordingly tried hatch- 
ing experiments both in and out of the laboratory by artificial and 
natural fertilization, with the aim of confining the young larvae in 
aquaria and spawning ponds until they attained adult size. These 
experiments, though productive of much practical experience, failed 
of their main object, partly through necessary pioneer's mistakes in 
conducting the work, but mainly through lack of sufficient facilities 
and by reason that the work did not start until the spawning season 
was well under way. Under such disadvantageous conditions we do 
not feel discouraged with the somewhat meager results in this branch 
of our work. We have learned many things that should prove of 
material assistance in future endeavors along this line, and the mis- 
takes of the past season need not be repeated. The results of this 
work have given us considerable information concerning the spawning 
season and many important points in the early life of the quahaug. 

Further experiments on the growth of the quahaug and along the 
line of quahaug culture were made by planting nearly two hundred 
small beds along the shores of the harbor, for almost nine miles, under 
great diversity of environment. Our object was to determine what 
effect such conditions as current, soil, depth of water, time of ex- 
posure, salinity of water, shifting sand, etc., would have on the growth 
of different-sized quahaugs. In order to properly identify and ac- 
curately determine the rate of growth all planted quahaugs were 
notched with a file, which readily indicates the amount of growth when 
taken up. In this simple manner we were able to arrive at some in- 
teresting conclusions and to compile some useful facts for future 
reference. Although several of the beds were washed away by strong 
tides, or buried by shifting sand, the greater part of them gave very 
gratifying results and were an unqualified success. 



22 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

(c) The Clam. — While the main work of the year was in refer- 
ence to the quahaug and oyster, some attention was given to completing 
the work on the clam, which had been extensively studied the two 
previous years. The chief part of this work was the study of the 
effect of different soils and locations on the growth of the clam, for 
which purpose about sixty beds were planted in the harbor. Difficulty 
was first found in procuring a sufficient quantity of seed clams, which 
were finally procured at Ipswich. The planted clam beds, all on bar- 
ren flats, did not do particularly well, as shifting sand and cockles 
destroyed most of them. A few furnished satisfactory records for the 
amount of time devoted to this work. Wellfleet's barren flats are 
in part productive, and the causes which prevent restocking furnish 
abundant material for future experimental work. 

(d) The Scallop. — The work on the scallop was confined to clear- 
ing up several points in the life history of the animal, and confirming 
the work of the previous year. For this purpose scallops were brought 
from Chatham to Wellfleet and kept in wire baskets near the laboratory. 

The Biological Survey. — In connection with our experimental work 
it was a matter of the utmost importance that we have a thorough 
knowledge of the physical characteristics of Wellfleet Bay, which fur- 
nished the field for most of our experiments. It was necessary to learn 
as much as possible of the natural environment and physical features 
which influenced the results of our experiments. A well-grounded 
knowledge of the bay, its tides, currents, eddies, bars, rocks, char- 
acteristic soil and various living animals, was of great value in car- 
rying out experiments such as the observations on the formation of 
oyster set. In this way a fairly complete record of the tidal flats and 
to some extent the deeper waters of the harbor was kept by means 
of maps ruled into squares and subsquares, which enabled us to locate 
exactly the site of any particular experiment and to keep accurate 
records of the different flats. This same system was also found to 
be of great use in our work along the Massachusetts coast. 

Shellfish Food — Water Analysis. — Observations upon the supply 
of shellfish food in the sea water at Wellfleet were begun the first 
of the season. Methods were used whereby the amount of food, which 
chiefly consists of microscopic plants called diatoms, could be counted 
in a sample of water with but slight error. By taking a large number 
of samples in different localities from the water over the shellfish beds 
it was intended to deduce, if possible, some important facts about 
the food supply in Massachusetts waters. Eight representative localities 
were chosen in the bay, and samples taken from these as often as 
circumstances would permit. For uniformity, the water samples were 
taken at half tide, with a cylindrical brass cup designed for similar 
work by Dr. H. F. Moore of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 
Observations on the time of tide, direction and force of wind, depth, 
temperature and salinity of the water, and velocity of current were 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 23 

made at the time of taking. In spite of considerable work in this 
line we feel that we have made little more than a beginning. Through 
the co-operation of the United States Bureau of Fisheries we have been 
able to greatly improve our system, and next season hope to continue 
our investigations on a much larger scale. 

Work at Monomoy Point. — The laboratory at the Powder Hole, 
Monomoy Point, was run in connection with the main laboratory at 
Wellfleet, and although no one was stationed there, frequent visits were 
made at definite intervals during the summer for the purpose of re- 
cording experimental data. As in previous years, the raft, from which 
were suspended the spat collectors and the growth boxes, was moored 
in the central part of the Powder Hole on June 15 and taken up 
November 10, completing three years of growth for the clams and 
quahaugs which were in the boxes. 

(a) Clams. — Several beds in the Powder Hole flat planted in 1905 
were taken up, the clams measured, filed and replanted. Various box 
experiments for growth were conducted on the raft. Data on the 
amount of spat caught in the collectors were recorded, while detailed 
observations were made on the effect on the growth of clams of certain 
physical changes in the flat. 

(b) Quahaugs. — The growth experiments of the previous years 
were continued both on the flats and in the raft boxes, completing 
three years' continuous record on the growth of the quahaug in this 
locality. Records of the spawning and the set were made, as shown 
by the spat caught in the box collectors on the raft. 

(c) Oysters. — The growth experiments in regard to certain points 
of practical interest were continued by means of planted beds. 

(d) Scallops. — For the third consecutive year observations were 
made concerning the length of life and growth of the scallop, which con- 
firm the results of the past two seasons. It is, perhaps, of special in- 
terest in this connection to show what can be done by the proper trans- 
planting of scallops for the purpose of increasing the future supply 
in any locality. In the fall of 1906 the commission transplanted from 
the common flats of Chatham about fifty bushels of " seed " scallops 
to the Powder Hole. The following summer these spawned, with the 
result that there was an enormous set of scallops, so thick in the 
spring of 1908 that a person wading in the water could hardly step 
without crushing one. Such a heavy set had never before been known 
in the Powder Hole and undoubtedly was due to the importation of the 
" spawners." 

Coast Work. — 'Records and observations were made on the clam 
growth experiments on the flats of Kingston, started by J. R. Steven- 
son in 1906. 

Growth and cultural experiments on the clam in the Essex and 
Ipswich rivers and in Plum Island Sound were continued. 



24 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Growth experiments on clams and qnahangs were started at Barn- 
stable and a partial survey of the flats was made. 

Educational Work. — The importance of popularizing and of bring- 
ing the results of the investigations on the mollusk fisheries to the 
attention of the public, and particularly the fishermen, has been real- 
ized by the Fish and Game Commission, and in addition to the scien- 
tific work it has undertaken this work in three ways. 

(1) Exhibits at Fairs. — Exhibits, illustrating the life histories, 
growth and habits of the food mollusks, have been made at several 
county fairs, particularly along the seacoast. In these exhibits it has 
been the aim of the commission to present to the public practical 
illustrations of the financial returns and profits resulting from a sys- 
tem of under-water cultivation, such as is advocated by the commis- 
sion. Exhibits were made at the Boston Food Fair, Lynn Horticultural 
Society Exhibit, Greenfield Fair, Great Barrington Fair and Barn- 
stable County Fair, and in every instance were a source of great 
interest. Another year it is hoped to extend the scope of these ex- 
hibits, especially in the central and western part of the State, in order 
to bring before the public the practical side of the sea fisheries. 

(2) School Exhibits. — Several requests from schools in different 
parts of the State for museum specimens and displays illustrating the 
life and habits of the different mollusks have been made of the com- 
mission, and practically all these requests have been complied with. 
These displays are designed to facilitate the study of nature and sea 
life, and at the same time develop an interest among the future men 
and women of this Commonwealth in the conservation of not alone the 
shellfisheries, but of all the natural resources of the nation. 

(3) Lectures. — A most popular method of dispersing knowledge 
concerning the shellfisheries, especially along the seacoast, has been 
by illustrated lectures before the fishermen of the clifTerent towns. 
In this way the importance of preserving the great wealth of the ocean 
and the value of the tidal waters of Massachusetts has been brought 
clearly before the inhabitants of the coast towns. It is hoped that 
an extensive series of lectures can be given another year in the coast 
towns. 

Investigation not Hatching. — Ever since the commission has been 
conducting scientific investigations on the mollusks it has been difficult 
to make people, particularly those in the coast towns, understand the 
exact nature of the work and its usefulness. The fishermen expect 
to see the barren flats at once completely stocked with millions of 
clams, and they are disappointed when nothing was done on so large 
a scale. They do not consider that such work would demand appro- 
priations a hundred or even a thousand times as great as the small 
amounts that are given for the preliminary investigation which must 
precede any hatchery work. It is the investigator's duty to discover 
the ways and means; that of the hatchery, to put such into practical 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

execution. The commission can only point out the methods to be em- 
ployed by those responsible for the successful maintenance of the 
fisheries. 

The Fish and Game Commission v. the Fisherman. — In conclusion 
it seems advisable to attempt a correction of the mistaken opinions 
prevalent in some quarters regarding the purpose and value of the 
experimental work of the Fish and Game Commission. Among the 
hardy fishing communities of our coasts, inhabited for the most part 
by men accustomed to dealing with things in a solely practical way, 
there is perhaps quite logically a tendency to underrate the im- 
portance of all scientific research. There is also on the part of many 
of these worthy people a primitive caution, which leads them to dis- 
trust the motives of strangers, and particularly of scientific men. It 
is gratifying to be able to state that this atmosphere of distrust is 
in great measure wearing away with the progress of time. The people 
of our coast communities are becoming educated to the value of scien- 
tific investigation; they are beginning to see that the government is 
the trustworthy friend of the common people, and that the commission 
is working to help them; and they are becoming more and more awake 
to the fact that the experiments conducted both by State and federal 
authorities are furnishing them much information of practical value 
which could be obtained in no other way. With the better establish- 
ment of this feeling of mutual understanding and good will, the work 
of this department cannot fail to be materially improved. When the 
fisherman joins his practical experience, attained through long years 
of observation, to that of the scientist, skilled not alone in observation 
but careful in the interpretation of these observations, both may work 
with far greater advantage to the benefit of the fishing interests of the 

Commonwealth. _ 

D. L. Belding, Biologist. 

The Lobster Problem. — The unwise method of dealing with 
the lobster still continues, partly as a result of " log rolling," 
and partly as a result of a misconception on the part of many 
legislators who understood that in voting for the 9-inch bill 
(chapter 303, Acts of 1907) they were carrying out the recom- 
mendations of the commission, when as a matter of fact they 
were voting for only a part, and for a part which, shorn of the 
saving restrictions relative to the taking of all adults above 11 
inches, is the most unwise and destructive legislation which can 
be conceived, and a mistaken provision, which has been chiefly 
responsible for the decline of the lobster supply from Massachu- 
setts waters. It must be noted that instead, as formerly, of 
sending lobster smacks to the New York market from Province- 



26 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



town as well as supplying our own local markets, less than 5 
per cent, of the mere local supply now comes from Massachu- 
setts waters. The ratio of decline is indicated in the following 
figures : — 



Yeab. 


Men. 


Traps. 


Lobsters. 


Average 
per Pot. 


Egg 
Lobsters. 


Ratio of 

Egg-bearing 

Lobsters 

to Total Catch. 


1890, 


479 


19,544 


1,612,129 


82 


70,907 


1:22 


1906, 


335 


21,918 


487,332 


22 


9,378 


1:52 


1907, 1 . 


379 


21.342 


1,039,886 


49 


10,348 


1:100 


1908, 


349 


19,294 


1,035,123 


54 


9,081 


1:115 



1 The increase in numbers resulted from a change in the law permitting the catch of 
lobsters down to 9 inches in length. 

The chairman of this commission has persistently and con- 
sistently urged the logical advantages of using only the lobsters 
between 9 and 11 inches long for food, for the following 
reasons : — 

(1) The public can from such lobsters secure cheaper lobster 
meat, even if the price of large and of " chicken " lobster is 
identical; e.g., on a basis of 20 cents per pound in the shell, 
boiled, lobster meat costs the consumer approximately 90 cents 
per pound if taken from large lobsters, as compared with less 
than 70 cents per pound if taken from lobsters from 9 to 11 
inches long. 

(2) The meat of the small lobsters is of better quality for 
eating. 

(3) The small lobsters live longer in transportation, and are 
more easily handled for marketing. 

(4) By protecting the lobsters which have reached the breed- 
ing age, a larger number of eggs would be produced annually. 
The larger lobsters are the most prolific breeders, and are prac- 
tically secure from all enemies except man. 

(5) In dealing with all other animals which are of value as 
food for man, protection to the animals of breeding age has 
proved to be necessary {e.g., cattle, poultry, etc.), while a cer- 
tain number of the young animals are used as food. If the 
supply of young animals is insufficient, more adults are kept 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 27 

for breeding. This is a logical biological practice, necessitated 
by natural laws, and must ultimately be applied to the lobster 
problem. 

(6) A law protecting the adults of both sexes above 11 inches 
long could be readily enforced' by forbidding the use of lobster 
pots having an entrance ring greater than S 1 /^ inches, inside 
diameter. The lobster fishermen on the north coast of Prince 
Edward Island have applied this principle, with most satis- 
factory results. This automatic protection of the adults of 
breeding age has resulted in a greatly increased number of lob- 
sters below 11 inches, which ensures a supply best suited to 
local demands, and increasing returns to the fishermen of that 
region. 

(7) Such a law would combine all the advantages of (a) a 
close season (but without limiting the supply or seriously inter- 
fering with local market conditions), by essentially making a 
close season for all lobsters of breeding age, and of (b) the re- 
strictions imposed by the lower-size limit, intended to check the 
use of lobsters too small to be of economic value for market. 
Present laws place a premium upon the destruction of the breed- 
ers, for the vast majority of lobsters placed upon the market to- 
day from Massachusetts waters have not reached the breeding 
age, or at best have produced in their lifetime less than 20,000 
eggs, instead of upwards of 1,000,000 eggs per lobster, which 
nature has found necessary for the maintenance of this species. 
That such a practice does not quickly result in complete commer- 
cial extinction is due solely to the size of the area inhabited by 
lobsters, and the difficulties encountered by the fishermen. But 
the results already evident in the immediate neighborhood of 
the great markets, i.e., the waters of New Jersey, New York, 
Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts, will gradually 
extend farther north, though doubtless obscured for many years 
by the specially favorable character of the coasts of Maine, Nova 
Scotia and Cape Breton for lobster growing, and by the develop- 
ment of practical artificial methods for checking the natural 
destruction of newly hatched lobsterlings, and rearing these on a 
commercial scale. But the efficiency even of such practice is 
directly dependent upon an adequate supply of eggs from the 



28 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec, 

very best types of mature breeding animals, whereas under 
present laws we are relentlessly seeking out for destruction the 
best and largest breeders (together with the immature breeders 
9 to 11 inches long), instead of reserving them for maintaining 
the supply of young. 

The fallacious argument that the destruction of lobsters of 
breeding; a°'e is -justified bv the fact that a 9-inch lobster on the 
next moult (which may occur within a few hours, or at most 
within a few months) becomes a 10 1 o-inch lobster, worth much 
more money in the market, is as logical as to kill the best breed- 
ing hens or cows because they are worth more money than 
one which is about to attain the breeding age. To be in exact 
accord with facts, the fishermen, the dealers and the public 
should be made to realize that with similar rapidity the class of 
protected breeders above 11 inches (upon which alone the future 
supply must depend) would be recruited from the 9 to 11 inch 
class. The writer has said that one 11-inch lobster is worth for 
the maintenance of the fishery at least five 9-inch lobsters, but 
Dr. Herrick states the biological value of the adult in much 
stronger terms by saying that " in the twelve years" following 
the beginning of the reproductive age, when the lobster grows 
from a 9-inch lobster to a 1 5 or 1 O-inch animal, the value of one 
lobster "to the fishery has been increased S00 per cent." 
There is abundant evidence that there would be a very consid- 
erable and probably sufficient number of smaller lobsters 
which would at one moult pass into the exempt class, and thus 
become increasingly efficient breeders for the succeeding fifteen 
to thirty years. The all-important biological fact is that, 
whereas under the present law every lobster above 9 indies is 
exposed to capture throughout its life (possibly thirty to forty 
years), under the suggested law a lobster would be thus exposed 
during only a relatively brief space (not exceeding two years). 
There is no question that such efficient protection to the source 
of the lobster supply and adequate regulation of the fisheries 
would work hardship to many worthy fishermen, even to driving 
many out of business. Yet many worthy persons who formerly 
shol game and song bird- or caught trout for market purposes 
have, as ;i resull of wise and necessary restrictive laws, experi- 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 29 

enced a somewhat similar deprivation, for the immediate benefit 
of the public and the ultimate advantage of every individual. 

The noteworthy paper by Professor Herrick, presented Nov. 
24, 1908, at the recent Conference of the Governors of the New 
England States, held at Boston, is reprinted for the purpose of 
ensuring a wider audience to the careful statements of highest 
authority from the foremost student of the lobster in the 
world : — 

The Preservation axd Propagation of the Lobster. 



By Dr. Francis H. Herrick, Special Investigator, United States Bureau of 
Fisheries, Professor of Biology, Adelbert College, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, Cleveland, Ohio. 



The problem of preserving or restoring a natural food supply of 
a "nation is sufficiently difficult in itself, though supported by all the 
knowledge Trhich natural science can supply. If the supporting arm 
of science is necessary, the co-operation of the people is equally indis- 
pensable. Where, as in the present case, the interests of at least five 
sovereign States are materially involved, how much more difficult do 
such questions become; and without co-operation how impossible of 
solution. My first word is therefore one of congratulation to Governor 
Guild and to all who are responsible for this conference of States. 
It is the consummation of the desires of every thoughtful citizen and 
worker in the field and laboratory for the past twenty years. Whether 
entire agreement can now be reached upon every question, or not, all 
must agree that the right step has been taken, and we may look to the 
future for reports of progress that is real, if not for immediate success. 

The lobster is easily the king of the crustacean class, and, though 
neither fish, flesh, fowl nor good red herring, he is excellent eating, 
and that his tribe may increase is a wish generally felt and often 
expressed. 1 Unfortunately, for many years past we have watched 
this race decline, until the goal of commercial extinction, not far 
remote in the future, seems to await the entire fishery. What is the 
matter with the lobster? 

1 While the public seems to demand the lobster in ever-increasing quantities, some 
diversity of opinion naturally occurs. Thus one person recently wrote that he must have 
at least one lobster a week, no matter what the price; while another expressed the fervent 
wish that this animal might be exterminated, — wiped completely off the map, — since it 
had given him so many hours of sorrow and repentance. Such expressions as the last, 
however, have their brighter side when we reflect upon the diminishing supplies now 
reaching the markets in many places. 



30 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Let us glance very briefly into economic and zoological history, 
before trying to find the right answer. The lobster has attracted 
many naturalists and other observers, both . in this country and in 
Europe, especially during the past fifteen years, until it has become 
the focus of a wide literature, and few marine animals are now so 
well known. The main biological facts concerning this classical type 
are well in hand, and excuse can no longer be offered on the ground 
of ignorance. 

White men caught lobsters in Massachusetts Bay for the first time 
early in the seventeenth century. The Pilgrims and Englishmen who 
began to flock into the bay colony about the year 1630 were well 
acquainted with the products of the sea in their old home, and the 
coast of New England supplied their tables with essentially the same 
kinds, only in far greater abundance. It is said, indeed, that the 
Pilgrims began at once to pay their debts, due in England, out of 
the products of their fisheries. 

In the chronicles of those early days the lobster is honored with 
frequent mention, and the early colonists must have enjoyed to the 
full both the new and the familiar kinds of American fish, lobsters, 
crabs and clams, so big, so palatable, so abundant, and so cheap every- 
where along this coast. Indeed, one would think there was no need 
of starvation, with lobsters and the other forms of sea food to be had 
on every shore. To quote from Mrs. Earle, 1 the minister, Higginson, 
writing of Salem lobsters, said that many weighed twenty-five pounds 
apiece, and that " the least boy in the plantation may catch and eat 
what he will of them." Again, in 1623, when the ship " Anne " brought 
over many of the families of the earlier Pilgrims, the only feast of 
welcome which the latter had to offer was a " lobster or a piece of 
fish without bread or anything else but a cup of spring water." 

The Pilgrim lobsters " five or six feet long," ascribed to New York 
Bay, take us back one hundred years farther, to the time of Olaus 
Magnus, who wrote that in the Orkneys and the Hebrides these animals 
were so huge that they could catch a strong swimmer and squeeze 
him to death in their claws. At this point it will be interesting to 
observe that in a tabulated list of some fourteen of the biggest lobsters 
ever captured on the Atlantic coast, and for which authentic weights 
or measurements have been preserved, the giant among them all 
weighed 34 pounds, and measured exactly 23% inches from spine to 
tail. All of them are males, and this one was caught off the Atlantic 
Highlands, New Jersey, in 1897, was kept for a time alive at the 
Aquarium in New York, and its skeleton may now be seen at the 
American Museum of Natural History in that city. No doubt the Pil- 
grims would measure a lobster as some fishermen do now, with the 
big claws stretched to their fullest extent in front of the head. In 

1 Earle, Alice Morse: " Home Life in Colonial Days," p. 117. New York. 1S9-8. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— Xo. 25. 31 

this condition the actual length of the animal is about doubled, so 
that the length of our New Jersey record breaker, when distended in 
this way, would reach nearly four feet, and the Pilgrim six-foot lob- 
sters have been stretched at least two. 

In an account of marketing in Boston in 1740 " oysters and lobsters " 
are mentioned " in course the latter in large size at 3 halfpence each," 
and this abundance continued for over one hundred years. 

To revert at once to modern times, it is not necessary to dwell 
upon the increase in price to the consumer which has followed the 
decrease in the supply of this animal. Many no doubt remember 
when lobsters were sold by the piece, and at a few pennies at that. 
Five years ago, with a market price of 25 cents per pound, a lobster 
weighing 3 pounds 9^ ounces cost, at an inland market in Xew 
Hampshire, 90 cents. The clear meat of the claws and tail of this 
animal, which had a fairly hard shell, were found to constitute but 
27 per cent, of the whole. This would bring the cost of such meat 
to 90 cents per pound. Even when every edible part of this animal 
was saved, which is seldom or never done, the total waste was found 
to be 45 per cent., and the cost of all edible parts 45 cents per pound. 
At the present retail prices of from 30 to 35 cents per pound, these 
estimates would have to be considerably increased. 

According to Mr. Richard Rathbun, 1 who was the first to give us 
a history of the American lobster fisheries, this fishery as a separate 
industry began towards the close of the eighteenth or the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, and was first developed on the coast of 
Massachusetts and in the region of Cape Cod and Boston, some fishing 
being " done as early as 1810 among the Elizabeth Islands and on the 
coast of Connecticut." " Strangely enough, this industry was not 
extended to the coast of Maine, where it subsequently attained its 
greatest proportions, until about 1840." 

The early white men learned many lessons in fishing from the 
Indians, and doubtless those living upon the coast in the course of 
time began to supply others more remote, until the Cape Cod region, 
having become famous, attracted fishermen with their smacks from 
Connecticut and from other States, and supplied most of the lobsters 
consumed both in Boston and New York for fifty years, or until the 
middle of the nineteenth century. As early as 1812, as Mr. Rathbun 
remarks, the citizens of Provineetown, realizing the danger of ex- 
hausting their fishing grounds, succeeded in having a protective law 
enacted through the State Legislature, apparently the first but not 
the last of its kind, for legal restrictions, including this statute, have 
been in force ever since. But this measure was designed to protect 
the fishermen rather than the lobster, for it was merely declared illegal 

1 " The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States," Vol. II.. sect. v. part xxi. 
Washington, 1887. 



32 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

for any one not a resident of the Commonwealth to take lobsters from 
Provincetown without a permit. The laws later enacted proved of 
little or no avail; by 1880 the period of prosperity had long passed, 
and few lobsters were then taken from the Cape. Only eight decrepit 
men were then engaged in the business, and were earning about $60 
apiece. This great local fishery was thus rapidly exhausted by over- 
fishing, and it has never recuperated. 

The history at Cape Cod has been repeated on one and another 
section of the coast, from Delaware to Maine, and is already well 
advanced in the greatest lobster fishing grounds of the world, the 
ocean and gulf coasts of the British Maritime Provinces of Canada, 
especially of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and in Newfoundland. 

Every local fishery has either passed through, or is now passing 
through, the following stages : — 

1. Period of plenty: lobsters large, abundant, cheap; traps and 
fishermen few. 

2. Period of rapid extension: beginning in Canada about 1870, 
and much earlier in the older fishing regions of New England; greater 
supplies each year to meet a growing demand; lobsters in fair size 
and of moderate price. 

3. Period of real decline, though often interpreted as one of in- 
crease: fluctuating yield, with tendency to decline, to prevent which 
we find a rapid extension of areas fished, multiplication of fishermen, 
traps and fishing gear or apparatus of all kinds; decrease in size of 
all lobsters caught, and consequently of those bearing eggs; steadily 
increasing prices. 

4. General decrease all along the line, except in price to the con- 
sumer, and possibly in that paid the fisherman. 

The official statistics for this State and for Canada afford pertinent 
illustrations of the older and newer phases of this history. Thus, in 
Massachusetts in 1890, 373 fishermen, working 19,554 traps, caught 
1,612,129 lobsters of legal size and 70,909 egg-bearing females, with 
an average catch per pot of 82. Fifteen years later it required 287 
fishermen, working 13,829 traps, to produce about one-quarter the 
number of lobsters, or 426,471, and less than one-seventh the number 
of egg-bearing lobsters, or 9,865; while the catch per trap had dimin- 
ished by nearly two-thirds, and was only 31. No substantial increase 
followed until 1907, when the legal length was reduced to 9 inches, 
and this increase was undoubtedly due to the large number of small 
lobsters caught. 

The lobster fisheries of Canada, which next to those of the codfish 
and salmon are most valuable to the Dominion, have yielded from 1869 
to 1906 inclusive, a period of thirty-seven years, a grand total of 
$83,291,553. In 1897 the produce of this fishery was 23,721,554 
pounds, valued at $3,485,265. Ten years later, in 1906, the yield had 
dropped to 10,132,000 pounds, but, though less than one-half as great, 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

it had nearly the same value, namely, $3,422,927. Notwithstanding the 
increased cost to the consumer, even in Canada the total value of the 
fishery has begun to fall, the product for 1906 being less by half a 
million dollars than that of 1905. 

The lobster grounds of the Atlantic coast were the finest the world 
has ever produced, a field, according to one estimate, 7,000 miles in 
length, when measured along the curve of the shores, and extending 
full 1,300 miles in a straight line from Delaware to Labrador, with 
a width reaching out to 50 miles or more from the coast. In Canada 
alone 100,000,000 lobsters have been captured in a single year. 

If properly dealt with, it would seem as if this vast natural preserve 
should have yielded lobsters in abundance and in fair size for gen- 
erations and even centuries to come. But instead, lean and still leaner 
years soon followed those of plenty, first in the older and more acces- 
sible regions of the fishery, until the decline, which has been watched 
for more than three decades, has extended to practically every part 
of this vast area. 

The lobster fisheries of the old world, and especially the more im- 
portant industries of Norway and Great Britain, when they came to 
be pursued with the system and energy characteristic of modern con- 
ditions, have experienced a similar decline, and upon the whole at- 
tempts have been made to meet it in a similar way and with the same 
result. The treatment has been of the symptomatic kind, and the real 
cause of the difficulty has not been reached. Sweden, indeed, is said 
to have felt the need of protective measures two hundred years ago, 
and to have framed the first laws regulating her lobster fishery in 1686. 
In 1865 the export of lobsters from Norway, to England chiefly, 
reached nearly 2,000,000 in numbers. Already as early as 1838 pro- 
tective measures were being vigorously discussed, and it was proposed 
to establish a gauge-limit of 8 inches; but this was rejected, and a 
close season (July 15 to September 30, and later extended from July 
to November) adopted instead. From 1883 to 1887 about 1,000,000 
lobsters were captured on the Norwegian coast yearly, having a value 
of 640,000 francs ($128,000), a large part of the product being con- 
sumed in the interior, and the rest exported alive. 1 While this small 
fishery has maintained itself better than most, it has probably suffered 
still greater reduction in recent years, but at this moment the later 
statistics are not available. 

The yield of the lobster fisheries in the British Islands has in some 
years reached a total of 3,000,000 lobsters, and complaints of a dimin- 
ishing supply have been loud and frequent. This would be a little 
over a third more than the returns of the Massachusetts fishery in 
1888, with its higher gauge of 10V 2 inches at that time. 

What means have been adopted here and in other parts to check 

1 " Les Pecheries de la Norvege," Exposition Universelle de 1889 a. Paris. Bergen, 1889. 



34 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the decline of this fishery, so general and so universally acknowledged"? 
The more important restrictive measures enacted at sundry times and 
in divers places have been as follows: (1) Closed seasons, of various 
periods in different localities. (2) The legal gauge or length limit; 
namely: 9 inches in Xew York. Rhode Island and Connecticut; 10% 
inches in Maine and Xew Hampshire, and in Massachusetts uutil 
reduced to 9 inches in 1907: S inches in Norway and England; and 
8, 9 and lO 1 /? inches in different districts of Canada: in all cases 
penalizing the capture and sale of all lobsters under these limits, and 
legalizing the destruction of all adults above the gauge. (3) " Egg- 
lobster " laws, or the prohibition of the destruction of female lobsters 
carrying their external eggs. In addition to such legislative enactments, 
efforts of a constructive character have been made as follows: (4) To 
increase the supply of lobsters in the sea by fry or larvae artificially 
hatched and immediately liberated, and, as practised chiefly in Canada, 
by holding the berried lobsters in large enclosures, called lobster pounds, 
ponds, preserves or parks, and subsequently setting them free when 
the young are ready to hatch. (5) By the rearing method lately 
being introduced of holding the fry artificially hatched, and rearing 
them until the fourth or fifth stages, when they go to the bottom, and 
are able to take care of themselves. We cannot at present enter into 
other legislative channels, such as laws prohibiting the sale of broken 
or picked-out lobster meat, the operation of canneries, or the con- 
struction of gear, however necessary they may be for this fishery. 
We must devote our attention to those subjects of most vital concern 
to the fisheries as a whole. 

The most important things to consider first are: (2) the legal length 
limit; and (4) the hatching and immediate liberation of the young, 
because they are fundamentally related, have been long on trial, and 
have entailed great expense. That they have had a fair trial and that 
they have signally failed all must admit. 

Xo doubt there are many who are ready to affirm that the present 
laws would be good enough, if enforced. Most people are aware that 
the gauge law has not been rigidly carried out, and that the illegal 
sale of short lobsters has become a trade of big proportions. I know 
very well that at many times of the year it is possible to buy short 
lobsters (said to come from Baltimore) in the markets of Cleveland 
and of other towns in the great middle west, but nevertheless I cannot 
share this idea. Both of these measures were bound to fail, and would 
have failed whether the short lobsters were destroyed or not. 

To come back to our question, What is the matter with the lobster, 
or with our means of fostering it? We have committed a series of 
grave errors in dealing with this fishery, to the chief of which, the 
gauge law, the others have been contributory. 

First, by legalizing the capture of the large adult animals, above 
10y 2 inches in length, we have destroyed the chief egg-producers, upon 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 35 

which the race in this animal, as in every other, must depend. Second, 
as supporting or contributory causes, some of us now, like others in 
the past, have entertained false ideas upon the biology of this animal, 
especially (a) upon the value of the eggs or their rate of survival, 
that is, the ratio between the eggs and the adults which come from 
them, and (b) of the true significance to the fisheries of the breeding 
habits, especially in regard to the time and frequency of spawning 
and the fosterage or carriage of the eggs. Our practices have been 
neither logical nor consistent, for, while we have overestimated the 
amount of gold in the egg. we have killed the goose which lays it. We 
have thought the eggs so valuable that we have been to great trouble 
and expense in collecting and afterwards hatching them and com- 
mitting the young to the mercy of the sea, while we have legalized 
the destruction of the great source of the eggs themselves, — the large 
producing adults. 

This fundamental error of destroying the adult lobster was first 
clearly pointed out in 1902 by Dr. George W. Field, 1 chairman of 
the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game in Massachusetts, and who 
in various reports since has ably advocated a sounder policy, based 
both on science and common sense, as will appear later in this paper. 

Our lobster fishery laws, which date in the main from 1873, are 
in principle like those which prevail elsewhere, and taken as a whole 
they illustrate the force of example and tradition, which were estab- 
lished long before the biology of this animal was even approximately 
understood. The past literature of this crustacean bristles everywhere 
with these false notions, which are more or less directly and mainly 
responsible for the enactment and maintenance of the present laws and 
practices of this fishery. 

The legal length limits of 9 and 10% inches, which sanction the 
destruction of the big egg-producers, but for these supporting causes, 
would probably never have been retained, for these causes have led 
to a diversion of energy in various directions, such as the enactment 
of closed seasons and the practice of hatching and immediate liberation 
of the fry. 

A closed season for any animal, during which it is made illegal to 
hunt or fish for it. can only be completely justified and placed upon 
a scientific basis when it is made to correspond to the breeding sea- 
son of the species as a whole, and when this season is limited to a 
relatively small part "of the year. Neither of these things is possible 
in the lobster, since the question is complicated by the fact that this 

1 Field. George W.: " A Report upon the Scientific Basis of the Lobster Industry, the 
Apparent Causes of its Decline, and suggestions for improving the Lobster Laws." Report 
of the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game of Massachusetts for 1901. Boston: 1902. 
Also, " The Biological Basis of Legislation governing the Lobster Industry." Science, N. S., 
vol. xv. New York, 1902. "The Lobster Fisheries and the Causes of their Decline." 
Fortieth Annual Report of the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game of Massachusetts. 
Boston. 1906. 



36 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

animal spawns but once in two years, so that not more than one-half 
of the adult females reproduce annually, and these eggs when laid 
are carried about by the lobsters through nearly an entire year. Closed 
seasons of this character are therefore not to be recommended, since 
they serve merely to restrict the total amount of fishing done in the 
year, and do not touch the root of the difficulty. 

The reasoning which has led to the establishment of the gauge limit 
has been somewhat as follows: lobsters come to breeding age when 
9, 10 or lO 1 /^ inches long, and when they spawn they spawn many 
thousands at a time, which is true. Therefore, by placing the legal 
gauge at 9 or lO 1 /^ inches we allow this animal to breed at least once 
before it is sacrificed, which is also true in the main. Ten-inch lobsters 
lay on an average 10,000 eggs; the lobster, being a good mother to 
her unhatched progeny, and the best incubator known, will bring most 
of these eggs to term, and will emit to the sea her young by the tens 
of thousands. What more is needed to maintain this fishery? The 
answer is, Vastly more. This race needs eggs not by the tens of 
thousands merely, but by the tens of billions, and it must have them 
or perish. Moreover, it can get them only or mainly through the big 
producers, the destruction of which the present gauge laws have 
legalized. If the lobster is a good "incubator," the sea is a very poor 
nursery. We have put a false value upon the egg. 

Before proceeding farther in this analysis, we must glance at the 
most pertinent facts in the biology of the lobster. These facts con- 
cern chiefly: (a) the period of maturity of adult lobsters; (b) the 
number of eggs borne by the females, or the size of the broods; (c) 
the frequency of spawning; (d) the treatment which these eggs re- 
ceive, or the habits of spawning lobsters; (e) the habits of the fry or 
larvae; and (/) possibly more important than all else, the death rate 
or the law of survival in the young. 

The phrases " egg lobster," " berried lobster," or " lobster in berry," 
or " lobster with external eggs," are all synonymous, and always mean 
a female with her cargo of eggs, new or old, attached to the swimming 
feet under the tail. 

(a) Lobsters do not mature at a uniform age or size, but females 
produce their first broods when from 7 to 11 inches long, approxi- 
mately, the difference between these limits representing a period of 
from two to three years (age of female lobsters at these limits about 
three and eight years, according to Hadley). Very rarely are eggs 
laid before the 8-inch stage is reached, and the majority are mature 
at 10 or IOV2 inches, when some have reared more than one brood. 
Accordingly, by merely reducing the 10V2-inch gauge to 9 or 8 inches 
we rob the animal of the very meager protection which it now enjoys. 

(b) The number of eggs produced increases with surprising rapidity 
in proportion to the cube of the length or the total volume of the 
body, from the very beginning of sexual maturity. The approximate 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 37 

number of eggs at S inches is 5.000; at 10 inches, 10,000; at 12 inches, 
20,000; at 14 inches, 40,000; at 16 inches, nearly 60,000; and at 18 
inches, nearly 80,000. In the case of 532 10%-inch berried lobsters 
taken from the waters of this State, the smallest, average and largest 
number of eggs borne were 5,000, 13,000 and 36,000. The smallest 
number probably represents a first brood, so that the average berried 
lobster at this size is probably carrying eggs for the second time. The 
maximum of production is reached at the 15 to 16 inch stage when 
some individuals produce nearly 100,000 eggs at one time. 

The average lO^-mch berried lobster is from five to seven years 
old; and assuming that it has borne eggs once before, it has lived 
to produce 23,000 eggs. On the other hand, an egg-bearer 16 inches 
in length which according to Hadley's estimate is nearly eighteen years 
old, has had a succession of eight broods and has produced 210,000 
eggs. The larger animal is thus worth nine times as much as the 
smaller; in other words, in the course of twelve years its value to the 
fishery has been increased 800 per cent. 

Again, it should be noted that it is the class of small adults up to, 
but not including the 9 or 10y2-inch animals, those which produce by 
the fives or tens of thousands, upon which we have relied to maintain 
the race, while it is the class of big animals which produce the fifty 
and the hundred thousands which has been nearly wiped out. 

It may be added here that the male lobster matures as early as the 
female, and possibly earlier; and that the female may be impregnated 
at any time, and by more than one male. The sperm is received into 
a peculiar pouch or seminal receptacle on the under side of the body 
of the female, between the third pair of walking legs. The sperm has 
great vitality, and will endure in this condition for months and possibly 
for years. 

(c) There is a definite spawning period for the majority of adults, 
ranging on this coast from July 15 to August 15, and averaging two 
weeks later in northern Maine. A relatively small per cent, lay their 
eggs in fall and winter. 

(d) It is a fact, though frequently denied, that the lobster lays her 
eggs, as already stated, but once in two years (though rare exceptions 
to this rule may be looked for), and not annually, as was formerly 
supposed. This was first proved by the anatomy and growth of the 
reproductive organs, 1 and was confirmed by the statistics of the fisheries 
and by experiments conducted on a large scale by Appelof 2 at the 
fisheries station at Stavanger, Norway, in 1899. 

(e) The eggs are not deposited on sand or trusted to the mercy 

1 Herrick, Francis H.: "The American Lobster; a Study of its Habits and Develop- 
ment," Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission for 1895, pp. 70, 246 (description 
Fig. 138). Washington, 1895. Also, "The Reproductive Period in the Lobster," Bulletin 
of the United States Fish Commission for 1901, pp. 161-166. Washington, 1902. 

2 Appelof, A.: " Mittheilungen aus der Lebensweise des Hummers." Mittheil. des 
Deutschen Seefischerei-Vereins. Bd. 15, s. 99. Berlin, 1899. 



38 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of the sea, but are carried attached to the under side of the tail, and 
admirably guarded by parental instinct for nearly a year, or until 
they are hatched ten or eleven months later. 

It may be also added that lobsters move from deeper water towards 
the shores in spring, and return to deeper water in fall. The laying 
of the new eggs and hatching of the old, followed by a moult or casting 
off of the shell, takes place, as a rule, in warming, but not necessarily 
in very shallow, water. There is no general coastwise migration, nor 
do all execute the same movements to and from the shore. 

Ignorance of the fact that there is a definite spawning period, that 
the eggs are laid but once in two years, and that they are subsequently 
carried for ten months, to hatch in June or July following the summer 
when laid, is responsible, in considerable measure, for erroneous ideas 
regarding the efficacy of closed seasons, laws protecting the berried 
lobster, and other matters of legislation, the effects of which have not 
yet worn away. 

(/) The fry or young, when hatched, rise to the surface or towards 
it, and lead a free-swimming life for three weeks, hardly larger than 
a mosquito (being a little over one-third of an inch long), and in- 
finitely more harmless, translucent, brilliant in reds and blues, and 
quite helpless in the presence of all but the minute animals upon which 
they prey. They perish by the thousands quickly before the storm 
and the countless fish and other enemies which they meet in their 
varied movements, and which do not disdain small fry. 

At the third moult, or the fourth, counting that passed at the time 
of hatching, with what seems like a sudden leap and bound, they are 
transformed into the fourth or the lobsterling stage, which really looks 
like a little lobster. The six pairs of flexible oars at the sides of the 
body have been cast off, and permanent swimming feet have appeared 
under the tail. There is a new armor or shell, resplendent in reds, 
greens and browns, and a brand new equipment of instincts and other 
powers. For the first time it knows fear, and in either this or in 
the fifth stage which follows it goes to the bottom, hides under stones, 
burrows in the sand and shows an ability to protect itself. The most 
critical period of infancy being now past, one lobster at this stage 
is worth many thousands in the first. Therefore, our efforts, to be 
of real avail, should not end with the hatching and immediate libera- 
tion of the fry; we should rear them to the bottom-seeking stage. 

(g) What is the death rate or the rate of survival in the lobster? 
Upon the answer to this question hinges the gauge or legal length 
law, as well as the expensive practice of hatching and turning loose 
the young, which has been pursued in this country and Canada for 
many years (since 1886 in the United States and since 1891 in 
Canada). 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 39 

As was pointed out ten years ago/ too many fish culturists have 
been content to turn out so many thousands or millions of eggs of 
lobsters and fish, and confidently expect results, to the neglect of the 
most important question of the whole business, — the rate of survival 
in the young set free, or the number of adults which can be raised 
from them, the very end for which all the time, trouble and money 
have been expended. 

In the popular mind, an egg is an egg, like that of the fowl which 
we eat for breakfast. An egg really represents opportunity or chance 
to survive, and its biological value to the race depends upon the law 
or rate of survival, which was definitely fixed in nature before the 
advent of man with his traps and hatching jars, and differs in every 
species of animal and plant known. When the gauntlet of life is long 
and hazardous, especially in infancy, nature, as in the present case, 
multiplies the chances or multiplies the eggs. Many eggs always means 
death, under natural conditions, to all but a remnant of the host. The 
number of eggs alone serves as a rough gauge to determine the rate 
of survival. 

At one end of the scale stand the birds and mammals, with few 
eggs and the highest life rate known, secured by guarding and parental 
instincts, with big yolks and rapid development in one case and the 
special conditions of fetal life in the other. At the other extreme 
we find a parasite like the tapeworm, where the conditions of early 
life are so unpromising — since it must run a long hazard of chances, 
and be eaten by two distinct vertebrates — that its eggs are required 
by the hundreds of millions or even billions. The lobster needs more 
eggs than the trout, and of smaller size, but far less than the edible 
blue crab, which sometimes carries five millions of eggs attached to 
its body. Each one of these is smaller than the dot over the letter i 
of ordinary print, and it must pass a long and dangerous larval period 
before reaching maturity. 

What, then, is the life rate or rate of survival in the lobster? Prob- 
ably not more than 2 in 30,000, and certainly not more than 2 in 
10,000. This number would be exactly known, provided we knew the 
proportion of the sexes or the proportion of the total number of males 
to the total number of females, and the average number of eggs laid 
by mature females during their entire life. 

Since the sexes are about equal numerically, it is only necessary, 
to maintain the species at an equilibrium, for each pair of adults or 
for each adult female to leave two children which attain adult age, 
whatever the actual length of life in either generation. If the adult 
progeny exceeds two, the race will increase; if less than two, it will 

1 Herrick, Francis H.: "Protection of the Lobster Fishery," Bulletin of the United 
States Fish Commission for 1897, p. 221. Washington, 1S98. 



40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

diminish. Since under present conditions the race of this animal 
is falling off, the actual rate of survival for the individual having 
remained the same, the total number of survivals only has changed, 
in other words, there is at present a deficiency of eggs. 

What is the average number of eggs for the entire life of this ani- 
mal? We know the minimal and maximal limits of egg production 
in individuals (roughly, 3.000 and 100,000) ; we know the average 
number of eggs borne at the average age of maturity (at the 10-inch 
size, 10,000 eggs) ; but, as Allen, 1 in discussing this question, points 
out, we do not know the number of female lobsters destroyed at dif- 
ferent ages. Many after laying their first eggs are killed before any 
young are allowed to hatch, and the number which survive to produce 
successive broods is a constantly diminishing one: but this is made 
good in part by the rapid increase in the number of eggs. 

The average number of eggs borne by all the berried lobsters cap- 
tured should give us an indication of the average number of eggs 
borne by all female lobsters during life, — the number sought. In 
4,6-45 egg lobsters from the Woods Hole region, Massachusetts, the 
average number of eggs was 32,000, which would correspond to a 13 
or 13%-inch lobster which had produced three or more broods. Allen 
found the number of eggs borne by 96.09S lobsters caught in New- 
foundland to be 2,247,908,000, which would give an average of 23,000 
to each female. This number corresponds to an animal 12 or 12V* 
inches long, which, as he remarks, from the known average age at which 
female lobsters mature (IO-IOV2 inches), would be carrying at least 
a second brood. Such a lobster must therefore have produced 13,000 
eggs (the average product at IOV2 inches) plus 23,000, or at least 
36,000 in all. We are therefore right in concluding that the maximum 
rate of survival of 2 in 10,000, formerly given, 1 was much too high, 
as it was known to be at the time, and that the proportion of 2 to 
30,000 is much nearer the truth. Another estimate, by Meek, 2 based 
upon the statistics of the fisheries of Northumberland, Eng., gives 
a life rate of 1 in 38,000. 

If it is then true, as we are thoroughly convinced that it is, thai 
the normal rate of survival in the lobster is not greater than 2 in 30,000 
or 1 in 15,000 (and it cannot be greater than 2 in 10,000), the fact 
is big for the lobster fishery, and the sooner it is faced the better. 
It has a direct bearing upon our laws and fishery operations. It 
enables us to truly evaluate the egg and the egg lobster. It shows in 
a conclusive manner that the present gauge laws are indefensible, 
because they rob the fishery of the billions of eggs necessary to maintain 
it. It further shows that the method of hatching the eggs of this 



1 Allen, E. J.: "The Reproduction of the Lobster," Journal Marine Biological Associa- 
tion, Vol. iv. (N. 8.). Plymouth, 1895-97. 

">■ Meek, A.: "The Crab and Lobster Fisheries of Northumberland." Report for 1904. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1904. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

animal and immediately liberating its young is ineffective, because of 
the meager results which can come from it. On the other hand, it 
speaks loudly in favor of a law to protect the large egg producers, 
and of the newer plan of rearing the young to the bottom-seeking 
stage, as the only means by which pisciculture can hope to materially 
aid this fishery. 

The importance of the law of survival to the operations of the 
fisheries, and especially in its bearing upon some of our present illogi- 
cal laws, is the only excuse for dwelling upon it at this length. To 
illustrate further, — with respect to period of maturity and value 
to the fishery, all lobsters in the sea may be divided into three classes: 
(1) the young and adolescents, mainly from egg or larva, to the 8-inch 
stage; (2) intermediate class of adolescents and adults, 8 or 9 to 
lOYz inches in length; and (3) large adults, mainly above IOV2 inches 
long. The biological value of the individual increases with every stage 
from egg to adult of largest size, and therefore is greatest in class 3. 
The present laws sanction the destruction of class 3, but class 1, the 
beginning of the series, must, as we have seen, be mainly recruited 
from this class, or from those animals which under present conditions 
are being wiped out. In other words, our policy shifts the duty of 
maintaining the race upon the small producers, which the law of 
survival plainly tells us it is unable to bear. There is no way of getting 
over this grave defect. 

We speak of the " living chain " from egg to adult, but the metaphor 
is not a happy one. There is no " chain " relation in living nature, 
only a succession of individuals, of individual eggs, united in origin 
but discrete in each generation. The embryologist begins with the 
egg, but the fish culturist with the egg producer. Spare the egg pro- 
ducer, then, and nature will save the race. We cannot wholly take 
the place of nature in dealing with the eggs, but we can defeat the 
ends of nature by killing the " bird " which lays them. 

But, do you say, " We have the egg lobster law, and the protection 
of lobsters in spawn should remedy our difficulties " ? In reply, we 
have but to recall the fact that adults lay their eggs but once in two 
years, and consequently we should not expect to find more than one- 
half of this class with spawn attached to the body at any given time. 
This at once reduces the protection aimed at in the egg lobster law 
by one-half. The other half shrinks to small proportions when we con- 
sider that there is an overlap of four weeks in July between the climax 
of the periods of hatching and spawning, when the majority of all 
adult female lobsters are without eggs of any kind, and also when we 
further consider the ease with which a fisherman by a few strokes of 
the hand can make a berried lobster eggless. 

When analyzed in the light of the law of survival, the showing of 
the lobster hatcheries is not very encouraging. The hatching and im- 
mediate liberation of the fry has been practised for many years in 



42 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Europe, where experiments were made in Norway as early as 1873, 
as well as in Canada and the United States. The whole number of 
fry hatched and liberated on the Atlantic coast for a period of ten 
years, according to official returns from the hatcheries of the United 
States, Canada and Newfoundland, reached a grand total of 4,214,778,- 
200. Applying the law of survival, with life rate of 2 in 30,000, which 
has been shown to be a fair allowance, this number of young would 
yield only 280,985, while there must have been captured on this coast 
in the same period nearly 1,000,000,000 lobsters. By applying the 
maximum rate of 2 in 10,000, which we are assured is far too large, 
the yield would be 842,955. To have held the fishery at an equilibrium 
by this means, there should have been hatched 5,000,000,000,000 young, 
or 1,250 times as many as were actually liberated. 

To take another example, the total output of all the Canadian lobster 
hatcheries, for the entire history of this fishery, 1880 to 1906, was as 
follows : — 

Bay View, N. S., 1891-1906, 1,889,300,000 

Canso, N. S., 1905-1906, 79,000,000 

Shemogue, N. B., 1903-1906, 291,000,000 

Shippegan, N. B., 1904-1906, 220,000,000 

Charlottetown and Dunk E., P. E. I., 1880-1906, . . . 256,085,000 

2,735,385,000 

Again, allowing the maximum rate of 1 in 5,000, this product of 
the activity of twenty-four years 1 would yield only 547,077 lobsters, 
or but little over the two-hundredth part of the numbers caught in 
certain years in Canada alone. 

Such illustrations should make us pause to consider whether we 
have rightly evaluated the egg and the young in this animal. They 
show the hopelessness of restoring or of even maintaining this fishery 
by such a method when conducted on any possible scale. 

In cases of this kind it is as detrimental to overestimate the value 
of the egg as to undervalue it. The eggs are true gold, although the 
amount which each weighs is infinitesimal. Like drops of water and 
grains of sand, these eggs count for but little singly, but in mass the 
inanimate particles can make the oceans and the continents, while 
the living germs can fill them with teeming inhabitants. 

We cannot work on the colossal scale of nature in dealing with egg 
or larva, but we may frustrate nature by destroying the egg producers. 
Nature long ago provided for the cod, the shark and hundreds of other 
predaceous fishes; she took into account the tides, the storm and the 
rock-ribbed coast also, by giving to this race billions of eggs each year ; 

1 No hatchery operations apparently having been conducted in the years 1888 to 1890, 
inclusive. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 43 

but no provision was made for millions of traps working night and 
day at the bottom of the sea to destroy the producers of these eggs. 

The method of rearing the young through their critical larval or 
pelagic period, until they finally go to the bottom in the fourth or 
fifth stages, promises to materially aid this fishery. Some efforts were 
made in this direction by MM. Gullion and Coste 1 at Concarneau, 
France, as early as 1865, when the necessity of rearing the little lobster 
through its dangerous period of infancy was as clearly understood as 
now; but, though heralded with enthusiastic reports, little real advance 
seems to have been made. 

In the years 1873 to 1S75 experiments in the hatching and rearing 
of lobsters were again undertaken by several gentlemen at Stavanger, 
Norway, 2 both independently and with the aid of the Royal Society 
for furthering the Industries of Norway. According to the reports 
of Professors Rasch and G. 0. Sars, they were eminently successful; 
many young lobsters were carried to the ambulatory or bottom-seeking 
stage, the necessity of which was duly emphasized, and incidentally 
important facts on the natural history of the lobster were brought to 
light. Again, whatever progress was made at the time, the work was 
not systematically continued. 

In 1883 Saville Kent 3 contributed a paper on " The Artificial Cul- 
ture of Lobsters," which later appeared in the proceedings of the In- 
ternational Fisheries Exhibition at London for that year. He contended 
that the chief cause of the decline in the lobster fisheries was the de- 
struction of the lobster eggs, and that it should be combated by artificial 
propagation. As a result of experiments, he strongly advised paying 
a bounty for the egg lobster, hatching the eggs and rearing the young 
to the ambulatory stage before liberation. 

Still later, in 1885, Captain Dannevig 4 also succeeded in hatching 
the eggs of the lobster and in rearing the young through the first three 
earliest stages, at Flodevig, Norway. He did not consider it of much 
service to hatch the eggs and to immediately set free the young; and 
he rightly said that, so great was the destruction in nature from storms 
and other causes, out of the 25,000 or 30,000 eggs which a lobster might 
produce, not a single one might reach its full development. 

This work gave the first impetus to lobster culture in this country, 
where the hatching of eggs was accomplished in the summer of the 

i Mocquin-Tandon, O., and Soubeiran, J. L.: "Etablissements du Pisciculture de Con- 
carneau et de Port-de-Bonc." Bull, de la Soc. d'Acclimatation, 2d. Ser. T. II. Paris, 
1865. 

2 Rathbun, Richard (reported by): " The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United 
States," sect, v., Vol. II., pt. xxi., pp. 736-738. Washington, 1887. 

3 Kent, W. Saville: "On the Artificial Culture of Lobsters," International Fisheries Ex- 
hibition, London, 1883, pp. 1-24. London, 1883. 

4 Raveret-Wattel: " L'Aquiculture Marine en Norvege," Revue Sc. Nat. Appliquees, T. 
37. Paris, 1890. 



44 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

same year (1885) at the newly opened laboratory of the United States 
Fish Commission, at Woods Hole, Mass., as reported by Mr. Rathbun. 1 

In 1S94 we urged the importance of finding a means of rearing the 
young through the free-swimming stages, and thereby reducing the 
terrible death rate which inevitably occurs under natural conditions. 
As we then remarked : " If we could save 100 instead of 2 out of 
every 10,000 hatched, every million young would produce 10,000 adults, 
and every billion would yield 10,000,000 lobsters, capable of reproduc- 
tion." 2 

While results somewhat similar to those outlined above have been 
obtained in England and in other parts of Europe, signal success 
in providing the young with a proper food supply and in maintaining 
them in a healthy condition up to the lobsterling stage has only been 
obtained in recent years in this country through the admirable work 
of Messrs. Bumpus 3 and Mead 4 and their associates. These experi- 
ments were begun under the auspices of the United States Fish Com- 
mission, at Woods Hole, Mass., in 1890, and were continued at other 
points on the coast, and especially at Wickford, R. I., where, under 
the direction of Professor Mead and of the Commissioners of Inland 
Fisheries of Rhode Island, the most efficient apparatus yet devised 
for the culture of lobsters has been gradually perfected and installed. 

Given a water supply which has been found by experiment to offer 
favorable conditions for the growth of lobster larva?, and a suitable 
food supply, such as minced clams, the apparatus mechanically aerates 
the water, and at the same time holds both the lobsters and their food 
in suspension in the water with little detriment to the larva? themselves. 
Some experiments have been lately conducted by the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries at Boothbay Harbor, Me. 

At an early stage in his work Professor Mead found that in no case 
was the number of lobsters reared to the fourth stage less than 16 
per cent, of the total number of fry placed in the brood chambers 
(scrim bags, or wooden boxes, as now in use). The ratio of survival 
may even exceed 50 per cent. In 1901, between 9,000 and 10,000 lob- 
sterlings were thus reared at # the Wickford station to the bottom-seeking 
stage; in 1908, between 300,000 and 400,000 fourth or fifth stage lob- 
sters were reared and distributed on the coast. 

The rate of survival of the larva? up to the ambulatory stage is not 

1 Rathbun, Richard: " Notes on Lobster Culture," Bulletin of the United States Fish 
Commission, Vol. VI., p. 18. Washington, 1886. 

2 Herrick, Francis H.: "The Habits and Development of the Lobster, and their Bearing 
upon its Artificial Propagation." Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission for 1893. 
p. 86. Washington, 1894. 

3 Bumpus, H. C: "The Results attending the Experiments in Lobster Culture made by 
the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries." Science, N. S., vol. 14, pp. 1013- 
1015. New York, 1901. 

4 Mead, A. D.: " Experiments in Lobster Culture." Thirty-fourth Annual Report of the 
Commissioners of Inland Fisheries of Rhode Island for 1904. Providence, 1904. (See also 
later papers published in reports of the same commission for 1901 to 1903.) 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 45 

known, but it is certainly not greater than 1 in several thousand, or 
a small fraction of 1 per cent. 

Instead of striving to work on the vast scale of nature in dealing 
with the egg, this is an attempt to improve upon nature by lowering 
the death - rate in the most critical period. Great care, however, is 
needed at every stage of the process, and especially at the last, since 
the young do not seek the bottom at a uniform time. 

Had it been our attempt to destroy this animal, could we have 
acted more effectively than by destroying its great egg-producing 
class? When we attempt to rid this country of the English or house 
sparrow,' will it help greatly to break its eggs and destroy its young 
ones, though so relatively few and with a far higher life rate than 
in the crustacean'? Must we not eventually kill the producers of the 
eggs, if we would be rid of the pest? This is the nature of the treat- 
ment which the lobster has received. If we would preserve this fishery, 
we must reverse our laws, as Dr. Field has ably pointed out, and 
follow the principles and practice of breeders of domestic animals 
everywhere : use the smaller and better animals for food, and keep 
the older, and in this case by far the most valuable, for propagation. 

To apply the principles already discussed, I would make the follow- 
ing recommendations : — 

1. Adopt a double gauge or length limit, placing in a perpetual 
close season or protected class all below and all above these limits. 
Place the legal bar so as to embrace the average period of sexual 
maturity, and thus to include what we have called the intermediate 
class of adolescents, or smaller adults. These limits should be approxi- 
mately 9 inches and 11 inches, inclusive, thus legalizing the destruction 
of lobsters from 9 to 11 inches long only, when measured alive. In 
this way we protect the young as well as the larger adults, upon which 
we depend for a continuous supply of eggs. The precise terms of these 
limits are not so vital, provided we preserve the principle of pro- 
tecting the larger adults. 

2. Protect the " berried " lobster on principle, and pay a bounty 
for it, as is now done, whether the law is evaded or not, and use 
its eggs for constructive work, or for experimental purposes with such 
work in view. 

3. Abolish the present close season; let the fishing extend throughout 
the year. 

4. Wherever possible, adopt the plan of rearing the young to the 
bottom-seeking stage before liberation, or co-operate with the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries or with sister States to this end. 

5. License every lobster fisherman, 1 and adopt a standard trap or 

1 This recommendation has been re-cast and made more explicit in regard to the adop- 
tion of a standard trap with entrance rings of specified diameter, in accordance with a 
suggestion made by Governor Guild; and the subject of licensing the fishermen, which is 
herein included, was suggested by a recommendation made at the conference by Mayor 
Herrick of Portsmouth, N. H. 



46 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

pot which shall work automatically, so far as possible, in favor of the 
double gauge, the entrance rings being of such a diameter as to exclude 
all lobsters above the gauge, and the slats of the trap of such a dis- 
tance apart as to permit the under-sized animals to escape. Such 
dimensions should be determined by careful experiments, based upon 
those already made by Dr. Field. 

Many objections can be raised, but this plan is defensible on scien- 
tific grounds, while the older methods are not. The best thing which 
can be said of it is, that it would eventually give us more eggs, and 
in an ever-increasing quantity, — the greatest need of this fishery, both 
now and in the future. Under present conditions, the supply of eggs 
is yearly diminishing, and at a tremendous rate. 

The most striking objection to the proposed changes would be that 
if class 3, that of the big producers, has been nearly exterminated, 
and we proceed to wipe out class 2, the smaller adults, there will soon 
be no more lobsters ; but this is not valid. No doubt if this change were 
made, the supply of smaller lobsters would be temporarily increased 
where the lOV^-inch gauge law still prevails, as was the case in this 
State in 1907 when the 9-inch law went into effect; and this might be 
followed by a temporary stringency. No one can speak with positive 
assurance upon this subject, but the important point to bear in mind 
is, that under such an arrangement we would have a perpetually pro- 
tected class constantly growing, and at work all the time. 

Again, it may be asked, Will enough lobsters survive to enter the 
exempt class ? We believe that there would, and that the answer to this 
question is to be found in the records of catches for every locality 
where lobsters are now trapped. Even in places where the average 
size is small, larger lobsters occasionally appear, and in sizes showing 
more than one year's growth. Why were not all such animals weeded 
out the previous year? Instead of waiting to be caught up in the end, 
these " escapes " would all enter the protected growing class, to enjoy 
a green old age of fifty years and possibly more; but we have no 
positive knowledge of the life span in this interesting race. 

The trouble of a double gauge, such expense as would be needed 
in adjusting traps to admit and hold lobsters of the legal size, would 
have to be met, and it would be well worth while. In our opinion, 
the markets would not be seriously disturbed. Protect the big egg 
producers, and nature will preserve the race. 

Collection and Purchase of Lobsters with Eggs attached. — ■ 
Acting under the provisions of chapter 408, Acts of 1904, the 
launch " Egret " purchased from the fishermen 2912 lobsters, 
weighing 6,279*4 pounds, at an average price of 20 cents per 
pound; and, in addition, 261 lobsters above 12 inches long at 
40 cents each and 91 below 12 inches long at 25 cents each. 

Of these lobsters, 197 were sent to the hatchery of the United 



190S." 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



47 



States Bureau of Fisheries, at Woods Hole; 378 were seut to 
the United States Bureau of Fisheries station, at Gloucester ; 
2,337 were liberated off shore; of these, 49 were recaptured by 
fishermen; 47 were therefore purchased twice, and 2 three 
times, as indicated by punch marks in edge of the shell on the 
tail. 

Deputy Mecarta purchased from fishermen at Chatham and 
East Orleans 1,254 lobsters, weighing 4,314 1 /2 pounds, at an 
average price of 14 cents per pound. All of these lobsters 
were liberated off shore. 

The total number of egg-bearing lobsters purchased from 
the fishermen in 1908 was 4,518, and of these nearly 87 per 
cent were liberated and the eggs therefore hatched in the sea 
under natural conditions. 



Table showing Measurements of Egg-bearing Lobsters collected by the 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Game during the Years 1906, 1907 
and 1908. 



Size 
(in inches) . 


Number. 


Size 

(in inches) . 


Number. 


Size 
(in inches). 


Number. 


Size 
(in inches) . 


Number. 


7% 


1 


IOV2 


653 


13% 


317 


16 


67 


8 


1 


10% 


3S9 


131/2 


499 


16% 


6 


m 


1 


11 


987 


13% 


205 


iey 2 


17 


sy 2 


1 


11% 


370 


14 


483 


16% 


3 


8% 


3 


11% 


746 


14% 


76 


17 


14 


9 


16 


11% 


433 


141/2 


169 


ITV2 


5 


9% 


12 


12 


212 


14% 


48 


17% 


1 


9^2 


69 


12% 


1,135 


15 


158 


18 


4 


9% 


53 


W2 


1,018 


15% 


11 


18% 


2 


10 


217 


12% 


628 


15V 2 


54 


19% 


1 


10% 


86 


13 


1,114 


15% 


10 






Total, 


10,325 



Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of Fisheries, 
Gloucester, Mass., June 5, 1909. 

Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, Boom 158, State House, Boston, 

Mass. 

Gentlemen : — I submit herewith a brief report of the lobster work 
accomplished at Gloucester, Mass., station during the season of 1908. 

During the season of 1908, 1,283 egg-bearing lobsters were received 
at this station, of which 419 were collected in the fall of 1907 and 



48 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



held in live-cars till the following spring, and 864 were collected during 
the spring months. 

The total yield of eggs for the season amounted to 14,495,000, from 
which were obtained 12,760,000 fry, which were distributed in Massa- 
chusetts waters. 

The experiment of holding egg lobsters in live-cars through the 
winter months did not prove a success, as only 122, or 29.1 per cent., 
were taken out alive in the spring. This severe loss was probably due 
to overcrowding the lobsters while waiting for a larger car to be 
constructed. 

Of the total egg lobsters received, 507 were furnished by the Massa- 
chusetts commission. 

Respectfully, C. G. Corliss, Superintendent. 



Statement of Fish and Eggs distributed from Gloucester, Mass., Station for 

Season of 1908. 
[Species, lobster; age, fry.] 



Date. 


To whom delivered. 


Address or Point of 
Deposit. 


Water stocked. 


Number. 


1908. 










June 11, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Manchester, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


600,000 


13, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Gloucester, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


420,000 


16, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 
Bureau of Fisheries, con- 


Salem, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


1,000,000 


18, 


Gloucester, Mass., 


Ipswich Bay, . 


480,000 




signment. 








20, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Rockport, Mass., . 


Loblolly Cove, 


360,000 


20, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Rockport, Mass., . 


Ipswich Bay, . 


900,000 


22, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Beverly, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


450,000 


22 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Manchester, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


450,000 


24, 


Launch " Egret," 


Nahant, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


500,000 


24, 


Launch " Egret," 


Boston, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


1,000,000 


27 


Launch "Egret," 


Boston, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


1,300,000 


30, 


Launch " Egret," 


Cohasset, Mass., . 


Massachusetts Bay, 


700,000 


30, 


Launch " Egret," 


Scituate, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


800,000 


July 3, 


Launch "Egret," 


Nahant, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


800,000 


6, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Gloucester, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


500,000 


8, 


Launch " Egret," 


Swampscott, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


560,000 


iii 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Rockport, Mass., . 


Ipswich Bay, . 


240,000 


15, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Rockport, Mass., . 


Ipswich Bay, . 


450,000 


18, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 
Bureau of Fisheries, con- 


Gloucester, Mass., 


Ipswich Bay, . 


480,000 


20, 


Gloucester, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


240,000 




signment. 








23, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Gloucester, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


320,000 


25, 


Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 

Bureau of Fisheries, con- 
signment. 


Gloucester, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


160,000 


28, 


Gloucester, Mass., 


Massachusetts Bay, 


50,000 












Total .... 






12,760,000 











1908.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 49 



Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of Fisheries. 
Woods Hole, Mass., June 12, 1909. 

Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, Boom 158,- State House, Boston. 

Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In accordance with your request of May 28, 1909, I 
beg to submit the following brief report of the lobster work done at 
this station during the season 1908. 

The collection of egg-bearing lobsters was begun in October, 1907, 
and continued into December of the same year; 474 were received 
during that time; 310, or 65.4 per cent., of these survived the winter 
and yielded 3,666,000 eggs. Collections were begun again about the 
middle of May, 1908, and continued during June. Our receipts for 
the territory adjacent to the station were slightly in excess of those of 
the previous year, but the yield from the territory north of Cape Cod, 
which is covered by one of your launches, showed a very marked 
falling off, the receipts being only about 11.6 per cent, of those of the 
previous year. A total of 23,337,000 eggs were received, and from 
these, 18,419,000 fry were hatched and liberated in Massachusetts 
waters. These eggs were taken from 2,792 lobsters, 353 of which were 
furnished by the employees of the Massachusetts commission, the re- 
mainder being collected by the force at this station. 

Respectfully, E. F. Locke, Superintendent. 

Inland Fisheries. 

Trout. — We believe that the time will come when the people 
will demand that certain brooks be acquired by the State, to 
be set apart and stocked, for the purpose of furnishing healthful 
and sane recreation for the public. Such a proceeding would 
be as logical as public parks, gardens, base ball and golf and 
tennis grounds. 

On account of the drought this year enormous quantities of 
trout were destroyed, not alone in the nursery brooks, but where 
the large fish were compelled to resort in numbers. As an 
instance, we quote from the daily report of Deputy Ruberg : — 

We drove to Rowe, and found that the people were up in arms 
because people were catching so many trout out of Pelham Pond. Yes- 
terday, July 8, there were 141 pounds of brook trout brought into Char- 
lemont from that pond, and all were taken with a hook and line. The 
pond is low, and there is very little water running in ; but where the 
main stream runs into the pond the water is shallow, and the trout 
run up there, evidently to get at the cool water. The trout lay in this 
spot just as thick as they can lay, and the men bait their hooks just 



50 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

enough to cover the law, and hook them out, as they do not seem at all 
wild. The fish run in weight all the way from y 4 of a pound to 2 
pounds, and it is a fair estimate that 500 pounds of trout were taken 
this week up to last night. This pond is an artificial pond, but was 
never stocked, only as it has stocked itself. We informed the owners 
that they had only to post for trespass, and it would probably stop this 
slaughter, as we could not see where there was any violation of the 
fish laws. 

The artificial propagation and distribution of trout has been 
carried on as usual. The total output from the Sutton hatchery 
showed a marked increase over any previous year, chiefly as 
the result of increased experience in dealing with local con- 
ditions, and in part due to the construction of new pools and 
the progressive extension of protection to the young fish. 

So much of Superintendent Merrill's report as relates to the 
propagation of trout follows : — 

To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

Gentlemen : — I herewith submit a report on the hatching and rais- 
ing of trout and the work connected with the same. 

The eggs collected in 1907 for hatching in the present season 
amounted to 50,000 from the brown trout and 627,000 from the brook 
trout, — a substantial increase over the usual number collected for 
several years, due in part to the new stock of breeders secured in the 
previous December. These fish, as yearling spawners, gave 216,000 
eggs, or an average of nearly 400 for each female spawned. 

The brown trout eggs hatched with the usual small percentage of 
loss, which is less than half the usual loss of brook trout eggs; and the 
fry were successfully raised in the pools below the dam, passing the 
summer in that trying water with no appearance of disease among 
them. 

Rainbow trout eggs numbering 15,000 were received from the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries, and were successfully hatched and reared, 
growing to large fingerlings in the lakes that were out of use the 
previous season. 

Two hundred thousand of the brook trout eggs were sent to Win- 
chester, and the 427,000 remaining were hatched here, resulting in 
375,000 fry. 

The quality of the fry has probably not been equalled since the 
hatchery was established, and as a result the fingerlings raised were of 
excellent quality and more than double the usual number. 

Two of the three things that mainly contributed to this end — the 
use of outside hatching troughs, and the protection of the hatchery water 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 51 

supply by collecting it in covered tile drains in place of open ditches — 
are permanent, and can be expected to aid in more successful hatching 
each year ; but the third and perhaps the most important — the large 
volume of water flowing from the springs, resulting from the heavy 
fall rains — is exceptional, and may not occur again in several years. 

The flow of water was so abundant as to fill the pipe to the hatchery 
to its full capacity, and by its more rapid flow to pass through with 
less reduction of temperature. During the winter it was not noted 
below 40°, but during the previous winter it frequently fell to 34°. 
The pipe through its 500 feet of length is not in many places below 
frost, and a part of its length is laid on the bottom of the pond, where 
the cooling influence of the surrounding cold water is even greater; con- 
sequently, the temperature of the water in its flow in the pipe is always 
reduced, and in the case of a scanty flow to a point as low as the 
surrounding influences. 

The drought of the present season promises low water for the winter 
of 1908-09, with the probably accompanying low temperature that will 
delay the hatching at least three weeks or more. That this is a serious 
injury to the fish, resulting in a poor lot of fry for the spring dis- 
tribution and likewise an inferior lot of fingerlings, is established 
beyond a doubt. The remedy is equally certain, and consists of increas- 
ing the number of outside rearing troughs placed at the springs, or, 
what would be still better, the use of these troughs in a temporary 
building until a similar permanent arrangement can be made. 

The large increase of trout fingerlings was due mainly to the excel- 
lent quality of fry, that made it possible to stock the ponds to their 
full capacity and to carry the fish through the summer without loss. 
The improvements which have been made in giving the ponds shade and 
protection have also aided largely. 

The sixteen troughs made for hatching were used for rearing, and 
these yielded 15.000 fish. Pond' No. 3, formerly used for rainbow trout, 
gave 8,000; 9,000 were grown in a new pond built above Pond No. 6. 
These additional ponds were stocked with fish which had been carried 
in the outside troughs until the ponds could be made ready, which 
was much later in the season than they could be carried in the hatchery 
troughs. 

The work on the grounds and houses was curtailed, and only the 
extension of facilities for raising fry received much attention, this 
work being mainly the planking of these lower ponds where rock and 
quicksand made concrete work impracticable. In addition to this was 
the construction of a new pond with a concrete dam in the old channel 
of the brook above Pond No. 6 ; the enlargement of the pool below the 
main dam, putting in concrete and gravel banks, to receive adult brown 
trout, so that the pens below could be used for fry; and the partial 
construction of two concrete pools to such a stage that they could be 
readilv finished for receiving fry in 1909. 



52 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The development of the hatchery should continue, as in the past, by- 
making extensions where it can be demonstrated that any extension 
will not detract from the efficiency of the existing ponds, and by 
replacing the decaying wooden pens with permanent work of concrete. 

There is a probability that the output of fingerlings could be increased 
by utilizing outlying springs, which are so near that the fish can 
receive daily attention from the hatchery. The water available for this 
work would rear 30,000 to 40,000 fingerlings, and the expense involved 
in making ponds at these springs would be far less than would be 
required for an equal number of fingerlings on the hatchery grounds. 

The hatchery equipment is in a very advanced stage of decay, and 
measures to remedy it cannot be long delayed, but it would be unwise 
to merely repair. The hatching troughs are those of forty years ago, 
and are generally discarded; while the house, from its faulty location, 
has been a serious handicap in carrying on the work of the station. As 
originally attempted, the hatching was a virtual failure for a succes- 
sion of years, and was made tolerable by many costly changes, which 
have involved seeking the water supply from six different sources and 
laying three lines of supply pipe, each approximately 500 feet in 
length. Some of the sills of the building are entirely gone, the floor in 
part has fallen and rests on the mud beneath, and by steadily settling 
is constantly throwing the troughs out of level, so that in spite of 
careful watching the loss of eggs from interrupted circulation of water 
cannot be wholly prevented. The decay into which the building has 
fallen makes it a perfect harbor for rats; they enter it at will, and 
seriously damage the eggs. In the spring they go out to infest the 
bird pens, requiring continuous warfare through all the year to keep 
them in check. 

The main difficulty which results from the unfortunate location of 
the hatchery and water supply is retardation of hatching, which causes 
loss from weakness and disease, and inferior fry for distribution and 
for stocking the rearing ponds. In addition, the present location and 
equipment is entirely useless in the season for raising and distributing 
fingerlings and in handling spawning fish for taking eggs. The more 
modern equipment in general use at the State and federal hatcheries 
would be useful equally in hatching eggs and in rearing fingerlings, 
and also would facilitate counting them into lots for shipping when 
they are taken from the ponds for that purpose. The fingerlings thus 
reared could be produced with considerable economy of water, thus 
largely increasing the output; and the fingerlings, when ready for ship- 
ment, would go out in exact lots to each applicant, — something that 
cannot be done at present, through lack of equipment. 

The records kept here show a wide variation in the spawning of the 
trout. These variations are correlated with changes in the stock. In 
the years from 1899 to 1901 the stock consisted very largely of a strain 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 53 

of sea trout from the streams flowing into Buzzards Bay; the average 
number of eggs per fish increased from 1,000 in 1898 to 1,500 the next 
year and 1,800 in 1901, but the spawning was very late, the fish yielding 
heavily in December or late in November. By 1902 this stock was con- 
siderably depleted, and was largely replaced with stock grown from 
the wild trout of Lake Quinsigamond. The fish caught for spawning 
were unusually fine specimens, ranging in weight from 1 to 5 pounds. 
The eggs were taken in 1899, and the fish were spawned as two-year- 
olds in 1902. The spawning was early that year, the fish yielding 
early in November, but the average number of eggs per fish was reduced 
to 1,000. The following year the stock was mainly three-year-olds, no 
two-year-olds having been added, and the average was 1,400, but by 
1906 and 1907 it fell to 900. For the present year an increase to 1,000 
is shown, the breeders being mainly private hatchery stock, and a fur- 
ther increase may be expected when they spawn as three-year-olds. The 
yearlings have at all times been spawned and accounted for separately, 
the fish two years old or more together; and the proportion of two, 
three and four year olds that have spawned have influenced the yearly 
averages somewhat, but not so much as to impair the value of the 
record in indicating the stock of fish best for breeding here. 

For the purpose of comparing fry from yearling and from adult 
fish, and to determine the relative value of eggs from yearling trout 
for rearing brood stock, fry from adult breeders descended from the 
Lake Quinsigamond stock and fry from the yearling private hatchery 
stock were grown in parallel lots, as follows: Lot 1A, old stock fry in 
rearing tubs; Lot 2A, old stock fry in rearing troughs; Lot 3 A, old 
stock fry in ponds ; Lot IB, yearling fry in rearing tubs ; Lot 2B, year- 
ling fry in rearing troughs ; Lot 3B, yearling fry in ponds. 

The conditions were nearly identical. The fry from adult stock 
hatched earlier, and, being from larger eggs, had an advantage in size 
in the beginning; but by midsummer the yearling fry equalled them in 
size, and by the end of the season showed much superiority in size, 
condition and numbers. This seems to indicate that the strain of fish 
developed at the commercial hatcheries are especially adapted to the 
conditions introduced by domestication, at least so far as relates to 
rapidity of growth and to earlier maturity. In the two years that 
these fish have been spawned as yearlings, practically none of the 
females have failed to develop eggs ; while in the old stock a very large 
proportion did not develop eggs until two years old. This early ma- 
turity is of the greatest importance in natural reproduction in streams. 
Few fish that failed to spawn as yearlings would live to spawn as two- 
year-olds; and the smaller fish have a great advantage in effective 
spawning, as they are able to reach and to spawn in the upper parts 
of the stream, where the eggs are less liable to be destroyed and the 
fry have a better chance to live. 



54 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The matter of purchasing lands and of improving the road leading 
to the hatchery grounds is again urged, for the reason that the un- 
pleasant and unsafe conditions incidental to leaving or entering through 
land that is used as a pasture still continue. Since this was explained 
and some improvement urged, several years ago, the number of visitors 
has largely increased, particularly of individuals, parties and schools, 
seeking information concerning this branch of the State's work. To 
many of these it is very annoying to have to enter the grounds by 
making detours over wet or bushy land and climbing intervening 
fences. Additional land is also needed for bird work. During the 
present season it was found advisable to go outside the grounds, and 
this will be a necessity in the future. The margin of the strip sug- 
gested for the road would fill a part of this need admirably. Further, 
to control the water supply and protect the timber shading the upper 
springs, additional lands should be bought. This land, however, would 
not be of much use in bird work. 

The recommendations for increased land and for suggested improve- 
ments if carried out would not be entirely sufficient to place the station 
on a fair basis for carrying on the work to its natural capacity. It 
would still require many minor improvements to properly economize the 
time required for routine work. Power is urgently needed for chopping 
meat. A water wheel or gasoline engine would supply this at a cost 
less than the annual cost of labor applied to chopping meat by hand. 
A cooking house is indispensable, but the one in use is the same tem- 
porary shed erected six years ago for one summer's use. The ice box 
was bought nine years ago, at a cost of $2, and will neither hold nor 
keep fresh the ordinary supply of meat. The meat house is too small 
to shelter either the ice box or the cooking facilities. This has made it 
inexpedient to carry out the small improvements, as these changes 
would in the aggregate be unnecessarily expensive, and to delay the 
changes which are reasonable and necessary for a permanent arrange- 
ment. The meat house should be replaced with a building of sufficient 
capacity to shelter power, refrigerator and cooking facilities, including 
dryers for bird food, as well as the means for preparing fish food. We 
are certain that the entire cost of these suggested changes would be 
wiped out within two years by increased economies in administration. 

Respectfully submitted, Aethur Merrill. 

Migratory Fish. — After a controversy extending over many 
years, the passage of alewives up the Nemasket River into 
Assawompsett Lake is assured by the co-operation of the town 
officials and the owner of the dam, through the construction of 
a stone and cement fishway, which closely simulates nature by 
providing a series of pools under the bridge at Wareham 
Street, Middlehorough. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 55 

We desire again to call special attention to the fact that more 
rational methods of dealing with the shad are immediately 
necessary, if the supply is to be maintained. 

Pollution. — The water courses of the New England States 
have long been regarded as natural sewers by unwise individuals 
and corporations. Doubtless there are many special instances 
where sewage, manufactory wastes and other materials can be 
commercially disposed of only by such methods. Such instances 
must have individual consideration, and it would be decidedly 
unwise to handicap any manufacturing enterprise, however 
small or large, by compelling the adoption of an expensive 
method of disposal. On the other hand, in many instances 
material is permitted to enter, either directly or indirectly, 
which could be better disposed of on land, resulting not only 
in most cases in a very considerable and in the aggregate a 
stupendous loss of nitrogenous substances which are needed 
for agricultural operations, but also rendering the streams 
unsuitable for fish life and at length a menace to the public 
health. 

In this connection the following resolution was adopted at 
the conference of commissioners held in connection with the 
Conference of Governors for the Conservation of the Resources 
of the New England States : — 

Whereas, In all New England States there exist conditions whereby 
the public waters are becoming annually more polluted by the intro- 
duction of sewage, manufactory wastes, etc., resulting in a distinct 
menace to the public health and seriously impairing the productive 
capacity of the water and of the land under the water; and 

Whereas, With increasing population these waters and submarine 
areas are becoming more necessary for the production of human food, 
both of fish and shellfish, both for local consumption and for sale in 
distant markets; and 

Whereas, A private individual or corporation is not permitted by 
law to run sewage, manufactory waste, etc., upon the land of his 
neighbor, similarly it should not be permitted to run these materials 
into public waters or upon public land; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That it is the carefully considered opinion of this con- 
ference of delegates, meeting in Boston in this the first annual con- 
ference called by the Governors of the New England States, that the 



56 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

unnecessary pollution of the public streams and coastal waters should 
be immediately and decisively checked by suitable action of the 
respective legislatures. 

Game a^d Insectivorous Birds. 

We are of the opinion that constantly increasing attention to 
the maintenance by artificial propagation and protection of the 
native varieties of birds is more essential at present than the 
introduction of new varieties, such as the Hungarian partridge, 
the migratory quail, the capercailzie and " black game." Mas- 
sachusetts is favored above practically all the States east of the 
Mississippi, from the fact that it has possibilities of maintain- 
ing in relative abundance the three most notable species of game 
birds, — the quail, ruffed grouse and pinnated grouse. The 
ruffed and pinnated grouse find here no difficulties connected 
with climatic conditions, and the problem is solely their relation 
to man and conditions introduced by human agencies. With 
quail, however, the question is further complicated by the fact 
that, while the quail are fitted by nature to withstand any 
degree of cold, they are especially subject to the ill effects of 
the sleet storms of New England. 

Of the unfavorable conditions introduced by man, the destruc- 
tion of covers and breeding places will doubtless be remedied 
by the results of reforestation, and by that increase of orchards 
and of grain fields which must follow the increase of population 
in Massachusetts and the incidental increased demands for 
fruit and grain. The most serious problems (which, however, 
are fortunately within the control of man) are the destructive 
effects of the increased number of cats, rats, mice, squirrels 
and English sparrows, together with certain infectious diseases, 
both of plant and animal nature; for example, various types 
of bacilli which cause infectious intestinal diseases in birds, 
and several species of animal parasites, notably coccidia of 
various species. Of all these diseases as yet practically nothing 
is known as to the life histories of the organisms, what species 
are liable to infection, the manner of infection and the remedies. 
It is known, however, that these diseases are spread by domestic 
fowl, by the English sparrow and certain other species of wild 
and domesticated birds. They are transported mechanically 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

in dust from hen yards, etc., by the wind, and to a certain extent 
doubtless by rainfall and water courses. Special knowledge 
is imperatively demanded if we would check an unnecessary 
destruction of bird life. 

In spite of all these untoward conditions, which can and 
must be promptly and properly dealt with by man, the covers of 
Massachusetts are amply able to support a large population of 
birds, — certainly 50, and possibly 100 or 200 or more grouse 
to the square mile, and even larger numbers of quail. The de- 
velopment of good roads and the extension of the possibility of 
travel by automobile and trolley cars make these covers far more 
accessible than those of any other State in the Union, with the 
result that a relatively larger number of hunters go afield from 
the exceptionally large number of cities within our borders, 
carrying with them the best type of equipment, both in guns 
and ammunition and in carefully trained dogs. It is, however, 
possible for the Commonwealth to meet these conditions and 
provide a suitable remedy. It is a notable fact that the older 
countries, for example, Germany and England, have passed 
through a similar condition, and have now a far greater number 
of birds per square mile than has probably any State in the 
Union. In other words, the annual bird crop in England, 
Germany and France is able in a much greater measure than 
with us to control the insects injurious to vegetation, and to pro- 
vide a surplus of game birds for food to such an extent even that 
at least two species of wild plover, in addition to semi-domesti- 
cated pheasants and grouse, are exported from these countries to 
Boston and New York markets, and sold at a price less than 
that at which our native game is offered. Well-advised and 
extensive operations for developing our bird population, for the 
purpose of providing an adequate safeguard against the ad- 
vances of insect pests, for example, the gypsy moth, cut worms 
and other noxious insects, are necessary, as well as to maintain 
an aesthetic asset of the State, and to provide game birds for 
food and recreation. Action should be taken particularly by 
enacting such laws as will not alone permit but encourage the 
rearing of birds of all species under suitable conditions by 
people who are properly qualified to undertake the work, either 
for pleasure or profit. 



58 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Under our laws as interpreted by the highest courts of the 
land, the fish, birds and game are the property of the State, 
but the regulation of their capture is within the police power 
of the State; further, the fish and birds do not become the 
property of the person upon whose land they chance to come 
for the time being. The history of both fish and game legis- 
lation has been almost exclusively one of progressively increas- 
ing restriction. In spite of all these restrictive laws, wise and 
otherwise, there has been a constant diminution in the number 
of species and the number of individuals. Several species have 
been entirely exterminated, and many species, formerly notable 
for the extreme number of individuals, have been reduced 
almost to the verge of extinction. The statement that a public 
supply is always subject to irrational use is but to repeat a 
commonplace which has become obvious in the case of marine 
and fresh-water fishes, of game birds and mammals, as well as 
of forests and of other public resources of States and nations. 
Laws restrictive in the minutest detail have not been sufficient 
to entirely control. Private ownership is absolutely necessary 
for conservation of at least a part of the supply. In the case 
of game, private individuals under present laws seek to secure 
control of fish and game by posting their lands. These people 
fall into two distinct classes : ( 1 ) those seeking exclusive shoot- 
ing or fishing privileges for themselves, their friends or asso- 
ciates ; (2) the other seeking to make sanctuaries where birds 
may be protected, not alone during the season of propagation, 
but during their entire lives. On this territory not alone is 
the shooting of birds prohibited, but suitable nesting places and 
food supplies are provided. By traps and other devices, the 
animals which are in any degree destructive to the birds, their 
nests or eggs, are so far as possible reduced in numbers. 

In the case of the first type, the posting of land practically 
secures individual possession of the fish and game, even though 
theoretically such practically amounts to conversion of public 
property, if the owner of the land maintains and uses this 
public asset for his private use. Such conditions have been 
dealt with in the case of the public timber, grazing lands, 
mines and water power; and, while it is true that all private 
rights to land, mines, etc., were originally derived from and 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 59 

by the consent of the public, these have always carried, in 
theory at least, some compensation to the public through direct 
taxes. It is, therefore, worthy of consideration whether the 
person who thus posts his land for the purpose of securing to 
himself or associates exclusive rights of fishing or fowling 
should not be called upon to pay an adequate tax for this 
privilege, and whether such reservations should not be made 
subject to a special tax in addition to the tax placed upon the 
general public, collected in the ordinary hunting license. But 
over and above the general and special restrictive legislation 
there must be a considerable amount of constructive legisla- 
tion, directed to the establishment of the utmost possible num- 
ber of sanctuaries, or public and private reservations, where 
the birds are protected by every known device. Not alone 
should the metropolitan parks and State reservations be util- 
ized for these purposes, but every possible assistance should be 
extended to associations and to private individuals who are 
sufficiently public-spirited to set apart land for these purposes. 
Further, every practicable effort should be made to en- 
courage the breeding of game birds, both in confinement and 
on wild tracts, by individuals, corporations and associations. 
Care should be taken, however, to have such efforts conducted 
by capable and responsible people, under State supervision 
and regulation, in order, among other things, to prevent the 
introduction and dissemination of contagious diseases. It is 
questionable to what extent the Commonwealth may be ex- 
pected to maintain artificially a continuous supply of game birds 
which are liberated from time to time merely for the purpose 
of affording recreation to sportsmen. Without doubt it would 
be unwise to use any considerable amount of public money 
for the purpose of rearing game birds, unless such birds are 
of very considerable value in the destruction of insect pests, 
any more than that the State should cultivate or maintain 
apple and pear orchards in the public parks. Nevertheless, it 
is the duty of the State to ascertain and to point out the very 
best methods for developing and maintaining a food supply 
for birds, of devising and advising on the most satisfactory 
methods of handling wild birds under complete or semi-domesti- 
cation, of making studies of the life history and the feeding 



60 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and breeding habits of the native game birds, for the purpose 
of establishing a system of maintaining the source of this most 
healthful recreation, which makes the State attractive to a large 
number of permanent residents and occasional visitors whose 
means do not permit more extensive trips for recreation in 
fishing and gunning. At best the annual output of game birds 
reared by this commission must necessarily be limited; but -its 
value to the people is not to be reckoned in the actual number 
of birds liberated for the benefit of the sportsmen, but in the 
amount of information and valuable facts which will ulti- 
mately make possible a better understanding of the value of 
game birds to the community, and definite, economic methods 
by which the annual crop of birds in the State may be main- 
tained and greatly increased. 

We therefore urge most strongly the generous public sup- 
port for the greatest possible number of sanctuaries and breed- 
ing places for wild or insectivorous birds, — quail, ruffed and 
pinnated grouse, — and the encouragement of all well-advised" 
projects for rearing these birds, either in captivity or under 
semi-domestication. We hope to institute special experiments 
for the purpose of ascertaining definitely the value of pheas- 
ants as efficient destroyers of gypsy moths, by confining pheas- 
ants in a small area badly infested by gypsy moths. 

Further, we definitely urge the necessity of definite quaran- 
tine regulations upon birds brought into the State for purposes 
of liberation. There is considerable evidence that game birds 
infected with dangerous infectious diseases have been brought 
into the State and liberated. 

The report of Prof. C. F. Hodge, relative to the propaga- 
tion of ruffed grouse and quail in confinement, follows : — 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass., Nov. 27, 190S. 

Dr. George W. Field, Commissioner of Fisheries and Game, Boston, 

Mass. 
My Dear Dr. Field : — Ruffed grouse were so scarce in the covers 
last spring that I made little effort to secure eggs of wild birds from 
Massachusetts, and all my attempts to have them collected from other 
States and from Canada proved futile. One clutch, however, of 12 eggs, 
was obtained and 10 chicks hatched. Of these, 3 were reared to ma- 
turity. In the loss of the 7 in this brood I encountered a new difficulty, 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 61 

against which we must be on our guard in the future. Striped plant 
bugs were abundant on the grass, and were easily obtained by sweeping 
with insect nets. The young chicks ate them greedily, and simply went 
to sleep and died as if they had been chloroformed. These bugs had 
the strong odor of squash bugs, by feeding which to toads Conradi 
found that they died as though they had been poisoned with chloroform. 

Conradi found that 5 or 6 squash bugs might be sufficient to kill a 
toad, and Miss Morse has fed as many as 11 to a bob-white at a single 
meal, with no ill effects. Plant bugs are not so strong as squash bugs, 
and I have observed a toad eat over 250 of them in a day without show- 
ing ill effects. Still, while this evidence is not conclusive, I did not wish 
to push the experiment further. With complete change of diet, fatal- 
ities ceased ; no lesions of disease could be discovered in the dead chicks ; 
but I think that we should be careful in future not to feed too many 
strong-smelling bugs to young grouse chicks. 

Of the grouse reared last year and carried through the winter, one 
of the best cocks was turned over to Mr. Merrill at Wilkinsonville to 
breed with his hens. Only one of the flock proved to be a hen, and she 
laid a clutch of 12 eggs. She brooded them for about two weeks, and 
deserted the nest. The eggs were not allowed to become chilled before 
I placed them under a bantam hen. They all proved, however, to be 
infertile. We have held our own with the ruffed grouse this season, 
and gained some valuable experience. As stated under plans for next 
year, at the close of this letter, I hope to specialize on them next year 
and rear a large flock from eggs collected from widely distributed 
points in the range of the species. 

Experiments with the bob-white have proved more interesting and 
successful than anything yet attempted. We began the season with five 
pairs and several extra cocks. The first egg was laid May 6, and four 
of the hens had begun laying by May 10. In all 247 eggs were laid, — 
an average of 49 to the pair. One hen died from a large internal 
tumor, after laying 36 eggs, and another was killed by accident after 
laying only 16 eggs. The three hens that survived the season laid 
respectively 69, 68 and 58 eggs, — an average of 65 eggs apiece. Mr. 
Merrill has reported 100 eggs laid by a bob-white hen this season. These 
figures suggest some of the possibilities of rapid increase of these 
valuable birds in domestication. 

In all, 114 chicks were hatched and 75 reared. While this showing 
is not bad under some of the difficulties encountered, it is reasonably 
certain that a larger percentage of hatching can be secured another 
season and a much larger proportion of the chicks can undoubtedly 
be reared. 

Great variation in habits was evinced by the different pairs of bob- 
whites, especially with respect to brooding and care of young. One pair 
was kept in the large cage with the partridges. The cage is about 40 
feet square, and includes the bases of two large spruces. The quail and 



62 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

grouse did not appear to interfere with each other at all. After making 
and filling several nests, the cock began brooding a nest with 16 eggs, 
August 20, hatching 15 chicks September 13. The hen made another 
nest on the opposite side of the enclosure and laid 3 eggs in it, and 
ceased laying for the season, producing 58 eggs in all. Both birds 
joined in the care of the brood. 

Another pair, kept in a cage 6 by 12 feet, produced a succession of 
nestfulls of eggs, 69 in all, and neither bird showed any signs of brood- 
ing. The cock, however, reared a brood of bantam-hatched chicks, while 
his hen refused to associate with him as long as he had the chicks, even 
going so far as to roost on a perch in the top of the cage. 

The third pair were kept in a cage 3 by 6 feet, and produced 68 eggs 
in a single well-made nest. The eggs were removed at intervals, because 
neither bird showed signs of brooding; but plaster of Paris eggs were 
placed in the nest when the others were taken out. On the 9 eggs last 
laid the hen began brooding September 12 and brought out 9 chicks 
October 6. The cock was attentive to his mate on the nest, but was seen 
brooding it only once, for a few minutes, while the hen was feeding. 
Both joined in the care of the young. 

Of the two unmated cocks, one readily adopted a brood of bantam- 
hatched chicks and reared them with great fidelity. The other not only 
refused to brood chicks offered him, but pecked them savagely, and, if 
not prevented, would probably have killed any chicks left in his cage. 

These data prove that a cage as small as 3 by 6 feet is well suited for 
propagation, and that there are good chances for selection of breeding 
stock. The pairs that brooded well and reared their young are being 
preserved with special care, along with their progeny, to form the 
breeding stock for next season's experiments. 

Valuable observations were made on the brooding habit, and in this 
the two birds differed strangely. The cock remained on the nest con- 
tinuously from 1 p.m. to 12 m., at which time he usually took about an 
hour off to feed and wallow. The hen usually left the nest to feed for 
about half an hour between 6 and 7 a.m. and between 5 and 6 in the 
evening; and she would slip off to feed when grasshoppers or other 
insect food was in sight. The weather was cold toward the last, and 
it seemed certain on frosty mornings that the eggs would be chilled. 
However, I did not meddle with her housekeeping, and she brought off 
all the fertile eggs. 

A few preliminary observations were made on the temperature of 
birds, in order to gain points for artificial incubation, and it is hoped 
to carry out this line of study more completely next season. I did not 
dare risk disturbing my brooding grouse hen. 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



63 













Temperature (Degrees). 


Birds. 


Internal Body. 


Nest. 


Ruffed grouse cock, . 










106.3 


- 


Ruffed grouse hen (not brooding), 










107.3 


- 


Bob -white cock (brooding), 










111.0 


103.1 


Bob-white hen (not brooding), . 










108.3 


- 


Bob-white cock (not brooding), 










107.2 


- 


Cochin bantam (brooding) , 










108.0 


103.0 


Cochin bantam (laying), . 










106.4 


- 


Cochin bantam (laying), . 










107.3 


- 


Rhode Island Red hen (laying), 










106.4 


- 


Rhode Island Red hen, 










106.5 


- 


Rhode Island Red cockerell, 










108.6 


- 



The nest temperature in case of the hen was taken at the top of the 
eggs in contact with the body. The bob-white persisted in either work- 
ing the thermometer down under the eggs or out of the nest, so this 
reading does not indicate a maximal temperature. 

Our indications indicate that the bob-white broods rather more con- 
tinuously than we expected to find, and still they do give the eggs 
rather long periods of cooling once or twice a day. The remarkable 
temperature of the brooding cock, 111°, suggests that probably an 
incubator should be run 1° or 2° higher than for domestic fowls, giving 
rather long periods of cooling. It is proposed next year, if possible, to 
obtain a complete nest record — times of brooding and cooling, with 
body and nest temperatures, as far as practicable — for each day of the 
incubation period, for both the ruffed grouse and the bob-white. This 
will yield valuable data for artificial incubation, which, especially in 
view of the excess egg production of the bob-white, will greatly facili- 
tate extensive propagation and avoidance of contagious disease. 

With regard to brooder temperatures, too, it has been noted in the 
experience of the past two years that the bob-white and ruffed grouse 
chicks appear to thrive much better when the hovers are kept a good 
deal warmer than indicated in the directions for domestic chicks. For 
bob-white chicks the later part of this season I ran the hovers at least 5° 
warmer than the directions indicated, with apparently only favorable 
results. This means, in practice: First to fifth day, 100° to 105° (105° 
at night) ; fifth to fifteenth day, 95° to 100° (with not less than 100° 
at night) ; fifteenth to thirtieth day, keep the hover at 95° at night and 
allow the chicks to choose cooler places in the brooder, or even 
sleep out doors in the attached cage, if they wish. At this time the 
flock will often be found asleep outside in the evening, and huddled in 



64 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the warm hover after the first early feeding, if the morning is chilly. If 
I had followed the above plan for the entire season I feel confident 
that a much larger percentage of the chicks might have been reared. 

In reading Bulletin No. 123 of the Rhode Island Experiment Sta- 
tion, on " The Rearing and the Management of Turkeys," we note how 
often all, or a large percentage, of the poults of any lot are recorded 
as dying of " brooder troubles." As with the turkeys, we thus find our- 
selves in the rearing of bob-white and grouse between the " devil " of 
blackhead disease, which is sure to kill the whole flock, if we brood with 
hens, and the " deep sea " of " brooder troubles," if we rear in brooders. 

The first part of the season was apparently unfavorable, and only 
one chick was reared from about the first 100 eggs. I was obliged to 
be away during this time, and up to July 26. 

On August 24 I received 50 bob-white chicks, hatched by Mr. Merrill 
from eggs sent to Wilkinsonville, and on August 31, IS more, hatched 
under a bantam on the place. This lot of 68 were kept in two brooders, 
which had just been fumigated with sulphur after a thorough scrubbing 
and saturating with hot lime wash. All went well for the first week, 
but the temperature had not been run high enough. On about the tenth 
day they began dying, 24 in two days, bringing the flock down to 44. 
I transferred them to freshly fumigated and whitewashed brooders, in 
which I ran the temperature as indicated above, and made a complete 
change in the diet. Whenever the weather permitted, I gave them the 
run of the hillside, where they were active in catching grasshoppers, 
crickets and other insects. At about four weeks of age the two brooder 
flocks united while they were out foraging, and thereafter I kept them 
in a cage attached to the brooder. Only one died, early in November, 
and examination showed infection with coccidia, an undoubted case of 
blackhead disease. This was the only case the entire season. The 
others all died of " brooder troubles," which in the ease of this flock 
I take to be acute indigestion. 

In the feeding of young grouse and bob-white chicks I have had in 
mind from the start the necessity of variety. Their natural food consists 
of a ceaseless variety of different insects, fruits, seeds, leaves and so on. 
This is especially true of the food of the young of both species, coming 
as they do when nature's repast is most varied. The most careful artifi- 
cial feeding of a flock in confinement cannot approach in variety the 
food of the wild birds; but the main lines of natural variety feeding 
may be followed, if their significance is appreciated. From examina- 
tion of the birds as they died and the study of my flocks this season, 
the real meaning of " variety diet " took form in my mind about as 
follows : — 

The birds that died of " brooder troubles " showed intestines filled 
with foam and intensely inflamed. They died suddenly ; with no appear- 
ance of illness at night, several would be dead in the morning. This 
indicates acute bacterial infection, and it comes about in this way: in 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

a meal of rich food, custard, we will say, bacteria, which are always 
present in comparatively harmless numbers, multiply rapidly; a meal 
of the same food follows, and an explosive growth occurs which kills 
the bird. If, instead, a meal of some entirely different food had been 
given, preferably of coarse or bulky material, after a rich meal, the 
bacterial growth would have been swept out before it caused appre- 
ciable harm ; then another meal of richer material might follow. Know- 
ing, as we do, how sensitive bacteria are to the constitution of the culture 
media, and realizing how fast they can multiply if conditions are 
favorable, it seems to me that this theory explains all the " brooder 
troubles " I had this season ; in fact, no loss or trouble attributable to 
foods occurred after this theory was consistently followed. 

In practice, the feeding of a brood of bob-whites would proceed as 
follows. We will say that the chicks are removed from the hen as soon 
as dry. They are put into the hover at 105°, and the window darkened 
to let them sleep quietly for half a day at least. As soon as they begin 
to call and wander about the brooder, let in the light, sunshine if pos- 
sible, and give them access to a mixture of fine grit or coarse sand, gran- 
ulated bone, fine oyster shell and charcoal in equal parts, and clean 
water. Remove the water and leave them for two hours. Then give 
them, preferably, a net full of insects swept from the grass, or weeds 
or twigs covered with plant lice, or a trap of singed flies, or a few 
well-cleaned maggots. Supposing we have begun operations at noon, 
this will be the 2 p.m. feeding; at 4 o'clock we let them eat their fill of 
freshly cooked custard; at 6 give them again all the insects they will 
catch and eat. After a day like this we may be sure they will all be 
alive the next morning. 

The second day at sunrise feed sour milk curd (I use it made very 
dry and pressed through a potato masher). At 7 to 8 o'clock put them 
out on the grass in a sheltered place in the sunshine to forage for them- 
selves; and as soon as they cluster after feeding, or begin to call for 
help, or show signs of chilling, gather in an insect net and replace in 
warm hover. 

To save trouble in catching and handling, I have now devised a little 
tray that fits exactly in the hover (of my model brooders), and closes 
by a hinged door which drops flat on the floor of the brooders. Thus, 
when the chicks go under the hover they enter this box; and if it is 
desired to take them out, it is only necessary to close the flap door 
and draw out the tray. The bottom, sides and ends are made of thin 
board, and the top of black woolen cloth. On warm, sunny clays this 
" sunshine hover " may be all the chicks need for warmth. Bedding of 
warm, dry lawn clippings or cut clover is kept in the bottom, to facili- 
tate cleaning and for the chicks' comfort. The whole device makes it 
an easy matter to keep the brooders clean. There must be no narrow 
cracks or chinks anywhere about the brooder or cages, into which a 
chick can possibly wedge itself. Ordinary brooders are never made 



66 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

tight enough to hold the grouse or bob-white chicks, and at first I lost 
several by their creeping into the cracks over the heater or into the 
chink behind the block which separates the compartments. If a box 
is put carelessly against a wall anywhere, we are likely to find the 
chink full of dead and dying chicks an hour or so later. 

To return to the feeding of the second day, if ground insects are 
abundant, the day hot and sunny and not too windy, the chicks may be 
allowed to forage around their hover until within an hour of sundown. 
A clean, shallow dish of water is kept with them. I use the glass cover 
of a fruit can for the first few days (I have had young chicks drown in 
a small tumbler), and it is filled when I go to see that they are getting 
along all right. It is well also to offer them a tray of maggots or meal 
worms or singed flies, or a dish of custard or scalded ants' eggs from 
time to time, to be sure they are finding food enough. At about sun- 
down let them have their fill of any one of the above foods which has 
not been given before. So much if the day is bright and hot. If the 
day is stormy, as it is almost sure to be, they will have to be kept in 
a brooder. They are then fed as follows: 5 to 6 a.m., curd; 7 to 8 a.m., 
maggots; 10 a.m., custard; 12 m., something bulky, — berries of the 
season, raspberries, strawberries, elderberries, apple or grated carrots, 
mashed potato ; 2 p.m., singed flies or meal worms or scalded ants' eggs ; 
4 p.m., net full of swept insects ; 6 p.m., all the meal worms they will eat. 

On the third day, if sunny and hot, manage like the second day, 
except add mixed weed seed, rice meal, corn meal or some good dry 
chicks' feed to their grit mixture, and be sure they have fresh green 
stuff, chiekweed, dandelion seed heads, sorrel blossoms and seed, June 
grass or pigeon grass or millet heads to pick at. Offer them a tray of 
sifted dry loam, kept in the sun or in an oven until it is thoroughly 
warm. They will probably tumble into it like little ducks into water. 
They often use the dust bath twice and three times a day, and they 
should have it constantly in their home cage. I think nothing attaches 
them more strongly to a homing place than a warm dust bath and a 
constant supply of clean, fresh water. 

If the weather is inclement, the third to the tenth days are practical 
repetitions of the second. Intervals between feeding may be stretched 
gradually, the rule being to feed little and often and have them good 
and hungry at every feed, removing all foods except the greens and 
grit mixture as soon as they have eaten. 

From the tenth day on there should be little difficulty, so far as 
feeding is concerned. If kept in the brooder with cage attached, the 
cage can be raised at one corner, and they will go out to feed on insects 
and probably come home to drink and wallow. If insects are abundant 
on the ground, they may require no other feeding than the curd or 
custard, maggots or meal worms in the early morning and the last thing 
at night. 

The little fellows have an affinity for brush patches, corn, asparagus 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 67 

beds or any sort of natural cover, like that of ducks for water. In- 
stead of proving the nuisance that I at first feared, this affinity may 
be turned to excellent account if properly indulged and arranged for. 
I always keep a little brush pile, with an armful of hay or freshly cut 
weeds thrown over it, in the home cage. This also attracts them to the 
place. If they have located in a clump of bushes or a weed patch, they 
are safe for the day. Should a thunder storm come up, and the birds 
are as tame as they should be, they can be whistled home, or an insect 
net be put over the entire cluster and they can be carried into the 
brooder. When they began to fly, in the second week, I expected to be 
obliged to clip their wings. I did not do this, however, and, as the 
sequel proved, their ability to fly is a great advantage in rearing them. 
Within the past few days a wind storm opened one of my cages, con- 
taining adult and young birds. Though able to fly for miles, I drove 
them back into the cage as easily as if they had been a flock of little 
chickens. During the summer the flocks would range out afoot to feed 
and fly home. In feeding the birds I used from the first a low whistle, 
in imitation of the feeding note of the chicks themselves. On coming 
home at noon or night the flock might be nowhere in sight, but on giving 
the whistle I would be assured by a chorus of eager replies, and in a 
moment the air would be full of whirring wings, as the flock -flew in 
with a rush and lighted at the entrance of the cage. This might be 
repeated as many as a dozen times a day. 

Wintering the bob-white offers no difficulty. I set the cages with the 
shelter end open to the south, build a brushwood pile in the middle of 
the cage, see that they are supplied with weed seed, grain mixture and 
water when snow is lacking, and keep a cabbage, a mangel wurtzel or 
an apple where they can pick at it. It might be well to see that the 
cluster is not imprisoned under the ice after a sleet storm, but the brush 
pile has afforded insurance against this so far. This brushwood pile 
is made by placing a few stout branches on the ground in a sheltered, 
sunny exposure, and on these pile about two feet of weeds cut before 
the seeds fall, — ragweed, lamb's quarter, pigweed, smartweed, wild 
buckwheat (chaff straw or loft sweepings would do, if weeds are not 
at hand) ; then pile on a foot or two of stout brush, which cannot be 
crushed down by heavy snows, and on top of this place a good thick 
covering of weeds. This will give the flock scratching material all 
winter, afford shelter from cold and storms, and protect from vermin, 
especially hawks, owls and cats. For bob-white in the open I think 
this simple winter provision would insure against winter-killing, and 
extend the range of the species at least several hundred miles to the 
north. The great value of the bird in insect and weed-seed destruction 
would amply repay farmers for their work. 

As spring comes on, the cocks fight a good deal; but still breeders 
generally advise keeping several pairs in the same cage. I tried both 
methods this season, keeping four pairs in the same cage (6 by 12 feet) 



68 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

through May and June. They laid well under these conditions, but 
there was so much disturbance and persecution that there was little 
hope of either hens or cocks beginning to brood. Each pair was then 
given a separate cage, and they did so much better that this plan will 
be generally adopted in future. 

I have given the above suggestions to answer the many inquiries 
which have come to me as to practical methods of rearing, especially 
the bob-white. The methods indicated apply equally well to the ruffed 
grouse and possibly to the prairie chicken. In judging the results, we 
should bear in mind that the breeding of game birds, even by the trained 
game keepers in Europe, is rather difficult, and that not very large 
percentages of the birds hatched are brought to maturity. With our 
native species, further, we lack the advantage of possessing stock which 
has been bred and selected for some centuries past. On the whole, it 
seems to me that an impartial judge would say that the results of the 
six years' work fully warrant continuing the experiment. Six years 
is a short time, compared with the nearly three centuries since the 
settlement of the continent. We now see clearly that we must bid 
farewell to all our native game birds, or work out methods of propa- 
gating them. 

I wish to focus effort next season especially on the ruffed grouse. 
I am more confident than ever before that I can now rear practically 
every healthy chick hatched. I wish particularly to secure unincu- 
bated eggs from widely distant points in the range of the species. The 
8 sent me from Canada last year were probably fertile, but did not 
hatch, indicating that they need to be packed with great care in order 
to make the express journey safely. If I could pick my stations, I 
should ask for two clutches of eggs from each of the following regions : 
eastern Maine; Canada, well to the north; western Massachusetts, or 
the Adirondacks of New York, where the species is said to reach its 
largest size; the Allegheny or Smoky Mountains in northern Georgia, 
or the Carolinas; and finally, northwestern Montana, Washington or 
British Columbia. This would afford us an opportunity for studying 
regional variations in the species, differences in size and vigor, and 
possibly in resistance to disease, and enable us to select the best possible 
stock for the establishment of a suitable strain for further propagation. 
I have put aside all further engagements for next summer, so that I 
shall be able to devote my entire time to the work. I hope the sportsmen 
and naturalists of America will realize the opportunity presented, and 
join in making this not only a national but also a continental effort to 
insure the perpetuation of " the finest game bird that flies." 

As you are already aware, this work has been carried on for the past 
two years under a grant from the Carnegie Institute of Washington. 
I now have in preparation a detailed report on " The Domestication of 
the Bob-white." I hope at the close of next season to have materials 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 69 

for a similar monograph on the ruffed grouse. Numerous photographs 
have been taken with which to property illustrate both these reports. 

By the kindness of Mr. Richard E. Follett, a single pair of sharp- 
tailed grouse from the Saskatchewan were presented to me last May for 
experiments in propagation. They made themselves at home in a breed- 
ing cage, and apparently throve upon ordinary poultry grain. In 
trying different foods, however, I discovered that they were especially 
fond of clover; and after being fed on this abundantly for several days 
they were seen to mate, and the hen scooped out a hollow under a thick 
cover in the cage and began to lay. After laying 10 eggs she was found 
dead, and examination showed intense infection with coccidia. There 
were 7 more ova developed, which would indicate that the normal clutch 
would have been 17 eggs. The male died soon after. Five of the eggs 
hatched under a bantam hen, but all died from the " brooder troubles " 
during the first few days. I was obliged to be away from Worcester 
at the time, and so cannot give more exact data. The result would 
indicate that the species could be easily bred in confinement. I think 
that the birds must have been infected before coming into my pos- 
session. 

I am promised eggs or breeding stock of the prairie chicken from 
three reliable sources, and hope to begin experiments with this most 
interesting and valuable species next season. 

I am happy to report that, in return for past courtesies, permits and 
favors, help and valuable suggestion from your honored commission, I 
have turned back to the State for use in propagation 24 of the best 
bob-whites reared this year. I have also sent 5 pairs to the farm of 
Professor Morse at Pelham, which is being organized as a preserve for 
native game birds. These birds have been provided with a large cage, 
will be fed and protected through the winter, and will either be liberated 
to breed in the spring or be given a number of cages in which to breed 
under control. No poultry have ever been kept on this place, and it 
thus offers a rare opportunity for starting a flourishing colony. 

Three pairs of the birds have been turned over to Dr. Ernes P. Por- 
ter, and are being kept on the Hadwen estate in Worcester. Dr. Por- 
ter is making a careful study of the instincts, habits, intelligence and 
general psychology of the species. 

I cannot close this report without acknowledging in full my great 
indebtedness to Mr. Arthur Merrill of the Sutton hatchery. The suc- 
cess of the season is very largely due to his intelligent assistance with 
regard to foods and general management during breeding operations. 
Most of our chicks, as indicated above, were also hatched at Sutton 
under his personal supervision. 

C. F. Hodge. 

The report of the superintendent of the Sutton hatchery, 
relative to rearing useful birds, follows : — 



70 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

I herewith submit a report on work with quail, grouse and pheasants 
for the year 190S. 

Practically the same problems are met with in rearing quail, ruffed 
grouse and pheasants, and the data secured with one can be largely 
applied to the work with the others. 

As heretofore, the work was considered as incidental to the work of 
conducting the fish hatchery, and was carried on with the same force 
and largely on the same time, but with the disadvantage incident to the 
large increase in the stock of fish and the work of caring for them. 
This, with the increase in the work of caring for a larger number of 
birds, trying new methods and moving out to uninfected ground, im- 
posed a burden that made it impossible to secure the exact data so 
valuable at this stage of the undertaking. Several accidents seriously 
impaired the value of the season's work. However, the net results 
showed a very marked advance, notably (1) hi the determination of 
the most serious diseases likely to be met with, (2) in further demon- 
strating the adaptability of the quail and grouse to domestication, and 
(3) in definitely establishing the fact that disease rather than method 
of feeding is the controlling factor in rearing the young. 

In the work of the previous season it was shown that disease was 
transmitted by intestinal parasites, supposedly from infected ground, 
and that such infected ground was unsafe for a period as yet unde- 
termined. The presence of additional diseases was noted,' though the 
agent was not demonstrated. More recent information points to infec- 
tious diseases of the lungs and intestines of the type more or less 
familiar to those engaged in brooder work. 

The agency of poultry in transmitting dangerous intestinal parasites 
directly and through other birds is well established, but it does not 
appear that these diseases are solely transmitted by or from poultry. 
They have appeared when previously healthy lots were grown in the 
brooders, and the conditions were decidedly unfavorable for direct 
transmission. 

From a more extensive pathological examination of dead birds exam- 
ined in a fresh condition, it was determined that the loss of young 
birds from what was suggestive of an intestinal disturbance, due to the 
food given, was caused by a bacterial infection. The loss from this 
disease appears to have been confined largely to young birds, generally 
under one week, or, if older, birds that appeared weaker and having 
less resisting power. The loss was more general among brooder birds, 
and especially in some lots where disinfection was uncertain from 
methods or disinfectant agent used. It was not established that this 
disease caused any loss under hens. The grouse so grown that were 
examined showed another disease, and of the quail placed under hens, 
the loss was very slight from any cause. It was found that in using 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

brooders the most thorough disinfection (as detailed later) would keep 
the disease in check, and as the young birds grown under hens seem 
generally immune, it is reasonably certain that the infection can be 
kept under control. It appears very probable, and may later be 
established, that this infection is only fatal to birds that have slight 
resisting power, such as young birds weakened in the brooders or those 
that have developed weakness in hatching. The value of the disinfec- 
tion that was so successful in the late lots seems to have been largely 
instrumental in keeping them free from attack until they have gained 
sufficient strength to be practically immune. 

The lung disease, a " brooder pneumonia," was produced by a mold 
infection, which could with equal probability be attributed to condi- 
tions in the brooder at that time or to previous uses, but very likely 
both, and developed through dampness or unfavorable temperature. 
This infection, like the bacterial disease previously mentioned, is prob- 
ably rather generally distributed, and its control is largely a matter of 
developing the resisting power of the birds. Disinfecting the brooder 
and all it contains, and possibly sterilizing such food as is likely to 
convey infection, will serve to keep it in check until the birds have 
gained such strength that its introduction would have no ill effect. 
That this is not an exclusively brooder -disease is shown by its presence 
in birds that were not kept in brooders. 

Some young grouse seven weeks old were lost under conditions that 
suggested infection from hens, and a careful examination was made 
for the parasite Coccidium or Amoeba, with negative results, the cause 
of death being shown to be a bacterial infection producing intestinal 
lesions similar to those in the Alabama quail disease. The birds were 
reared under hens, but had been removed to coops on fresh ground four 
weeks previously. 

In three instances this disease appeared among the birds at an interval 
of four weeks after they were taken from the hens, and when they 
were seven weeks old, indicating either that a period of four weeks or 
more was required for the incubation of the disease, or that the birds 
carried the infection until they were weakened by moulting. 

This did not appear among brooder birds, with the exception of one 
quail, and did not appear among quail grown under hens under con- 
ditions exactly similar to which the grouse were subjected. Three hens 
having thirty-eight young quail lost only one, and it must be believed 
that these birds were exposed to this disease, also to the bacterial 
infection that was noted among young birds in brooders, but that 
conditions were more favorable for resisting it. 

In the case of some winter loss, where infection was suspected, exam- 
ination showed that the birds died of lung congestion, due to weather 
conditions. Should this loss occur again, it will indicate the need of 
different quarters for winter, with more protection against dampness 
than cold, as this loss occurred during some very wet winter weather. 



72 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The parasite Coccidium was found in the examination of some 
adult birds, with indications of it in some younger ones, but it would 
require a close examination of fresh subjects to prove that it caused 
any loss among the young birds. Where it was clearly demonstrated 
as the cause, the disease produced was chronic, the birds showing 
obvious indications of illness and dying in very poor flesh. The season's 
work seems to justify the belief that it is not an extremely difficult 
matter to disinfect pens, and only occasional loss from Coccidiosis may 
be expected. In some cases, even though there were indications of 
Coccidium, or its presence was demonstrated, bacteria were also found, 
and were the evident cause of death, producing an acute disease, the 
birds showing no appearance of illness and no loss of flesh. 

The brood stock was only slightly affected by disease, Coccidiosis 
being reported wherever examination was made. In one case a tumor 
was found on the ovary, this bird being the female that laid 100 eggs. 

With the recognition that disease was the really serious problem to 
solve, the season's work turned largely to practical methods of han- 
dling the birds, that would at the same time permit absolutely healthy 
conditions to be maintained. It was suspected that disease was carried 
in dust blown from the hen yards, and as there was an evident limit 
to moving the coops and brooders back into the woods, small coops 
were filled with fresh loam, seeded to grass, clover, buckwheat and 
lettuce, and were used when the vegetation was from one to two inches 
high. This gave entire satisfaction, and possessed the great advantage 
of keeping the broods close and under better control, — an important 
consideration, as it is a yet unsettled question what temperature is most 
favorable for the birds or what is fatal. Probably in the case of grouse 
or quail any very moderate drop is harmful, — 70° was known to be 
fatal in one case. The characteristic congestion of the blood vessels 
and organs was ascertained from examination of one lot known to be 
chilled, and this condition was regarded as indicating the cause of 
loss in some other lots not known to be chilled, and believed to have 
been scattered by a panic in the brooder during the night, some of them 
staying in the colder parts. 

This liability to panics seems more characteristic of quail than of 
grouse or pheasants. In some instances here grown quail have beaten 
themselves to death in the night, and younger birds have left the brooder 
in a storm, to perish from the drenching received outside. In the night 
inspection of the brooders it is a common occurrence to find the young 
birds scattered, when the previous examination had shown them bunched 
in the proper place. It is also noted that, unlike grouse and pheasants, 
quail when very young cannot be relied upon to seek heat when neces- 
sary, and they are frequently found hidden outside day or night when 
the weather conditions were unfavorable for them. 

In raising birds under hens, already referred to, the hens were kept 
in a box and given food and water on a shelf out of reach of the chicks. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 73 

and the chicks were fed and watered in the yard outside, readily seeking 
their food where it was placed and returning to the hen when necessary 
for warmth, though often preferring the warmth of the sun outside. 

The best method of disinfecting the brooders and pens is a matter 
to be settled in detail in the future, but it is evident that only the most 
thorough work is of use. In the breeding pens the use of lime was 
effective; and where this could not be extensively used, as in some of 
the large pens, or those that drained into the trout ponds, good results 
were obtained by burning the grass and brush, the sunlight getting 
into the previously shaded pen being no small aid. To sterilize the 
brooders by swabbing the interior with disinfectant was found to be 
ineffective, the manner of construction making numerous crevices where 
the infecting organisms remained untouched. Eventually the practice 
followed was to scrub the brooder out thoroughly, disinfect it with 
formalin, then fumigate it, together with the dust and bedding of pine 
needles, with sulphur. This practice will be followed unless varied 
through more extended experience in the future, and in addition the 
brooder will be enclosed in a tight box or covered with canvas, to make 
the fumigation more effective and to save surrounding vegetation. 

As to the effect of disease and confinement on young birds, it appears 
that pheasants, quail and grouse are hardy in the order named ; but each 
year information gained in working with the early hatched grouse has 
been applied with evident benefit to the quail and pheasants hatched 
later. In the case of the adult birds the experience of three years 
indicates that the grouse is quite equal to the pheasant in ability to 
thrive in confinement, though it is yet to be determined how well it may 
breed. However, the results so far are encouraging. The quail may 
possibly prove to be more susceptible to disease than the pheasant, but, 
as developed at present, is superior as a pen bird, quite as prolific, and 
adapts itself to all conditions as to size of pens and surroundings. 

Of a series of pens containing both wild and pen-grown birds, the 
average number of eggs laid was 38, which is threefold the first year's 
average. The present record is held by a bird that laid 100 eggs, begin- 
ning April 18 and finishing about September 12. All of these eggs were 
well fertilized, and when it became evident that she was laying an 
unusual number, they were tested with care, the last 43 laid testing 42 
fertile. From the last 24 laid, hatching in September and October, 20 
were hatched and 14 reared. This prolificness certainly did not result 
in infertile eggs or in impaired vitality in the chicks, and is an effective 
demonstration of the breeding capacity of captive quail, and of the 
value of small pens, as the pen containing this bird was but 12 feet 
square, and had but a slight amount of vegetation. 

During the season of 1906 several pens were kept with two females 
to one cock or three females to two cocks, and many infertile eggs were 
noted, occasionally a nestful testing all infertile. This at the time was 
attributed to the eggs laying in the nests undiscovered until spoiled. 



74 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

During the next year all the eggs were well fertilized, the birds being 
paired, except one pen that contained two hens and one cock. Of the 
74 eggs taken from this pen 37 were infertile. The fact that during the 
present season some eggs were known to lie as long as did the sus- 
pected ones in 1906, and yet hatched well, is evidence that the. cause 
of the infertility then was the failure of the cocks to mate with the 
extra hens. Therefore the best practice is to pair all birds, but it is yet 
to be established by sufficient tests whether more than one pair of birds 
will mate in an ordinary breeding pen. 

During the present season no quail failed to lay, and only one laid a 
noticeably small number of eggs. This was a wild bird, captured out- 
side of the pens early in the spring. A wild Alabama female, the only 
one that failed to lay the previous season, nested three times, laying 39 
eggs. She showed a decided tendency to incubate her eggs, and hatched 
out two broods, nesting in both cases where she could be freely observed 
and closely approached by visitors. The second brood was hatched in 
October, and on account of the lateness of the season the mother and 
chicks were placed in a brooder, where she successfully reared a portion 
of the flock. 

Another lot of birds that hatched the same day were placed with the 
male in another brooder. He promptly adopted them and was very 
successful in rearing them. 

This male while in the pen with the female was never seen on or 
near the nest, but when the chicks hatched he was very active in caring 
for them. In a nearby pen a male undertook to incubate some eggs 
without aid from the female, but abandoned them before they were 
quite ready to hatch. 

In the earlier attempt at hatching quail, considerable loss was experi- 
enced through breakage of eggs, and it was considered unavoidable at 
the time, if hens were used, owing to the fragility of the shell, and the 
following season incubators were used, with some success, hatching 80 
per cent., but at the same time the work with hens showed a decided 
improvement. During the present season work with incubators has 
been unsatisfactory, except where eggs were finished after partial 
incubation under hens. The hens gave entire satisfaction, the greater 
number breaking no eggs. This improvement resulted from a more 
careful selection of hens, older and quieter ones being preferred. 

It will require much additional data before the very best method of 
feeding can be definitely laid down; but what was secured this season 
largely confirms the previously formed opinion that there is no great 
difficulty in providing food for the birds, and the care of them does 
not necessitate the exact attention held to be so important at first. 
With the conclusion that the loss of birds from intestinal disorders was 
due to specific diseases, and not to errors in feeding, simpler methods 
were tried, and the tests showed most satisfactory results. The several 
lots grown with little or no loss were those given the most restricted 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 75 

quarters and with no insect food. The practice that was concluded to 
be the most successful was to feed with ant eggs, maggots, berries and 
green food, and dry food of mixed grain, seeds, bread crumbs and meat 
scrap, with some cereal preparations. Shredded wheat was the best; 
shredded wheat was also used in the custard that was fed largely to 
the pheasants. Made in the proportions of one egg to one biscuit, with 
enough milk added to give it a good consistency for feeding, it ap- 
peared to be more satisfactory than the ordinary thick custard used. 

In feeding, a proper rotation was followed; but as far as possible 
the food was kept before the birds, they being allowed to eat whenever 
they chose, which resulted in small amounts taken frequently. The 
most necessary precaution to follow was to renew the food before it 
could possibly become stale. 

The relative value of the various sizes of pens tried was not settled 
definitely, but for young chicks it did not appear that the large pens 
had any decided advantage over the small ones. The birds found some 
insect food, but this was quickly exhausted; the supply of green food 
lasted longer, but a satisfactory supply can be fed to the birds in 
any pen. 

The added vigor in pheasants that had a measure of liberty could 
not be noted in the other birds ; and it could not be claimed, as between 
large and small pens, that one had an advantage over the other in 
producing vigorous birds; but it is not improbable that quail and 
perhaps grouse can be allowed to run free at certain ages, and if this 
proves to be so, there will be no occasion to use anything but a small 
pen. The wholly different habits of the pheasants, however, make 
roomy pens a necessity if any number of birds are to be kept together. 
For wintering quail and grouse small pens have given entire satisfac- 
tion except in the accumulating waste and snow that results in foul 
pens when the snow melts. Smaller pens, that could be kept wholly 
dry, but open to fresh air, would be better. These could be adapted to 
some extent from existing buildings. It has been noted that breeding 
is entirely satisfactory in small pens when the birds are fairly tame, 
and it may be assumed that these are best for use except when trapped 
birds are added to the stock. These, to breed without long delay, 
would require large pens well filled with brush; and it is yet to be 
determined if the larger pens are not necessary for grouse, especially 
for the safety of the female in mating. 

The year's work with pheasants showed a largely increased num- 
ber, raised with only a moderate increase in the equipment or brood 
stock. The use of hens for hatching and rearing was continued, in- 
cubators and brooders being used experimentally, as the equipment 
could handle only a small part of the eggs and chicks. The incubators 
were used mainly to finish the eggs partly incubated by hens, saving 
the loss of some chicks killed in hatching, and all loss by vicious hens, 
besides giving opportunity to clean the hens of lice. The use of 



76 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

brooders, as was the ease the year before, was very satisfactory, espe- 
cially when managed in the way found necessary for getting good 
results with quail. Then the loss of young chicks was only the appar- 
ently weak and crippled ones. 

The work with hens was so far improved as to be nearly equal to 
that with brooders, on the average, and somewhat better with a few 
lots placed out in the sprout land and allowed to run free in the under- 
brush. These birds, after a few days, were not confined day or night, 
and the loss from unknown causes was so slight as to make it certain 
that they were not molested by any enemies. The thick growth of 
huckleberry bushes, sumach and sweet fern made the best possible pro- 
tection against birds, but a fox, cat or snake would rather find this 
an aid, and if they molest lots so placed in the future the area worked 
should be large enough to place the successive lots far apart. These 
birds were moved into the pens when three weeks old, and showed a 
more vigorous growth there than the incubator birds. One lot that 
was much below the average of the others in healthiness was placed 
under hens on open grass land, and lost 30 per cent, of its number 
between the second and third weeks, the birds that died showing in- 
dications of Coccidiosis. There is no suspicion of the ground these 
birds lived on, and disease must have been transmitted from the hens 
they were with, and the reason this exceptional case occurred among 
many, may indicate that hens infected with and distributing Coccidia 
freely are exceptional. This lot of birds was taken from the hens, 
placed in a pen and treated, with the result that no further loss 
occurred. 

It is possible that with thorough treatment and change of conditions 
previous to being used for setting, the hens may be more or less freed 
from infectious disease germs, and in so much tend to reduce the 
danger to the chicks from infections from this source. This will be 
attempted with the regular stock of hens, and a special stock is being 
grown from the shell under the best conditions for keeping them free 
from disease. 

The results of the propagation of game birds is sufficiently encour- 
aging to justify urgent recommendations for putting it on a better 
footing. The results should not be dependent on the exigencies of the 
hatchery work, to be carried on with a fair measure of attention when 
the hatchery work can be curtailed, or with the least that can be given 
when the hatchery work is pressing and cannot be cut without danger 
of impairing the result in eggs and fish. 

It would be better, until data are collected to determine the routine 
necessary to follow, to have this work done apart from the ordinary 
hatchery work, and, as it is doubtful if the results desired would be 
reached with ordinary labor, the services of a special investigator 
should be secured to carry on that part relating to breeding, hatching 
and rearing, so that whatever investigation was undertaken, it could 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 

be carried on in detail, and- on such a scale that satisfactory conclu- 
sions could be speedily reached. 

Some of the more important points are suggested below. 

The breeding quail should be closely watched in their mating and 
nesting, — a field of observation only slightly covered. The question 
as to whether a male will mate with more than one female when they 
are in a pen together cannot be considered settled by the limited data 
recorded, and, further, the question as to how many pair will mate 
in the same pen is of considerable importance in the breeding work. 

The breeding of grouse is a particularly vexatious problem, owing 
to the uncertain temper of the male. It will require a large measure 
of close attention to develop a reasonably safe practice for handling 
them in small pens, or note their behavior in a pen large enough to be 
safe for the female. The fecundity of individual birds should be fur- 
ther investigated and developed. This will require a great deal of 
work in keeping exact records of the eggs as laid, percentage of fer- 
tilized and hatched; and to carry this to the proper end, the birds 
may be reared in separate lots, so that advantageous selections may be 
made for future breeding. 

The conditions under which birds will breed calls for study, to know 
by what arrangement this can be brought about when it is desirable. 
The action of quail so far has been very erratic; they have abandoned 
their nests, partly incubated, nearly as often as they have finished 
incubation, and have not as a rule attempted incubation at all, the 
tendency each year being more to continuous laying. The grouse have 
shown more inclination to incubate, and have so far failed to con- 
tinue laying when eggs were taken from them. 

The problem of hatching appears to be more nearly worked out, 
but much remains to be done with incubators, especially in the matter 
of regulating the moisture supply, airing and cooling. To perfect 
the methods of rearing young requires extensive comparative feeding 
tests, the end sought being to care for the birds with no excessive 
expenditure of time, as would be the case if reliance must be placed 
largely upon insect food, or a routine, calling for constant attention, 
followed. Substitutes for insect food should be tested, carrying further 
the trials already made, which indicate that maggots and dried ant eggs 
are sufficient. It should be decided if these are necessary, or if milk 
or egg foods can be substituted to the exclusion of one or both. 

The feeding tests should show, in connection with bacteriological 
work, to what extent development of pathogenic bacteria in chicks is 
due to outside infection, through air, water or food; whether these 
bacteria act directly upon the tissues, or whether they multiply upon 
the food as a medium, and liberate chemical substances which ulti- 
mately kill the bird. Can such a condition be controlled by a proper 
selection or rotation of food? 

Bacteriological work should be carried on at the laboratory, as the 



78 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



difficulty in getting subjects examined in -fresh condition has delayed 
the establishment of certain facts, and the work is far from being 
complete. It would aid the work to have preliminary examinations 
made here, referring to eminent authorities cases that seem proper sub- 
jects for future examination. 

The brood stock for future work is largely increased and is well 
proportioned, there being an excess of females for the first time. 

The stock loaned Dr. Hodge was returned in an increased number 
of young birds, but as this does not add new blood, which will be very 
desirable in the near future, it seems an appropriate time to provide 
for it by securing a stock of wild birds while there is ample equipment 
of movable pens for quarantine purposes and large pens for breeding. 
It would be a very material aid in getting the work of rearing game 
birds established on a definite basis to have it taken up at other places, 
and under diverse conditions. The facilities offered at Springfield 
by the park commission have been investigated and everything appears 
most favorable for success. Some of the birds on hand are so do- 
mesticated that they would hardly fail to breed wherever put, and 
there the work would be done under conditions distinctly valuable for 
extending it. 

Detail of Quail Eggs hatched in 1908. 
[The 100 total is included in the 470 total.] 



Date 

OF 

Hatching. 


Number. 


Laid by 
One Hen. 


Hatched. 


Remarks. 


June 13, 


18 


18 


8 


Hatched under hen, 2 broken, 8 probably infertile. 
Eventually all lost, but 2 lived to age of two 
months. 


27, 


13 


5 


11 


Hatched under hen, none broken; 2 chicks died 
in hatching; chicks kept under hen; 2 escaped. 
No loss while with hen, 1 several weeks after 
being taken away. 


July 7, 


20 




13 


Seven died in one brooder, imperfectly disin- 
fected eggs; 6 in other brooder; 3 escaped. 3 
survived. 


7, 


40 




12 


Twelve broken, mostly under one hen; 7 kept 
under one hen; 1 lived. Five put with some 
of Dr. Hodge's that hatched same time. 


i, 


23 


12 


5 


In incubator chicks died quickly after hatching. 


12, 


40 


- 


30 


Twelve under one hen, all saved; IS in brooder, 
12 saved ; partial loss in both lots late in August 
through accidental overdose of cholera cure. 


19, 


32 


10 


- 


In incubator; hatched under hen. 


26, 


20 


- 


18 


In brooder; lost mainly through chilling; some 
stayed out in grass till found after dark ; others 
left brooder in storm. 


26, 


20 


- 


19 


Hatched under hen kept in brooder; 13 on hand, 
when mostly lost, like lots of July 12. 


26, 


19 


- 


19 


Hatched and kept under hen; all alive until loss 
by snake, and August accident left 2. 


Aug. 1, 


52 


12 


5 


In incubator one-half period, finished under hens, 
2 survived until lost in August. 


11, 


11 


- 


6 


Hatched by female quail; lost lot in August 
through accident. 


IT, 


24 






Under hen, 4 infertile; placed in incubator to 
hatch; lost through overheating. 



1908.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



79 



Detail of Quail Eggs hatched in 1908 — Concluded. 



Date 

OF 

Hatching. 


Number. 


Laid by 
One Hen. 


Hatched. 


Remarks. 


Aug. 21, 
21, 

Sept. 8, 
8, 

18, 
Oct. 7, 

7, 


19 

35 

14 
32 

8 
10 
10 
10 


19 

14 

10 


16 

14 

11 
13 

8 
9 
5 


Hatched under hens; placed in brooder; raided 

by ants; removed second night; put with next 

lot. 
This and preceeding lot in incubator one week, 

then put under hens: lots united and mostly 

lost by accidental chilling. 
All fertile; 3 lost in hatching, 8 reared in brooder. 

Hatched under hen kept in brooder; 3 escaped; 

others lost by chilling and staying close in 

brooder. 
Hatched under and killed by hen. 

Hatched under hen; placed in brooder with male ; 

6 reared. 
Hatched in pen by female quail, then placed in 

brooder ; 2 reared. 
Spoiled eggs found in pen. 


Total, 


470 


100 


222 





Detail of Pheasant Eggs hatched, 1908. 







Old Stock. 


Whitin's Stock. 




Date. 


Eggs. 


Hatched. 


Eggs. 


Hatched. 


Remarks. 


May 24, 
31, 

June 11, 
19, 
28, 

July 8, 
16, 
24, 

Aug. 1, 
24, 




104 
124 

100 
140 
175 
160 

204 

126 

92 


13 

38 
33 
60 

S3 
95 

80 
35 

28 


95 

100 

48 

124 

90 
60 


37 

67 

8 \ 

- \ 
1 

5 : | 

25 

» J 


It was not practicable to fol- 
low the details of the pheas- 
ant chicks, and only the totals 
can be given. 


Total, 


1,225 


465 


517 


201 





Number liberated in the spring, 36 

Number liberated in the summer and fall, 330 

Number preserved for increasing stock, 70 

436 

Less old birds liberated in the spring, 36 

Less old birds liberated in the fall, 12 

4S 

Young birds raised during season of 1908, 38S 



80 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Detail of Grouse Eggs hatched. 





Hatched. 


Number. 


Deputy. 


Town. 




Received. 


*6 
> 


ri 

2 


Remarks. 
















May 6, 
12, 


June 2, 
May — , 


11 

9 


11 

5 


Ruberg, . 
Putnam, . 


Gill, 
Auburn, 


All lots were lost under one 
week except where noted. 


15, 


June 6, 


13 


12 


Mills, 


Shirley, . 


Hatched by Mr. Coffin. 


16, 


8, 


9 


6 


Dineen, . 


Easthampton, 




16, 

18, 
IS, 


4, 

11, 

3, 


11 
13 
13 


6 
10 
10 


Zeigler, . 

Shea, 

Converse, 


Sheffield, 
Prescott, 
Leominster, . 


Placed under hen ; 2 raised to 

seven weeks. 
Placed under hen ; 5 raised to 

seven weeks. 


20, 
21, 


1, 

. 4, 


13 
14 


13 
11 


Putnam, . 
Zeigler, . 


Spencer, 
Pittslield, 


Two of this lot were saved 
and are on hand now. 


25, 


May 28, 


13 


10 


Leonard, 


Sharon, . 




28, 


June 3, 


13 


11 


Bemis, 


Marlborough, 




June 1, 


1, 


10 


10 


Smith, . 


Chester, . 


All lost second week. 


18, 


20, 


8 


7 


S.C.Weir, 


Sutton, . 


Placed under hen; 4 kept 
until seventh week. 


Total, 


150 


122 



It is shown by the detail that the grouse eggs hatched very well 
as a rule. The failures were about equally due to three causes, in- 
fertile eggs, broken eggs and dead embryos. Further work with grouse 
lies in doing the hatching so the vigor of the chicks will not be im- 
paired, and in perfecting methods of rearing. 

The pheasants, as has been the case for several years, showed poor 
hatching, poorer than usual this year on account of the failure of 
many lots in the incubators, but no lot under hens or in incubators 
hatched satisfactorily. What examinations have been made have shown 
it to be owing more largely to embryos dying in the shells than to in- 
fertility. Both causes should be studied, as both can doubtless to a 
large extent be remedied. 

Thirty-eight per cent, of the pheasants hatched, as compared with 
50 per cent, last year ; then about 30 per cent, of the hatched birds were 
reared, this year nearly 60 per cent. The number of birds reared per 
100 eggs was 22, last year 15, the year previous to that 5; thus it 
may be seen that while the improvement in hatching and rearing is 
considerable, there is opportunity for even more. 

It will be seen by an examination of the detail of quail hatching 
that the hatching in many cases was very good; the most of the poor 
lots were due to the use of incubators. Where incubators were used 
mainly the number hatched was 10 per cent, of the eggs; where hens 
were used mainly 65 per cent, were hatched. The number of chicks 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



81 



lost by unavoidable disease was much less than the loss by unavoidable 
accident; this loss included 20 eggs, 45 young chicks and 45 well- 
grown chicks. 

The number raised and on hand is 34, — 10 males, 16 females and 
8 undetermined young; 8 males and 16 females received from Dr. 
Hodge are on hand, and 18 males, 8 females of the old breeding stock. 
Respectfully submitted, Arthur Merrill. 

Enforcement of Law. 

The fish and game laws have been enforced this year by 
twenty-four paid deputies, and we hope before another year 
to report an extension of the paid deputy service, through a 
plan which is now under advisement, whereby each of these 
twenty-four deputies is made more directly responsible for the 
conditions in his respective district, and secure for him the 
aid of the necessary number of assistant deputies, who under 
a nominal salary can be depended upon to give efficient and 
unprejudiced service. 

The names and locations of these paid deputies, together with 
the tentative districts covered by each, are given below : — 



Deputy Fish and Game Commissioners, with the Number of their Districts 

and Residences. 



Assigned to District — 


Name. 


Residence. 


Telephone 
Number. 


No. 1, . 


Everett B. Mecarta, . 


Harwich, 


36-4. 


No. 2, . 


Samuel J. Lowe, 


New Bedford, 


761-2. 


No. 3 


Allen A. David' . 


Taunton, 


966-1. 


No. 4, . 


Charles E. Tribou, . 


Brockton, . 


2101. 


No. 5, . 


William H. Leonard, 


Foxborough, 


9-4. 


r 


William W. Nixon,i . 


Cambridge, . 


466-2. 


No. 6, . . . { 


Benjamin A. Foster,! 


Dorchester, . 


- 


I 


Orrin C Bourne, 1 


Maiden, 


1071-4. 


No. 7, . 


Edward J. Cogan, 


Gloucester, . 


348-L. 


No. 8 


Thomas L. Burney, . 


Lynn, .... 


1613-13. 


No. 9 


Walter A. Larkin, 


Andover, 


172-5. 


No. 10 


James I. Mills, . 


Ayer, .... 


51-2. 


No. 11, . 


James E. Bemis, 


South Framingham, . 


226- J. 


No. 12 


Irving 0. Converse, . 


Fitchburg, . 


53-14. 


No. 13 


A. D. Putnam, . 


Spencer, 


75-4 or 75-6. 



1 Central office, Room 158, State House. 



82 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Deputy Fish and Game Commissioners, etc. — Concluded. 



Assigned to District — 


Name. 


Residence. 


Telephone 
Number. 


No. 14, . 


John F. Luman, 


Palmer, 


17-5. 


No. 15 


Dennis F. Shea, . 


Ware, . 


132. 


No. 16, . 


James P. Hatch, 


Springfield, . 


2571-3. 


No. 17 


Lyman E . Ruberg, . 


Greenfield, . 


376-R. 


No. 18, . 


Arthur M. Nichols, . 


North Adams, 


391-12. 


No. 19, . 


Fred R. Zeigler, 


Pittsfield, . 


362-11. 


No. 20, ; 


De Witt Smith, . 


Great Barrington, 


72-6. 


No. 21 


Charles L. Savery, 


West Tisbury, 


- 



List of Cities and Towns included in Each Tentative District assigned to 
Deputy Fish and Game Commissioner. 

District No. 1. 

Deputy Everett B. Mecarta, Harwich. 

Telephone, 36-4. 

Falmouth. Sandwich. 

Gosnold. Truro. 

Harwich. Welltleet. 

Mashpee. Yarmouth. 

Orleans. 
Provincetown. 



Barnstable. 

Bourne. 

Brewster. 

Chatham. 

Dennis. 

Eastham. 



District No. 2. 

Deputy Samuel J. Lowe, New Bedford. 

Telephone, 761-2. 



Acushnet. 


Freetown. 




Rochester 


Dartmouth. 


New Bedford. 




Wareham. 


Fairhuven. 


Mattapoisett. 




Westport. 


Fall River. 


Marion. 
District No. 3. 








Deputy Allen A. David, 


Taunton. 






Telephone, 966-1. 






Attleborough. 


Lakeville. 




Rehoboth. 


Berkley. 


Mansfield. 




Seekonk. 


Bridgewater. 


Middleborough. 




Somerset. 


Carver. 


North Attleborough. 


Swansea. 


Dighton. 


Norton. 




Taunton. 


Easton. 


Raynham. 
District No. 4. 








Deputy Charles E. Tribou 


, Brockton. 






Telephone, 2101. 






Abington. 


Hanover. 




Pembroke. 


Avon. 


Hanson. 




Plymouth. 


Brain tree. 


Hingham. 




Plympton. 


Brockton. 


Holbrook. 




Rockland. 


Cohasset. 


Hull. 




Scituate. 


Duxbury. 


Kingston. 




West Bridgewate 


East Bridgewater. Marshfield. 




Weymouth. 


Halifax. 


Norwell. 




Whitman. 



1908. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



83 



District No. 5. 

Deputy William H. Leonard, East Foxborough. 

Telephone, Foxborough 9-4. 



Bellingham. 

Canton. 

Dedham. 

Dover. 

Foxborough. 

Franklin. 



Medfield. 

Needham. 

Norfolk. 

Norwood. 

Plainfield. 

Randolph. 



Sharon. 

Stoughton. 

Walpole. 

Westwood. 

Wrentham. 



District No. 6. 
Deputy Chief, William W. Nixon, Central Office, State House. 
Deputies Benjamin A. Foster and Orrin C. Bourne, assigned to launch 

and special duty. 



1 Egret : 



Arlington. 




Chelsea. 




Revere. 


Belmont. 




Everett. 




Somerville. 


Boston. 




Hyde Park. 




Watertown. 


Brookline. 




Milton. 




Winthrop. 


Cambridge. 




Quincy. 
District No. 7. 








Deputy 


Edward J. Cogan, 
Telephone, 348-L. 


Gloucester. 




Amesbury. 




Manchester. 




Rowley. 


Essex. 




Merrimac. 




Salisbury. 


Gloucester. 




Newbury. 




Topsfield. 


Hamilton. 




Newburyport. 




Wenham. 


Ipswich. 




Rockport. 
District No. 8. 




West Newbury. 




Deputy Thomas L. Burney, Lynn. 








Telephone, 1613-13. 






Beverly. 




Medford. 




Saugus. 


Danvers. 




Melrose. 




Stoneham. 


Lynn. 




Middleton. 




Swampscott. 


Lynnfield. 




Nahant. 




Wakefield. 


Maiden. 




Peabody. 




Winchester. 


Marblehead. 




Salem. 
District No. 9. 




Woburn. 




Deputy 


Walter A. Larkin 
Telephone 172-5. 


, Andover. 




Andover. 




Georgetown. 




North Andover. 


Bedford. 




Groveland. 




North Reading. 


Bilierica. 




Haverhill. 




Reading. 


Boxford. 




Lawrence. 




Tewksbury. 


Burlington. 




Lexington. 




Wilmington. 


Chelmsford. 




Lowell. 






Dracut. 




Methuen. 
District No. 10. 








Deputy James I. Mills, 


Ayer. 








Telephone 51-2. 






Acton. 




Concord. 




Pepperell. 


Ashby. 




Dunstable. 




Shirley. 


Ayer. 




Groton. 




Stow. 


Berlin. 




Harvard. 




Townsend. 


Bolton. 




Hudson. 




Tyngsborough. 


Boxborough. 




Littleton. 




Westford. 


Carlisle. 




Maynard. 







84 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



District No. 11. 

Deputy James E. Bemis, South Framingham. 

Telephone 2126-J. 



Ashland. 


Marlborough. 


Sherborn. 


Blackstone. 


Medway. 


South borough. 


Framingham. 


Mendon. 


Sudbury. 


Holliston. 


Milford. 


Waltham. 


Hopedale. 


Millis. 


Wayland. 


Hopkinton. 


Natick. 


Wellesley. 


Lincoln. 


Newton. 


Weston. 



District No. 12. 

Deputy Irving O. Converse, Fitchburg. 

Telephone, 53-14. 



Ashburnham. 




Lancaster. 


Royalston. 


Athol. 




Leominster. 


Rutland. 


Clinton. 




Lunenburg. 


Sterling. 


Fitchburg. 




Petersham. 


Templeton. 


Gardner. 




Phillipston. 


Westminster. 


Hubbardston. 




Princeton. 
District No. 13. 


Winchendon. 




Deputy 


A. D. Putnam, Spencer. 






Telephone, 75-4 or 75-6. 




Auburn. 




Northborough. 


Upton. 


Boylston. 




Northbridge. 


Uxbridge. 


Douglas. 




North Brookfield. 


West Boylston. 


Grafton. 




Paxton. 


Westborough. 


Holden. 




Shrewsbury. 


Worcester. 


Leicester. 




Spencer. 




Millbury. 




Sutton. 
District No. 14. 






Deputy 


John F. Lttman, Palmer. 
Telephone, 17-5. 




Brimfield. 




Ludlow. 


Wales. 


Brookfield. 




Monson. 


Warren. 


Charlton. 




Oxford. 


Webster. 


Dudley. 




Palmer. 


West Brookfield 


Hampden. 




Southbridge. 


Wilbraham. 


Holland. 




Sturbridge. 
District No. 15. 






Deputy Dennis F. Shea, Ware. 








Telephone, 132. 




Amherst. 




Hadley. 


Prescott. 


Barre. 




Hard wick. 


South Hadley. 


Belchertown. 




Leverett. 


Shutesbury. 


Dana. 




New Braintree. 


Sunderland. 


Enfield. 




New Salem. 


Ware. 


Granby. 




Oakham. 




Greenwich. 




Pelham. 





1908. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



85 



District No. 16. 
Deputy James P. Hatch, Springfield. 

Telephone, 2571-3. 
Agawam. Holyoke. 

Blandford. Longmeadow. 

Chesterfield. Montgomery. 

Chicopee. Northampton. 

East Longmeadow. Russell. 

Easthampton. Southampton. 

Granville. Southwick. 



Springfield. 
Westfield. 
Westhampton. 
West Springfield. 
Williamsburg. 



District No. 17. 
Deputy Lyman E. Ruberg, Greenfield. 

Telephone, 376-R. 

Ashfield. Erving. Northfield. 

Bernardston. Gill. Orange. 

Buckland. Greenfield. Shelburne. 

Colrain. Hatfield. Warwick. 

Conway. Leyden. Wendell. 

Deerfield. Montague. Whately. 



District No. 18. 

Deputy Arthur M. Nichols, North Adams. 

Telephone, 391-12. 



Adams. 






Hawley. 


Rowe. 


Charlemont. 






Heath. 


Savoy. 


Cheshire. 






Monroe. 


Williamstown. 


Clarksburg. 






New Ashford. 


Windsor. 


Florida. 






North Adams. 




Hancock. 






Plainfield. 
District No. 19. 






Deputy 


Fred R. Zeigler, Pittsfield. 










Telephone, 362-11. 




Chester. 






Huntington. 


Peru. 


Cummington. 






Lanesborough. 


Pittsfield. 


Dalton. 






Lee. 


Richmond. 


Goshen. 






Lenox. 


Washington. 


Hinsdale. 






Middlefield. 
District No. 20. 


Worthington. 




Deputy 


DeWitt Smith, Great Barrington 










Telephone, 72-6. 




Alford. 






Mount Washington. 


Stockbridge. 


Becket. 






New Marlborough. 


Tyringham. 


Egremont. 






Otis. 


West Stockbridge, 


Great Barrington. 




Sandisfield. 


Tolland. 


Monterey. 






Sheffield. 





Chilmark. 
Edgartown. 



District No. 21. 
Deputy Charles L. Savery, West Tisbury. 

Gay Head. Tisbury. 

Oak Bluffs. 



86 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Comparative Table of Law Enforcement for Years 1907 and 1908. 



Items. 



1908. 



Total fines imposed, .... 
Fines from arrests by paid deputies, . 
Fines from arrests by unpaid deputies, 
Total counts taken to court, 
Total number of persons arrested, 

Convictions, 1 

Discharged 

Defaulted, 

Cases filed, 



$3,470 20 


$7,097 50 


1,921 20 


6,348 50 


1,549 00 


759 00 


390 


472 


358 


455 


327 


424 


56 


45 


7 


2 


63 


77 



i One case pending (1908) on which no decision has been rendered. 



Classification of Arrests during the Year 1908. 



Form of Violation. 



Number of 
Counts. 



Shellfish laws, section 114, chapter 91, Revised Laws, . 

Hunting on Lord's day, 

Aliens hunting without license 

Illegal possession of game, 

Using over ten hooks on ponds, etc., .... 

Fishing on closed ponds 

Possession of short lobsters 

Possession of short trout, 

Killing song or insectivorous birds 

Possession of prohibited feathers for millinery purposes, 

Dogs chasing deer, 

Killing, hunting or wounding deer, .... 

Setting forest fires 

Hunting with ferret 

Taking short pickerel, 

Taking short bass 

Seining for smelts 

Smelts in close season, 

Violation of chapter 401, Acts of 1855, .... 

Having trout out of season, 

Taking trout with net, 

Setting net in pond, 



1908. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



87 



Classification of Arrests during the Year 1908 — Concluded. 



Form of Violation. 



Number of 
Counts. 



Seining in violation of chapter 91, section 42, Revised Laws, 

Pollution of stream by sawdust 

Spearing fish, 

Having egg-bearing lobsters for sale, : 

Torching herring within prohibited waters, 

Using over one hook on stocked pond 

Trapping fish, section 132, chapter 91, Revised Laws, . 

Having unmarked lobster car, . 

Capturing eagle, 

Setting net 

Setting lobster traps, section 92, chapter 91, Revised Laws, 

Setting nets in Buzzards Bay, section 122, chapter 91, Revised Laws, 

Taking eggs of birds protected by law, 

Refusing to show game in possession, 

Killing bittern or heron 

Having scallops in close season 

Using set line, . 

Taking fish with sw r eep seine, 

Pursuing wild fowl with power boat 

Sending game birds out of State, 

Hunting out of season 

Using IV2 iuch mesh seine in Plum Island Sound, . 

Non-resident hunting without license 

Snaring game, 

Hunting pheasants, 

Having seed scallops 



472 



Number of Packages of Game in Cold Storage sealed in 1908, accord- 
ing to Acts of 1908, Chapter 441, and Acts of 1906, Chapter 201. 

Quail, 49 packages ; 254 dozen. 

Te al, 11 packages; 312 birds. 

Black ducks, 41 packages ; 469 pairs. 



Total, 



101 



Many abuses of the laws relative to the sale of game have 
existed since the passage of the law forbidding the sale of 



88 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

partridge, woodcock and quail killed in this Commonwealth. 
Until such time as the best sentiment of the sportsmen and 
of the general public is developed to a point where such a 
state of affairs is impossible, these evasions will probably 
exist in spite of the best efforts towards the enforcement of 
the law. Numberless cases are known where wealthy men 
directly or indirectly hire persons to shoot game birds to fur- 
nish " crumbs for the rich man's table.' 7 Similarly, birds are 
placed in storage where in many cases change of ownership 
is concealed in various ways. There is, however, a decided 
tendency among the best type of citizens to discountenance this 
condition of affairs, as is noted from the following letter, the 
names in which, for obvious reasons, are omitted : — 

Oct. 11, 1908. 

Dr. George W. Field. 

My Dear Sir : — Last year two of the best shots in L left their 

regular work and hunted every day, a rich man paying them so much 
per week, they to turn over to him whatever number of birds they 
secured. Some of the business men and leading sportsmen came to 
me to see what could be done. Am pleased to report that this season 
neither will shoot for wages, — one not at all, and the other only one 
day a week, just for recreation. Many different influences have been 
brought to bear to bring about this result. 

(Signed) 

The first year's experience with the law compelling the 
display of game by the person suspected of hunting illegally 
has been extremely satisfactory. We know of no case where 
the deputy has abused the confidence placed in him by the 
General Court, and we can point to many cases where gross 
violations of the law would otherwise have remained unde- 
tected. But most important has been the restraining influence 
upon would-be violators of a knowledge that they might at any 
time be called upon to exhibit the fish or game in possession. 

The laws relative to requirements of hunters' licenses or 
registration for every person who hunts (with the sole excep- 
tion of the farmer hunting upon land used exclusively for 
agricultural purposes) have fully met expectations, and have 
resulted not only in more efficient enforcement of the law, 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 89 

but also bave made it possible for a land owner to identify 
witb certainty a person wbo either is doing or under certain 
circumstances might do damage to property. 

Under the Acts of 1905, chapter 311, requiring unnatural- 
ized foreign-born persons to procure from the town or city clerk 
a license to hunt, the following licenses were issued by sundry 
town and city clerks : — 

1905 (2 licenses), $30 00 

1906 (9 licenses), 135 00 

1907 (70 licenses), . . . . . . . 1,053 00 

1908 (40 licenses), 600 20 



$1,818 20 



Under the Acts of 1907, chapter 198, this commission which 
issues hunting licenses to non-residents, has granted licenses 
as follows : — 

1907, 81 licenses at $10, $810 00 

18 licenses at $1, . 18 00 

1908, 46 licenses at $10, 460 00 

21 licenses at $1, . . . . . . 21 00 



$1,309 00 



These amounts will be multiplied several fold by the returns 
from the hunting licenses for residents, according to Acts of 
1908, chapter 484, which becomes operative Jan. 1, 1909. 
These licenses are issued by the clerk of the town or city, and 
the moneys are transmitted directly to the State Treasurer. 

A systematic search for feathers of protected birds used for 
millinery purposes is being carried on among the stocks of the 
wholesale and retail dealers in the State. Information is 
freely given relative to methods of recognizing the forbidden 
feathers, even when disguised by dyes, cutting, etc. In cases 
of persistent violation the offenders are summoned to court. 
During the past year there has been a further development 
relative to the law prohibiting the possession of feathers of such 
protected birds for millinery purposes. During the past three 



90 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



years warnings of various types have been extended to mil- 
liners and others relative to the law. During the past year 
54 milliners and others have been called to court and fined 
for having such feathers in possession for millinery purposes. 
We believe that this is a most beneficial law, and that with the 
development of public sentiment and the wider knowledge of 
the deplorable destruction of birds which exists, a still larger 
number of States will place similar laws on their statute books. 
The laws relative to the use of lobsters under 9 inches is 
well nigh a dead letter, on account of the practical impossibility 
of enforcing it with the means available. 



Summary and Comparison of Deer Statistics, 1907 and 1908. 



1907. 1908 



Deer seen 

Deer chased by dogs, 

Deer that have injured crops, 

Deer shot illegally 

Deer killed by trains and trolley cars, 

Deer shot while in the act of damaging crops 

Dead from other causes 

Notices issued relative to dogs chasing deer, 
Court cases : — 

Dogs chasing deer, 

Killing, hunting or wounding deer, 

Live deer, 

Dead deer, 

Total number of deer (alive and dead), 



1,298 


2,035 


114 


120 


85 


100 


40 


36 


25 


60 


16 


17 


47 


83 


27 


37 


5 


2 


6 


15 


1,497 


2,255 


128 


196 



1,625 



2,451 



Money paid by the State Treasurer, according to Acts of 
1903, chapter 407, for damage done by wild deer : — 



1903, $237 30 

1904, 392 25 

1905, 1,117 05 

1906, . ' 2,822 73 

1907, 2,912 78 

1908, 4,370 03 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 91 



Itemized List of Moneys received by the Commissioners on Fisheries and 
Game during the Year 1908 and paid to the Treasurer and Receiver- 
General. 



Receivkd for 



Amount. 



Issuance of non-resident hunters' licenses, chapter 198, Acts of 1907, 

Heath-hen fund, chapter 504, Acts of 1907, 

Sale of egg-bearing lobsters to United States Bureau of Fisheries Stations, 
Sale of deer carcasses by town clerks, chapter 377, Acts of 1908, . 

Forfeitures (nets, etc.), 

Forfeitures (pike perch), 



$492 30 

1,332 00 

840 63 

36 05 

16 02 

30 00 



$2,747 00 



Inspection of Fish. — There have been no requests for the 
inspection of fish, under chapter 138, Acts of 1902, and no 
fees have been received. 

Recommendations for Legislation. 
The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully 
recommend the passage of laws designed to accomplish the 
following purposes : — 

1. That investigation be made of the infectious diseases of 
native birds, and of foreign birds introduced into the State, 
with a report including expert opinions upon the probability 
of such diseases spreading among our native birds, and, so 
far as possible, suggesting remedies and methods for prevent- 
ing such infection, and that for these purposes money be ap- 
propriated from money received by the Commonwealth for 
hunting licenses. 

2. That a biological investigation and report be made upon 
the adaptability of the public waters of the State for rearing 
food fishes, to devise methods and to determine as nearly as 
possible the quantity of fish which various waters are capable 
of producing annually, to ascertain the best methods of stock- 
ing such waters, and that an appropriation not exceeding 
$2,000 a year for three years be appropriated for this purpose. 

3. That paid deputies of this commission should be given 
power to arrest hunters when in the act of damaging property 
or of trespassing, or upon complaint of a land owner. 



92 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

4. That the laws relative to shooting from boats propelled 
by mechanical means other than oars should be so defined as 
to make plain their meaning relative to power boats when not 
under power. 

5. For the protection of birds on their northern migration, 
and to secure an increase in the birds of various species which 
formerly nested in large numbers in this State, no shooting 
should be permitted after January first. 

6. The killdeer and the piping plovers should be protected 
at all times, on account of the imminence of extinction. 

7. Suitable provision should be made to grant non-residents 
the right to hunt foxes in this State without the necessity of a 
ten-dollar license. 

8. That the commission should have authority to purchase, 
lease or receive as gift lands to be used as bird reservations, 
i.e., specially protected breeding places for birds. Property 
thus acquired should become the property of the Common- 
wealth, to be administered by the Commissioners on Fisheries 
and Game for the purpose of securing the utmost possible popu- 
lation of useful birds. Whenever necessary to confirm titles, 
power of eminent domain should be given similar to that in 
chapter 504, Acts of 1907, and that of the money received by 
the Commonwealth for hunters' licenses a sum not exceeding 
$5,000 annually may be expended for the purpose of acquiring 
land. 

9. That to secure more satisfactory enforcement of the laws 
the legal measurement of lobsters should be made upon the 
shell (carapace), exclusive of the tail, and that this legal 
measure of length should be 4% inches, in conformity with the 
law of Maine. 

10. That all lobster fishermen, dealers, smack captains and 
all persons catching or transporting lobsters within this Com- 
monwealth should be licensed, and that persons convicted of 
violation of the State law should be prohibited from fishing 
for one year from date of conviction. 

11. We renew our recommendations of last year for more 
adequate and economical facilities for propagating and dis- 
tributing food fish and useful birds. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 93 

12. Also for such amendment of the laws as to ensure the 
development of the mollusk fisheries below high-water mark 
in such a manner as to permit increase in the economic yield 
of food material; to furnish wider opportunities for remu- 
nerative employment of skilled and unskilled labor ; to increase 
the taxable property of the shore towns and cities ; and to bring 
revenue to the Commonwealth. 

13. The following resolutions were passed at a conference 
of the State commissioners on fisheries of New England, held 
in Boston Dec. 8, 1908, and we urgently recommend these to 
your attention : — 

Resolved, (1) That it is the opinion of this conference that 
the land below high water should be made more available for 
cultivation of mollusks. 

(2) That such areas should be leased for the purpose of 
securing individual opportunities for cultivation. 

(3) That such leases should be controlled by the State in 
order to secure the maximum amount of protection to the lease 
holders, permanency of policy, freedom from petty politics and 
greater responsibility in administration. 

Resolution of the committee : — 

Whereas, In all New England States there exist conditions 
whereby the public waters are becoming annually more pol- 
luted by the introduction of sewage, manufactory wastes, etc., 
resulting in a distinct menace to the public health and seriously 
impairing the productive capacity of the water and of the land 
under the water; and 

Whereas, With increasing population these waters and sub- 
marine areas are becoming more necessary for the production 
of human food, both of fish and shellfish, both for local con- 
sumption and for sale in distant markets ; and 

Whereas, A private individual or corporation is not per- 
mitted by law to run sewage, manufactory waste, etc., upon 
the land of his neighbor, similarly it should not be permitted 
to run these materials into public waters or upon public land; 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That it is the carefully considered opinion of this 
conference of delegates, meeting in Boston in this the first an- 



94 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

nual conference called by the Governors of the New England 
States, that the unnecessary pollution of the public streams 
and coastal waters should be immediately and decisively 
checked by suitable action of the respective legislatures. 
Voted. 

14. That the laws be amended so as to permit the purchase, 
sale and possession at any time of rabbits or hares, which have 
not been taken or killed contrary to the laws of this Common- 
wealth or of any other State or country. 

15. Inasmuch as those mechanical devices known as " si- 
lencers," which have been adapted for firearms, can be used 
to make the enforcement of the game laws still more difficult 
than at present, we suggest that the question of the prohibition 
of the use, sale or possession of such devices may be properly 
considered, and the necessary action taken. 

16. Amendment of chapter 401, Acts of 1855, for the pur- 
pose of securing free passage of migratory fish, both up and 
down Taunton Great River and Nemasket. 

17; Artificially reared trout should be sold at any season 
of the year, provided the proper safeguards exist for dis- 
tinguishing wild from artificially reared trout. 

Courtesies. 

It is a pleasure again to acknowledge the assistance so 
courteously rendered to the commission by Mr. Arthur L. 
Millett, local agent of the United States Bureau of Fisheries 
at Gloucester, and by Mr. F. F. Dimick, the efficient secretary 
of the Boston Fish Bureau. 

Permits to hold in confinement egg-bearing lobsters for col- 
lection by the agents of this commission, according to chapter 
408, Acts of 1904, were issued to 499 fishermen and dealers. 

Permits for taking birds and eggs under section 9, chapter 
92 of the Revised Laws, as amended by chapter 287, Acts of 
1903, were issued to the following-named persons : — 



1908. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



95 



Chester S. Day, West Roxbury. 
B. G. Willard, Millis. 
Nathan F. Stone, "Worcester. 
F. B. McKechnie, Boston. 
F. H. Carpenter, Seekonk. 
John H. Hardy, Jr., Boston. 
Clarence Birdseye, Amherst. 
Chester A. Reed, Worcester. 
A. H. Tuttle, Cambridge. 
A. C. Bent, Taunton. 
J. A. Barton, Fitchburg. 



Owen Durfee, Fall River. 
Frederick H. Kennard, Boston. 
Arthur F. Gilbert, New Bedford. 
Frank S. Akin, Fall River. 
William H. Dearden, Springfield. 
Haynes H. Chilson, Northampton. 
F. H. Scott, Westfield. 
Robert O. Morris, Springfield. 
George M. Gray, Woods Hole. 
W. W. Judd, North Adams. 



Permit to take gulls and terns for scientific purposes was 
issued to : — 

Clarence L. Hauthaway, Cambridge. 

Permit to have in possession for purposes of propagation 
live quail was issued to : — 

Clarence M. Snow, Provincetown. 

Permit to have in possession for purposes of propagation 
ruffed grouse and quail was issued to : — 

C. F. Hodge, Worcester. 

Permit to have in possession native insectivorous birds, to 
be used in connection with experiments and observations upon 
the use of birds for destroying certain flies, in greenhouses, 
was issued to : — 

Seth A. Borden, Fall River. 

Permits to have in possession for purposes of propagation 
wild ducks were issued to : — 

Seth A. Borden, Fall River. 
Charles D. Hunt, Fall River. 

Permits to shoot pheasants under chapter 477, Acts of 1908, 
were issued to : — 

Bayard Thayer, Lancaster. 
Laurence Minot, Wareham. 
Stephen M. Weld, Boston. 

Permits to have in possession ducks of any species, any- 
where in Massachusetts, at any season, were issued to : — 

William P. Wharton, Groton. 
Guilford C. Hathaway, Fall River. 
Benjamin Brown, Fall River. 



96 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Permit to have black ducks in possession for purposes of 
propagation was issued to : — 

R. E. Warren, Boston. 

Permit to have in possession pheasant, woodcock and par- 
tridge, for scientific purposes, was issued to : — 

John H. Hardy, Jr., Boston. 

Permits to take sand eels for bait, under chapter 164, Acts 
of 1902, were issued to the following persons : — 



Elmer A. Durgin, Rowley. 
Walter N. Johnson, Rowley. 
Alfred Richardson, Rowley. 
A. P. Hilton, Newburyport. 
Maynard Eaton, Newburyport. 
James Crooks, Newburyport. 



George L. Whittemore, Newburyport. 
G. E. Pettingill, Newburyport. 
H. G. W. Graf, Newburyport. 
Fred McBurney, Newburyport. 
Henry Godfrey, Newburyport. 
Richard E. Pierce, Newburyport. 



Permit to have in possession at any season of the year, for 
purposes of propagation, black bass, trout and pickerel, also 
to use minnow traps and casting nets, was issued to : — 



W. Endicott Dexter, Boston. 



Permit to take smelts from any stream, during the close 
season, for the purpose of ascertaining facts regarding breed- 
ing habits, was issued to : — 



William W. Nixon, Somerville. 



Permits to take lamprey eels for scientific purposes were is- 
sued to : — 



William N. Holmes, Lawrence. 
George M. Gray, Woods Hole. 



Permit to transfer spawning white perch and pickerel to 
a satisfactory spawning ground was issued to : — 



diaries E. Tribou, Brockton. 



Permit to transfer spawning white perch to a satisfactory 
spawning ground was issued to : — 



Havier L. Gonzales, Lowell. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 97 

Permit to have in possession for scientific purposes lobsters 
of any size was issued to : — 

Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole. 

Permit to use a seine in ponds of the Commonwealth for 
taking fish for scientific purposes was issued to : — 

Thomas L. Burney, West Lynn. 

Permit to catch trout in fly-casting tournament was issued 
to: — 

New England Forest, Fish and Game Association, Boston. 

Permission has been given in eleven instances during the 
past year to M. Abbott Frazar Company of Boston to mount 
birds protected by law, which have been killed accidentally. 

Respectfully submitted, 

GEORGE W. FIELD. 
JOHN W. DELANO. 
GEORGE II. GARFIELD. 



APPENDICES. 



[A.] 
List of Commissioners. 



United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 
George M. Bowers, Commissioner. 
Hugh M. Smith, Deputy Commissioner. 
Irving H. Dunlap, Chief Clerk. 

John W. Titcomb, Assistant in charge of Division of Fish Culture. 
Barton W. Everman, Assistant in charge of Division of Inquiry Respect- 
ing Food Fishes. 
A. B. Alexander, Assistant in charge of Division of Statistics and Methods. 
Hector Von Bayer, Architect and Engineer. 

Superintendents of United States Fisheries Stations. 
E. E. Race, Green Lake, Me. 
Charles G. Atkins, Craig Brook, East Orland, Me. 
E. E. Hahn, Boothbay Harbor, Me. 
W. F. Hubbard, Nashua, N. H. 
E. N. Carter, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 
C. G. Corliss, Gloucester, Mass. 
E. F. Locke, Woods Hole, Mass. 
Chester K. Green, Cape Vincent, N. Y. 
L. G. Harron, Washington, D. C. 
George A. Seagle, Wytheville, Va. 
R. K. Robinson, White Sulpher Springs, W. Va. 
H. D. Aller, Beaufort, N. C. 
J. J. Stranahan, Cold Springs, Bullochville, Ga. 
C. W. Burnham, Tupelo, Miss. 
S. G. Worth, Edenton, N. C. 
A. G. Keesecker, Fishery, Tenn. 
S. W. Downing, Put-in-Bay, 0. 
Frank N. Clark, Northville, Mich. 
S. P. Wires, Duluth, Minn. 
S. P. Bartlett, Quincy, 111. 
R. S. Johnson, Manchester, la. 
H. D. Dean, Neosho, Mo. 
J. L. Leary, San Marcos, Tex. 
W. T. Thompson, Leadville, Col. 



102 



FISH AND GAME, 



[Dec. 



D. C. Booth, Spearfish, S. D. 
James A. Henshall, Bozeman, Mont. 
G. H. Lambson, Baird, Cal. 
Henry O'Malley, Clackamas, Ore. 
A. H. Dinsmore, Baker Lake, Wash. 
W. K. Hancock, Yes Lake, Alaska. 
M. F. Stapleton, Mammoth Spring, Ark. 
C. P. Henkle, Afognak, Alaska. 



Alabama. 
Game and Fish Commissioner. 



John H. Wallace, Jr., 



Montgomery. 



T. S. Bunch, . 

W. L. Pinney, Secretary, 

E. A. Sliker, . 



Arizona. 

Fish and Game. 



Safford. 
Phcenix. 
Flagstaff. 



California. 



George Stone, President, . 

F. W. VanSicklen, . 

M. J. Connell, .... 

Charles A. Vogelsang, Chief Deputy, 



San Francisco. 
Alameda. 
Los Angeles. 
San Francisco. 



Colorado. 

David E. Farr, Commissioner, .... Denver. 

R. L. Spargur, Chief Clerk, .... Denver. 

W. S. Kincaide, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . Denver. 

C. W. Lake, Deputy Commissioner, . . . Denver. 

Connecticut. 

George T. Mathewson, President, . . . Thompsonville. 

E. Hart Geer, Secretary, ..... Hadlyme. 

John M. Crampton, . . .... New Haven. 

Delaware. 
Game Protective Association. 

A. D. Poole, President, ..... Wilmington. 

E. G. Bradford, Jr., Secretary and Treasurer, . Wilmington. 



Florida. 
Honorary Fish Commissioner. 



John Y. Detwiler, 



New Smyrna. 



1908.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 103 

Georgia. 

Fish Commissioner. 

A. T. Dallis, ....... LaGrange. 

Idaho. 

Fish and Game Warden. 
William N. Stephens, ..... Boise. 

B. T. Livingston, ...... Boise. 

Illinois. 

State Game Commissioner. 
John A. Wheeler, ...... Springfield. 

Board of Fish Commissioners. 
Nat H. Cohen, President, ..... Urbana. 
S. P. Bartlett, Superintendent and Secretary, . Quincy. 
Henry Kleine, ...... Chicago. 

Indiana. 
Z. T. Sweeney, Commissioner, .... Columbus. 
E. E. Earle, Chief Deputy, .... Indianapolis. 

Iowa. 

Fish and Game Warden. 
George A. Lincoln, ...... Cedar Rapids. 

Kansas. 
D. W. Travis, Pratt, 

Maine. 
Inland Fisheries and Game. 
L. T. Carleton, Chairman, .... Winthrop. 

J. W. Brackett, Phillips. 

Edgar E. Ring, Orono. 

Sea and Shore Fisheries. 
James Donahue, Commissioner, . . . Rockland. 

Maryland. 

Fisheries Commissioners. 

Samuel J. Twilley, Worcester County. 

Charles F. Brooke, Montgomery County. 



104 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Game Warden. 



H. F. Harmonson, 



Berlin. 



Massachusetts. 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 
George W. Field, Chairman, .... Boston. 



John W. Delano, 
George H. Garfield, 



Marion. 
Brockton. 



Michigan. 

Fish Commissioners. 

Charles D. Joselyn, President, ' . . . Detroit. 

George M. Brown, Vice-President, . . . Saginaw. 

Delbert H. Power, ...... Suttons Bay. 

Game, Fish and Forestry Warden. 

Charles -S. Pierce, . . . . . . Lansing, 





Minnesota. 






Game and Fish Commissioners. 


0. J. Johnson, President, .... 


Glenwood. 


John H. Grill, First Vice-President, . 


Sherburn. 


Joseph Vessel, Second Vice-President, 


Crookston. 


Robert Hannah, 


Secretary, 


Fergus Falls 


Carlos Avery, Executive Agent, . 


Hutchinson. 


S. F. Fullerton, 


Superintendent of Hatcheries, 


St. Paul. 


• 


Missouri. 

Fish Commissioners. 




Richard Porter, 




Paris. 


John M. Shortal 


...... 


St. Louis. 


W. H. Hughes, 




St. Louis. 


William Babb,. 




St. Joseph. 


John Gates, 


State Game and Fish Warde 


Browning. 
n. 


J. C. Bassford, . 




Mexico. 



Henry Avare, . 



Montana. 

State Game and Fish Warden. 



Helena. 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



105 



Nebraska. 

Gov. A. C. Shellanberger, Commissioner ex-officio, Lincoln. 

Dan Geilus, Chief Deputy, .... Lincoln. 

W. J. O'Brien, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . Gretna. 



George T. Mills, 
E. B. Yerington, 
H. H. Coryell, 



Nevada. 

Fish Commission. 



Carson City. 
Carson City. 
Carson City. 



New Hampshire. 

Nathaniel Wentworth, Chairman, . . . Hudson Centre. 

Charles B. Clarke, ...... Concord. 

Frank P. Brown, Whiteneld. 



New Jersey. 



B. C. Kuser, President, 
William A. Logue, Treasurer, 
Percival Christie, 
Simeon H. Rollinson, 



Trenton. 
Bridgeton. 
High Bridge. 
West Orange. 



New Mexico. 
Game and Fish Warden. 



W. E. Griffin, 



Santa Fe. 



New York. 
Forest, Fish and Game Commission. 
James S. Whipple, Commissioner, . . . Salamanca. 

J. Duncan Lawrence, Deputy, .... Bloomville. 
John D. Whish, Secretary, .- Albany. 

State Superintendent of Marine Fisheries. 
B. Frank Wood, New York. 



North Dakota. 
District Game Warden. 
W. N. Smith, District No. 1, . 
Olaf Bjorke, District No. 2, . .'"'.. 



Grafton. 
Abercrombie. 



106 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Ohio. 
Commissioners of Fish and Game. 



Paul North, President, 

Thomas B. Paxton, . 

J. F. Rankin, . 

D. W. Greene, 

George W. McCook, 

George C. Blankner, Secretary, 

J. C. Speaks, Chief Warden, 



Oklahoma. 



Game Warden. 



R. 0. Stevenson, 



Pennsylvania. 

Game Commissioners. 
James H. Worden, President, 
C. K. Sober, . 
William H. Myers, 
Charles B. Penrose, 
John M. Phillips, 
Arthur Chapman, 
Dr. Joseph Kalbfus, Secretary, 

Department of Fisheries. 
W. E. Meehan, Commissioner, . 



Cleveland. 

Cincinnati. 

South Charleston. 

Dayton. 

Steubenville. 

Columbus. 

Columbus. 



Game and Fish Warden. 
Eugene Watrous, . . . . . . Enid. 

Oregon. 

Master Fish Warden. 
H. C. McAllister, Portland. 



John Hamberger, 
Henry C. Cox, 
Andrew R. Whitaker, 
W. A. Leisenring, 



Board of Fishery Commission. 



Forest Grove. 



Harrisburg. 

Lewisburg. 

Williamsport. 

Philadelphia. 

Pittsburg. 

Doylestown. 

Harrisburg. 



Harrisburg. 

Erie. 

Wellsboro. 
Phcenixville. 
Mauch Chunk. 



Rhode Island. 
Commissioners of Inland Fisheries. 
Henry T. Root, President, .... Providence. 
William P. Morton, Secretary, . . . . Providence. 
J. M. K. Southwick, Newport. 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



107 



Charles W. Willard, 
Adelbert D. Roberts, 
Albert Davis Mead, . 
William H. Boardman, 



Westerly. 
Woonsocket. 
Providence. 
Central Falls. 



Commissioners of Shellfisheries. 



James M. Wright, 
Herbert M. Gardiner, 
Philip H. Wilbour, . 
George W. Hoxie, 
James H. Northup, . 
James C. Collins, Clerk, 



Commissioners of Birds. 
C. H. Remington, Chairman, 
W. Gordon Reed, 2d, 
E. R. Lewis, . 
William H. Thayer, . 
A. O'D. Taylor, 

Tennessee. 
State Warden. 



Joseph H. Acklen, 



South Scituate. 

Barrington. 

Little Compton. 

Charlestown. 

Warwick. 

North Providence. 



East Providence. 
Cowesset, 
Westerly. 
Bristol. 
Newport. . 



Nashville. 



Texas. 



Game, Fish and Oyster Commission. 
R. p. Wood, Rockport. 

Utah. 



H. B. Cromar, ..... 


Salt Lake City. 


Vermont. 
H. G. Thomas, 


Stowe. 


Virginia. 




Board of Fisheries. 




W. McDonald Lee, Chairman, . 
S. Wilkins Matthews, Secretary, 
George B. Keezell, . . . 
Bland Massie, ...... 

J. Murray Hooker, . . . • 


Irvington. 
Oak Hall. 
Keezletown. 
Tyro. 
Stuart. 



Washington. 
Fish Commissioner and Game Warden Ex Officio. 
John L. Riseland, Bellingham. 



108 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



James H. Marcum, . 



F. H. Merrick, 



J. W. Stone, . 



West Virginia. 
Game and Fish Warden. 

Special Deputy. 

Wisconsin. 
State Warden. 

Commissioners of Fisheries. 



The Governor, ex officio. 

Calvert Spensley, President, 

James J. Hogan, Vice-President, 

E. A. Birge, Secretary, 

William J., Starr, 

Henry D. Smith, 

Jabe Alford, 

A. A. Dye, 

James Nevin, Superintendent, 



Wyoming. 

State Game Warden. 



D. C. Nowlin, 



Huntington. 
Huntington. 

Barron. 



Mineral Point. 

LaCrosse. 

Madison. 

Eau Claire. 

Appleton. 

Madison. 

Madison. 

Madison. 



Lander. 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



109 



[B.] 

Distribution of Food Fish. 



Trout Fry. 

Distribution of Fry from the Adams Hatchery during April and May, 1908. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. 


Number. 


Edward J. Spall, . 


Pittsfield, 


Duncan, . 


5,000 


Luke J. Minahan, 


Lanesborough, 


Holly, 






5,000 


William H. Newton, 


Lanesborough, 


Daniels, 






5,000 


John W. Downes, 


Pittsfield, 


Merrill and Milton 






5,000 


William P. McMann, . 


Lanesborough, 


Rice, . 






5,000 


Dr. Thomas F. Curtin, . 


Lanesborough, 


Wells, 






5,000 


A. A. Dooley, . . 


Pittsfield, 


Milton, 






5,000 


George S. Baker, . 


Pittsfield, 


Jacoby, 






5,000 


C. A. Acly, . 


Pittsfield, 


Sackett, 






5,000 


James M. Bums, . 


Pittsfield, 


Shaker, 






5,000 


Walter G. Wood, . 


Chester, 


Day, . 






5,000 


W. E. Smith, 


North Chester, 


Westfield River, 






5,000 


William H. Fowler, 


Chester, 


Kinney, 






5,000 


George A. Smith, 


Chester, 


Ward Lot, . 






5,000 


Frank E. Cone, 


Chester, 


Packard, 






5,000 


H. E. Day, . 


Chester, 


Day, . 






5,000 


Allie R. Fisk, 


Chester, 


W estfield River, 






5,000 


E. F. Goodwin, 


Chester, 


Winchell, 






5,000 


George F. Sayles, 


Adams, 


Hoosac River, 




} 


10,000 


George F. Sayles, 


Adams, 


Fisk, . 




John R. Parker, . 


Savoy, . 


Westfield River, 






5,000 


L. E. Flanders, 


Savoy, . 


Gulf, . 






5,000 


W. S. Hathaway, 


Savoy, . 


Horton, 






5,000 


Harry J. Sheldon, 


Cheshire, 


Kitchen, 






5,000 


John W. Downes, 


Pittsfield, 


Merrill and Milton 






10,000 


John McCormick, 


Windsor, 


McCormick, 






5,000 


W. H. Spear, 


West Stockbridge, . 


Stickles, 






5,000 


C. A. Acly, . 


Lenox, . 


Yokum, 






5,000 


Benjamin T. Henry, 


Rowe, . 


Shippee, 






5,000 


Sanborn G. Tenney, 


Williamstown, 


Sweet, . 






10,000 


James H. Krum, Jr., 


North Adams, 


North Branch, 




\ 




James H. Krum, Jr., 


North Adams, 


Tunnel, 






15,000 


James H. Krum, Jr., 


North Adams, 


Hudson, 








James M. Van Huyck, . 


Lee, 


Landers, 






10,000 










185,000 



Fry distributed from the Hadley Hatchery during April and May, 1908. 


Chester A. Hinds, . 


Orange, 


Swift River (west), . 1 
Cheney, ... J 


5,000 


W. H. Gale,. 


Orange, 




J. N. Moore, 


Orange, 




Goodell 


10,000 


A. M. Lyman, 


Montague, 




Shingle Swamp, . 


5,000 


Fannie E. Hawks, 


Goshen, 




Packard, .... 


5,000 


John Doherty, 


Goshen, 




Hampshire, .... 


5,000 


W. A. Smith, 


Goshen, 




Highland, .... 


5,000 


M. W. Smith, 


Goshen, 




Rogers, .... 


5,000 


J. R. Beaudoin, 


Chicopee Falls, 


Cooley, .... 


5,000 


William H. Robert, 


Chicopee Falls, 


Poor, ..... 


5,000 


Francis H. Graves, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


5,000 


Joseph R. Parker, 


Chicopee, 


Cooley, .... 


5,000 


H. F. Moulton, 


Hardwick, 


Newton, .... 


5,000 


H. N. Fisherdick, 


Hardwick and Ware, 


Muddy, .... 


5,000 


Dennis F. Shea, . 


Ware, . 


Flat 


5,000 



110 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Fry distributed from the Hadley Hatchery, etc. — Concluded. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. 


Number. 


George Allard, 


Ware, . 


Leonard, .... 


5,000 


George E. Smith, 


Greenwich, 


Manly, . . . . 


5,000 


Fred E. Field, 


Montague, 


Cold, 


5,000 


John W. Haigis, . 


_ _ _ 


_____ 


5,000 


Frank E. Briggs, . 


Montague, 


Saw Mill River, . 


5,000 


W. G. Bisbee, 


Williamsburg, 


West Branch, 


5,000 


Fred La Valley, 


Williamsburg, 


East Stream, 


5,000 


A. J. Polmatin, 


Williamsburg, 


Goshen, .... 


5,000 


W. G. Bisbee, 


Williamsburg, 


West Branch, 


5,000 


C. M. Drake, 


Chesterfield, . 


Page ) 




C. M. Drake, 


Chesterfield, . 


Porter, \ 


15,000 


C. M. Drake, 


Chesterfield, . 


Munson, ... J 




A. W. Hanson, 


Erving, 


Jack, ..... 


5,000 


Fred P. Titcomb, 


Northampton, 


Parsons, .... 


5,000 


Duane Edwards, . 


Northampton, 


Roberts Meadow, 


5,000 


Frank W. Roberts, 


Northampton, 


Running Gutter, . 


5,000 


William G. Nicholl, 


Northampton, 


Broad, .... 


5,000 


Sumner L. Munson, 


Whately, 


West, ..... 


5,000 


George R. Turner, 


Williamsburg, 


Grass Hill, .... 


5,000 




170,000 



Fry distributed from the Sutton Hatchery during April an 


i May, 1908. 


O. O. Oliver, 








John M. Sauter, . 








Leon H. Bowers, . 








C. F. Bowers, 








Edward G. Clark, 
Alfred Read, 


Westfield, . { 


Munn's, ... 1 
Powder Mill, . . J 


60,000 


R. K. Andrews, . 








L. C. Coburn, 








Harry Smith, 








W. G. Bailey, 








J. A. Barton, 


Townsend, 


Lord 1 

Ashburnham, . . J 


30,000 


J. A. Barton, 


Fitchburg, 


Henry E. Dean, . 


— — — 


_ _ _ _ 


5,000 


Henry E. Dean, . 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


5,000 


Norton Company, 


Worcester, 


Barber's, .... 


5,000 


Gardner M. Dean, 


Oakham, 


Five Mile, . 






5,000 


Myron R. Goddard, 


Hubbardston, 


Otter River, 






5,000 


D. H. Gates, 


Gardner, 


Perley, 






5,000 


L. G. McKnight, . 


Gardner, 


Crow Hill, . 






5,000 


F. W. Dinwiddie, 


Gardner, 


Perley, 






5,000 


F. A. Gravlin, 


Gardner, 


Bailey, 






5,000 


A. W. Pratt, 


Gardner, 


Bailey, 






5,000 


Oliver K. Pierce, 


Ayer, . 


Black Pond, 






5,000 


Joseph P. Love, . 


Dudley, 


Potash, 






5,000 


Charles B. Adams, 


Webster, 


Potash, 






5,000 


W. F. Durgin, 


Mendon, 


Valley, 






5,000 


Windsor F. Neal, 


Westminster, 


Moore, 






5,000 


Arthur G. Chickering, . 


Lancaster, 


Pine Hill, . 






5,000 


Michael J. Shea, . 


Warren, 


South Street, 






5,000 


John F. Hayden, . 


Palmer, 


Swift River,. 






5,000 


Charles S. Ballard, 


Hampden, 


Scantic River, 






5,000 


H. G. Howard, . 


_ _ _ 


— — 




— 


5,000 


Henry H. Hallock, 


Hubbardston, 


Joe Pond, 






5,000 


George L. Gill, . 


Northbridge, 


Northbridge, 




1 


10,000 


W. L. Taft, 


Northbridge, 


Brigham, 




M. H. Coffin, 


Northbridge, 


— — 




10,000 


C. V. Dudley, 


Northbridge, 


Prentice, 




\ 


Elmer A. Macker, . 


North Grafton, 


Carroll's, 




\ 


10,000 


Elmer A. Macker,. 


North Grafton, 


Bummit, 




J 


Henry W. Carter, 


Millbury, 


No Name, 






5,000 


Joseph E. Werme, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ 


5,000 


T. B. Stevenson, . 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


5,000 


Henry Court emanche, . 


Southbridge, . 


Keenan, .... 


5,000 


A. D. Norcross, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


10,000 


Charles E. Bass, . 


Orange, 


Cheney Mansion, . 


5,000 


Oliver K. Pierce, . 


Littleton, 


Black Pond, 


5,000 


A. I. Hunting, 




- - - - 


5,000 










270,000 



1908." 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



Ill 



Fry distributed from the Winchester Hatchery during April and May, 1908. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. 


Number. 


Percy E. Varnum, 


Tyngsborough, 


Flint's, .... 


4,000 


Harry K. Noyes, . 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


4,000 


F. W. Vaughn, . 


Lowell, 


Cowdry, .... 


4,000 


S. J. Bigelow, 


North Chelmsford, . 


Swain's, 




4,000 


William E. Badger, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ 


— 


4,000 


George W. Alcott, 


Chelmsford, . 


Black, . 




4,000 


Willis S. Holt, 


Andover, 


Hardy's, 




4,000 


H. E. Richardson, 


Westford, 


Keyes, 




4,000 


Caleb L. Smith, . 


Chelmsford Center,. 


Blind, 




4,000 


F. A. Griffin, 


Westford, 


Nashoba, 




4,000 


Herbert E. Lord, . 


Burlington, . 


Winn Street, 




4,000 


Dr. E. R. Chalmers, 


Woburn, 


Cummings, . 




4,000 


M. E. Sibley, 


Saugus, . 


Mansfield's, . 




4,000 


M. F. Holt, . 


Wilmington, . 


Chemical, 




4,000 


Arthur E. Roberts, 


Reading, 


Northwest and Burton, 




4,000 


South Acton Fish and 1 


Acton, . . <j 


Rocky, 




4,000 


Game Association, J 


Taylor's, 




4,000 


Waltham Fish and 1 
Game Association, J 


Waverly and Wal- j 
tham, . j 


Beaver, 




8,000 


John J. Kennedy, . 


Stoughton, 


Dead Meadow, 




4,000 


Thomas S. Prouty, 


Sharon, . 


Spring, 




4,000 


N. F. M. Wilson, . 


East Foxborough, . 


Tecuanticut, 




4,000 


Richard L. Everit, 


Wellesley, 


Cold Spring, 




4,000 


Richard Olney, 2d, 


Dedham, 


_ _ _ 


— 


4,000 


George B. Treen, . 


Mansfield, 


Wilbur, 




4,000 


Edgar L. Freeman, 


Medway, 


Nealous, 




4,000 


Edgar L. Freeman, 


Medway, 


Turnpike, 




4,000 


Clyde C. Hunt, . 


Medway, 


Cress, . 




4,000 


Brockton Fish and 1 








Game Protection As- \ 


Brockton, 


Beaver, Montello, Torrey, 


12,000 


sociation, 








Charles S. Baker, 


Falmouth, 


Coonamessett, 


4,000 


John W. Delano, . 


Rochester, 


Doggett's, 




4,000 


Philip Rogler, 




New Bedford, 


Bread and Cheese, 




4,000 


C. E. Taylor, 




Woburn, 


Cummings, . 




4,000 


C. C. Taylor, 




Woburn, 


Blanchard, 






4,000 


E. H. Ives, . 




Woburn, 


Coleman, 






4,000 


D. F. Mcintosh, 




Woburn, 


Cutter, 






4,000 


Wallace Penney, 




Woburn, 


Wood,. 






4,000 


R. H. Magee, 




Woburn, 


Johnson, 






4,000 


Leominster, 




Leominster, . 


Lunenburg, 




} 




Sportsmen's Association, 


Lunenburg, . 


Houghton, 




20,000 


George H. White, 


Randolph, 


Cold Spring, 




4,000 












184,000 



Fingerling Trout Plants during Fall of 1908. 



Joseph P. Love, . 
Charles B. Adams, 
Henry W. Carter, 
F. A. Anderson, . 
Elmer A. Macker, . 
W. R. Wallis, 
W. L. Church, 
T. B. Stevenson, . 
John H. Stockman, 

A. D. Norcross, 

B. J. Bertels, 
Henry E. Dean, . 
Norton Company, 
Peter Baker, 

Jay Snell, . 
H. S. Tripp, 
H. H. Capen, 
A. P. Morin, 
Michael J. Shea, . 
William Wadsworth, 
Hiram J. Parent, . 
Thomas H. Davis, 
W. L. Taft, 
George L. Gill, . 
M. H. Coffin, 



Webster, 

Webster, 

Millbury, 

Grafton, 

North Grafton, 

Douglas, 

South Douglas, 

Charlton, 

Charlton, 

Worcester, 

Worcester, 

Worcester, 

Worcester, 

Quinapoxet, . 

Spencer, 

Spencer, 

North Brookfield, 

Warren, 

Holden, 

Holden, 

Holden, 

Northbridge, 

Northbridge, 

Northbridge, 



Potash, 

Sucker, 

Sutton, 

Quinsigamond, 

Carroll's and Bummit, . 

Howell, 

Parker, 

Aldrich, Davidson, McKinstry 
Barnum, 

South 

Lincoln and Beaver, 

Barber's, 

Poor Farm, . 

Ball, .... 

Thompson, . 

Howes, 

Bigelow, Mad, Town Farm, 

South Street, 

Holden, 

Fessenden, . 

Parsons, 

Poor Farm, . 

Northbridge, 

Devlin, 



250 
250 
500 
250 
500 
250 
250 
250 
750 
250 
250 
750 
250 
250 
250 
250 
500 
1,000 
250 
250 
250 
250 
250 
250 
250 



112 



FISH AND GAME, 



[Dec. 



Fingerling Trout Plants during Fall of 1908 — Continued. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. 


Number. 


C. V. Dudley, 


Northbridge, 


Prentice, .... 


250 


J. F. Cummings, . 


Shrewsbury, . 


Rawson Hill, 






250 


George P. King, . 


Paxton, 


Car ruth, 






250 


J. S. Hubbard, . 


Sturbridge, 


Long Pond, 






250 


P. S. Callahan, . 


Sturbridge, 


Clay, . 






250 


John Day, Jr., 


Sturbridge, 


Bemis, 






250 


John L. Houde, . 


Sturbridge, 


Hinman, 






250 


E. F. Dakin, 


Southbridge, . 


McKinstry, . 






250 


Frank Brissette, . 


Southbridge, . 


Side Hill Stream, 






250 


Abel E. Whitaker, 


Southbridge, . 


McKinstry, . 






250 


F. S. Stockwell, . 


Auburn, 


Stone's, 






250 


Rufus E. Howe, . 


Sterling, 


South Meadow, 






500 


James M. Burns, . 


Pittsfield, 


Yokum and Sackett, 




1,000 


William H. Newton, 


Pittsfield, 


Daniels and Sachem, 




1,000 


A. L. Boudreau, . 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ 


500 


George S. Baker, . 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


500 


James R. Williams, 


Douglas, 


Howell, .... 


250 


George F. Sayles, 


Adams, 


Dry, . 




1,000 


William P. Martin, 


Adams, 


Palton and Tophet, 




1,000 


Francis O'Neill, Jr., 


Adams, 


Fisk and Tophet, . 




1,000 


Lucian B. Moore, 


Tyringham, . 
Williamstown, 


Hop, . 




500 


Sanborn G. Tenney, 


Hemlock and Buxton, 




1,000 


John R. Parker, . 


Savoy, . 


Tributary Westfield Riv 


er, 


500 


F. N. Haskins, 


Savoy, 


Haskins, 




500 


Michael Clancy, . 


Cheshire, 


Kitchen, 




500 


Francis O'Neill, . 


Cheshire, 


Collins, 




500 


Henry Hosburgh, 


Dalton, 


Cady, . 




1,000 


George Blood, 


State Line, 


Stickle, 




500 


W. J. Ingram, 


South Lee, 


Powder Mill, 




500 


C. M. Jacot,. 


Stockbridge, . 


Muddy, 




1,000 


F E. Hopkins, . 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ 


— 


500 


Homer E. Foote, . 


Great Barrington, . 


Alford, 




1,000 


Fred W. Truesdell, 


Great Barrington, . 


Williams River, 




1,000 


David Ives Mackie, 


Great Barrington, . 


Green River, 




1,000 


H. E. Day, . 


Chester, 


Westfield River, . 




500 


Frederick A. Moulton, . 


Chester, 


Walker, 




1,000 


G. E. Curry, 


Chicopee Falls, 


Cooley and Poor, . 




1,000 


Francis H. Graves, 


— — — 


_ _ _ 


— 


1,000 


Ira J. Humes, 


Holyoke, 


Broad, 




1,000 


A. D. Norcross, 


Monson, 


Conant and Gulf, . 




1,000 


George J. Shumway, 


Holyoke, 


Broad, 




1,000 


D. T. Strange, 


Stoneham, 


Willow, 




.500 


Charles E. Arnold, 


Stoneham, 


Aberjona, 




500 


L. A. Penney, 


Wilmington, . 


Richardson Pond,. 




500 


M. E. S. Clemons, 


Wakefield, . 


Means, Saunders, Kittredge, . 


500 


Waltham Fish and 1 








Game Protective As- \ 


Waltham, 


Cherry and others, 


2,500 


sociation, . J 








Robert Chalmers, 


South Billerica, 


Greenwood and Meadow, 


500 


J. A. Whitcomb, . 


Ayer, 


Shaker, .... 


500 


Harry G. Frost, . 


Hudson, 


Pa rm enter, . 






500 


Frank D. Cheney, 


Dunstable, 


Unkety, 






500 


D. J. Whelton, . 


South Peabody, 


Norris, 






500 


S. H. Sinclair, 


Middleton, 


Poor's, 






500 


Geo. E. Patterson, 


Hamilton, 


Miles, . 






500 


H. T. Drew, 


South Lawrence, 


Cold Spring, 






1,000 


M. E. Sibley, 


North Saugus, 


Howlit, 






500 


H. D. O'Brien, . 


Rowley, 


Batchelder, . 






500 


O. B. Tarbox, 


Newbury, 


Saw Mill and Courser, 




1,000 


Fitchburg Rifle and 1 
Gun Club, . J 


Fitchburg, . j 


Sheldon, Lock, Lord, Mulpus, 1 
Ashburnham, . . J 


2,500 


Dr. E. F. Lincoln, \ 


Leominster and j 
Lunenburg, J 


Fort, Lunenburg, Monoosnuck, 


2,500 


Fred S. Casavant, 


Gardner, 


Poor Farm, .... 


500 


A. W. Pratt, 


Gardner, 


Bailey, 




500 


Walter Streeter, . 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ 


— 


500 


Myron R. Goddard, 


Gardner, 


Cook, . 




500 


Henry E. Dean, . 


Oakham, 


Pratt, 




500 


Henry L. Pierce, . 


Barre, . 


Prince River, 




500 


Arthur G. Checkering, . 


Lancaster, 


Pine Hill, . 




500 


W. F. Durgin, 


Mendon, 


Muddy, 




500 


Gardner M. Dean, 


Oakham, 


Nigger, 




500 


F. L. Hager, 


Winchendon, 


Carter and Beaman's, . 




500 


H. G. Howard, . 


Ashburnham, 


Cooper, 




500 


Henry H. Hallock, 


Hubbardston, 


Tan Yard, . 




500 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



113 



Fingerling Trout Plants during Fall of 1908. — Concluded. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. 


Number. 


J. W. Barney, 


West Brimfield, 


Quabog, .... 


2,500 


Alfred Read, 


Westfield, 


Munn's, Fowler, Powder Mill, 


2,500 


Charles S. Ballard, 


Hampden, 


Scantic, .... 


500 


Charles H. Sawyer, 


Northampton, j 


Broad, Running Gutter, ) 
Roberts, Parsons, . J 


2,500 


George L. Harris, 


Sunderland, . 


Welch, .... 


500 


W. S. Gabb, 


Cummington, 


Nipping, .... 


1,000 


L. W. Pettingill, . 


Cummington, 


Mitchell, .... 


1,000 


D. F. Shea, . 


Ware, . 


Flat, 


500 


Lewis Albertine, . 


Ware, . 


Allard, . ... 


500 


George E. Smith, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


500 


J. W. Jackson, 


Belchertown, 


Pudding Mill, 


500 


A. S. Hunt, 


New Salem, . 


West branch Swift River, 


2,000 


J. N. Moore, 


Orange, 


Jones, ... 


• 2,000 


Greenfield Sportsmen's 1 
Club, . . J 


Greenfield, 


Kelly, Fisk and others, 


2,500 


F. E. Briggs, 


Montague, 


Sawmill, .... 


1,000 


A. M. Lyman, 


Montague, 


Wash House, 




500 


John W. Haigis, . 


Montague, 


Pond, . 




500 


C. L. Crafts, 


Whately, 


Glen, . 




500 


Fred E. Field, 


Montague, 


Cold, . 




500 


A. W. Hanson, 


Erving, 


Jacks, 




500 


W. P. Shumway, . 


Warwick, 


Mosquito Mill, 




500 


Frank J. Knight, . 


Townsend, 


Bixby and Barbery Mill, 


500 


Charles N. Hargraves, . 


South. Framingham, 


Rattlesnake and Angelica, 


2,000 


South Acton Fish and 1 








Game Protective As- \ 


South Acton, 


Taylor, .... 


2,500 


sociation, . J 








James A. Baxter, 


Reading, 


Bear Meadow, 


500 


Charles A. Damon, 


Reading, 


West and North, 




500 


Rufus B. Dodge, . 


Charlton, 


Migget, 




850 


Moses Gross, 


Northborough, 


Hows, 




850 


Joseph E. Werme, I 


Worcester and 1 
Auburn, . J 


HuU, . 




850 


H. H. Gabeler, . 


Northborough, 


Hows, 




850 


M. C. Needham, . 


Coldbrook, 


Coldbrook, . 




1,000 


L. F. Earle, 


Templeton, . 


Cook, . 




1,000 


Frank A. Gravlin, 


Hubbardston, 


Lovell, 




1,000 


B. W. Buckley, . 


Ware, . 


Flat, . 




1,000 


Michael J. Murray, 


Holyoke, 


Broad, 




850 


J. Frank Stone, 


East Brookfield, 


Walker Pond, 




500 


Frank F. Bullard, 


East Brookfield, 


Great, 




500 


Herbert C. Branch, 


Webster, 


Freeman, 




1,000 


N. Capen, 


Spencer, 


Meadow, 




1,000 


D. E. Halley, 


Methuen, 


Barker's, 




1,000 


Charles S. Baker, 


Falmouth, 


Coonamessett, 




1,000 


Brockton Fish and 1 








Game Protective As- > 


Brockton, 


Torrey, Montello, Beaver, 


2,000 


sociation, . J 

f 


Abington and] 






Frank H. Shaw, . j 


South Wey- 
mouth, . J 
Freetown, 


Grove Pond, Old Swamp, 


800 


Charles W. Davol, 


Rattlesnake, 


1,200 


G. F. Howard, 


Berkley, 


Wild, 


800 


H. H. Packard, . 


Attleborough, 


Bungy, .... 


1,000 


Clyde C. Hunt, . 


Medway, 


Lone Star and Black Fly, 


1,200 


Edgar L. Freeman, 


Medway, 


Dewey, .... 


800 


John Kennedy, 


Stoughton, 


Dead Meadow, 


800 


Richard Olney, 2d, 


Dedham, 


Meadow, .... 


800 


Walter F. Ellis, . 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


800 


George E. Bessom, 


Mansfield, 


Meadow, .... 


400 


Carroll S. Cobb, . 


Mansfield, 


Hersey, .... 


400 


Albert T. Hodges, 


Mansfield, 


Town Farm, 


400 


D. D. Spaulding, . 


Mansfield, 


Hersey, .... 


400 


Philip Rogler, 


New Bedford, 


Bread and Cheese, 


1,000 


Joseph E. Grassie, I 


Norwell and Hing- 1 
ham, . J 


Norwell and Long Lane, 


800 








112,600 



114 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Ponds stocked and closed in Accordance with Chapter 91, Section 
19, Revised Laws, as amended by Chapter 274, Acts of 1903, 
and further amended by chapter 306, acts of 1907. 



Name of 
Pond. 


Town. 


Rainbow Trout. 


Brown Trout. 


Finger- 
lings. 


Year- 
lings. 


Adults. 


Finger- 
lings. 


Year- 
lings. 


Adults. 


Robin's, 

Lake Dennison, 

Boot, . 

Eddy, . 
Crystal Lake, . 
Nagog Lake, . 


East Bridgewater, . 
Winchendon, . 
Plymouth, 
Auburn, 
Haverhill, _ . 
Acton and Littleton, 


1,500 
1,500 


175 


12 


2,000 

1,500 
2,000 


150 


' 12 




3,000 


175 


12 


5,500 


150 


12 



Ponds restocked during the Year 1908. 



Name of Pond. 


Town. 


Brook 
Trout, 
Adults. 


Rainbow 
Trout, 
Finger- 
lings. 


Brown 
Trout, 
Finger- 
lings. 


Land-locked 
Smelt Eggs. 


Stiles, 
Spectacle, 
Forge, . 
Attitash Lake, 
Quinsigamond, 
Bucks, 

Bridge Creek, 
White, 
Singleterry, 
Quinsigamond Ri"v 
Quinsigamond Lai 
Chebogagog, 


er, 

te, 




Boxford, 

Littleton, 

Littleton, 

Amesbury, . 

Shrewsbury, 

Harwich, 

West Barnstable, . 

Chatham, 

Millbury, 

Grafton, 

Worcester, . 

Webster, 


230 
100 
210 
400 


1,500 


1,500 

2,000 
1,500 
2,000 


5,000,000 

2,000,000 
2,000,000 
2,000,000 








940 


1,500 


7,000 


11,000,000 



1908. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



116 



[C] 
Distribution of Pheasants. 



Applicant. 



Town. 



Number. 



Charles C. Church, 

Willard H. Bates, 

W. J. Stone, 

Charles B. Adams, 

H. Courtemanche, 

Henry E. Dean, Gardner M. 

F. E. Hopkins, . 

H.E.Day,. 

William E. Smith, 

J. M. Van Huyck, 

John R. Parker, . 

Sanborn G. Tenney, 

F. H. Saunders, . 
George L. Rindge, 
Joseph P. Love, . 
H. Courtemanche, 
A. P. Morin, 
William T. Nesbitt, 

E. W. Strecker, . 
J. H. Schoonmaker, 

G. W. Wheelwright, 
J. H. Gafney, 
Henry F. Rice, . 

F. S. Stockwell, . 
Charles H. Goodell, 
Elmer A. Macker, 
Frederick Saunders, 
Clyde C. Hunt, . 
J. Lewis McAuslan, 
William G. Cummings, 
M. C. Needham, . 
Frank J. Knight, 
Walter F. Durgin, 
George S. Potter, 
Dom Pocai, 
George J. Shumway, 
Sigmund Klaiber, 
John C. Stone, . 
D. W. Baker, . 
Edward Miller, . 



Dean 



Millbury, 

Millbury, 

Auburn, 

Webster, 

Southbridge, 

Worcester, 

Becket, 

Huntington, . 

North Chester, 

Lee, 

Savoy, . 

Williamstown, 

Westfield, 

North Wilbraham, 

Webster, 

Southbridge, . 

North Brookfield, 

Chicopee, 

Greenfield, 

Ware, . 

Hardwick, 

Petersham, 

Sutton, 

West Millbury, 

Worcester, 

North Grafton, 

Westfield, 

Medway, 

Berlin, . 

Ware, . 

Coldbrook, 

Townsend, 

Hopedale, 

Southbridge, . 

Southbridge, . 

Holyoke, 

Turners Falls, 

Athol, . 

Phillipston, . 

Northampton, 



116 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Distribution of Pheasants — Continued. 






Applicant. 


Town. 


Number. 


Edward J. Norman, 


Lee, 


8 


Travers D. Carman, 


Tolland, 






8 


Charles A. Church, 


Millbury, 






6 


Walter J. Stone, ... 


Auburn, 






6 


T. B. Stevenson, 


Manchaug, 






6 


George E. Brigham, 


Worcester, 






6 


W. H. Buck, .... 


Oxford, . 






6 


M. E. Turner, .... 


Chester, 






6 


George L. Brown, 


Littleton, 






6 


J. G. Waters, .... 


Salem, . 






4 


B. Frank Smith, 


Andover, 






4 


Harrison G. Blake, 


Woburn, 






4 


Charles H. Wood, 


Bedford, 






4 


Warren Beede, .... 


Lynn, . 






4 


LeRoy Parkhurst, 


Chelmsford, 






4 


Fred W. Cheney, 


Rowley, 






4 


E. A. Carpenter, 


North Reading, 




4 


South Acton Fish and Game As- 








sociation, .... 


South Acton, 




12 


Paul 0. Kable, .... 


North Chelmsford, 




6 


George W. Alcott, 


Lowell, 




6 


Henry L. Sawyer, 


Fitchburg, 




6 


J. A. Barton, .... 


Fitchburg, 




6 


John W. Wheeler, 


Orange, 




6 


Nathan F. Ives, .... 


Rowley, 




6 


William T. Jeffrey, 


Salem, . 




6 


C. W. Hicks, .... 


Waltham, 




6 


James Rourke, .... 


Lynnfield Center, 




6 


R. F. Goddard, .... 


Woburn, 




6 


M. F. Holt, .... 


Wilmington, . 




6 


Charles H. Wood, 


Bedford, 




6 


W. H. Wickens, .... 


Lawrence, 




6 


Thomas Croswell, 


North Reading, 




6 


Arthur Bliss, Jr., 


Andover, 




6 


L. W. Prouty and F. P. Hewins, . 


South Framingham, 


G 


Brockton Fish and Game Associa- 






tion, ..... 


Brockton, 


6 


E. B. Nevin, .... 


South Weymouth, . 




6 


James McGrady, 


Lawrence, 




8 


William A. Thorn, 


Methuen, 






8 


Oliver K. Pierce, . . . 


Ayer, . 






8 


Thomas H. Varnum, . 


Lowell, 






8 


Charles E. Abare, 


Dracut, . ' . 






8 


Albert T. Hodges, 


Mansfield, 






8 


Edgar L. Freeman, 


Medway, 






8 


Harry G. Frost, 


Waltham, 






8 


Fred F. Trull, .... 


Hudson, 






8 


Richard P. Waters, 


Wenham, 






8 


J.C.Todd, 


Newburyport, 




8 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



117 



Distribution of Pheasants — Concluded. 



Applicant. 



Town. 



Number. 



W. B. Cross, 

Paul O. Kable, . 

Albert W. Lewis, 

Charles W. Davol, 

Norman Barstow, 

L. H. Bartlett, . 

Thomas A. McDonald, 

George B. Lord, 

Weldon H. Reynolds, 

L. D. Baker, Jr., 

Alexander Pope, 

John Cary Spring, 

Henry E. Garfield, 

W. M. Small, 

Henry O. Whiting, 

William T. Corey, 

Dexter E. Wadsworth, 

W. W. Bradbury, 

D. E. Halley, . 

George H. Doty, 

Henry A. Barton, 

Rufus W. Page, . 

M. E. S. Clemons, 

H.E.Guy,. 

Harry E. Converse, 

Edward W. Grew, 

Fitchburg Rifle and Gun Club, 

Charles F. Cowdry, 

C. C. Puffer, 



Brockton, 

Tyngsborough, 

Fall River, 

Taunton, 

New Bedford, 

Boxford, 

Gloucester, 

Melrose, 

Braintree, 

Wellfleet, 

Hingham, 

Gloucester, 

South Yarmouth, 

North Truro, 

Plymouth, 

New Bedford, 

Quincy, 

Lawrence, 

Lawrence, 

Waltham, 

Dalton, 

Newburyport, 

Wakefield, 

Brockton, 

Marion, . 

Farm Street, 

Fitchburg, 

Fitchburg, 

Brockton, 



6 
3 

826 



118 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



[D.] 
Distribution of Belgian Hares. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Number. 


J. A. Barton, .... 


Fitchburg, 


7 


James H. O'Hara, 


Greenfield, 


7 


John T. Montgomery, . 


Ware, .... 


7 


Sanborn G. Tenney, 


Williamstown, 


7 


James Coe, Jr., .... 


Taunton, 


7 




35 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



119 



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FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



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[ 


Samuel Callis, . 
Catherine McGinn, 
Samuel Robinson, 
Samuel Dudgeon, 
Samuel Dudgeon, 
Mrs. B. Grimshaw, 
Mrs. B. Grimshaw, 
M. J. Leahy, 
Alice Casavant, 
K. L. Goodwin, . 
M. L. Boucher, . 
Mrs. Rena Murray, 
Mrs. Amelia Byrne, 
Miss Mary L. Renaud, 
Mrs. Louise Croisetiere, 
Philip Genensky, 
Allen Beausang, 
Calvin P. Sanger, 
Joseph E. Paris, 
Holman Forman, 
Samuel Macaroisky, . 
Elizabeth Allaire, 
Angeline Gaudreau, . 

John Small, 
Arthur Townsend, 

John Small, 
Arthur Townsend, 
Martin Lonergan, 
William Barton, 
William Moore, . 
Andrew Kennedy, 
Francisco Roberto, 
Charles F. Williams, . 
Manuel Silvia, . 
Horace Sampson, 


Giuseppe Demario, 
Saturni Borelli, . 
Charles Rich, 
Allie R. Fisk, . 
Lawrence Sorenson, . 



1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



127 



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1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



129 



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130 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



131 



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Fred Young, 
George W. Crowell 
R. A. Nickerson & 
W. H. Patterson, 
Albert W. Smith, 

E. C. Flanders & C 
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Daniel W. West, 
Zenas H. Baker, 
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E. D. Perry, 
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Albertis F. Simmoi 







132 



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1908. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



133 



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134 



FISH AND GAME, 



[Dec. 











Number of Pounds of Fish taken 


Town. 


i 

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& 

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1 

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a 

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a 
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Bournedale, . 


- 


- 


- 


290 


- 


- 


- 


Brewster, 




63,140 


324 


34,242 


850 


- 


- 


- 


Chatham, 




500 


320 


20,900 


1,751 


- 


- 


- 


Chilmark, 




25 


- 


15,572 


9,193 


- 


40 


- 


Dennis, 




19,500 


484 


3,400 


929 


- 


- 


- 


Dighton, 




124,452 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Edgartown, . 




- 


- 


2,300 


4,400 


- 


- 


- 


Gay Head, . 




40,000 


- 


5,500 


11,070 


- 


- 


- 


Gloucester, . 




196,415 


1,015 


- 


2,693 


- 


246,337 


- 


Hyannis, 




- 


834 


9,000 


5,500 


- 


- 


- 


Manchester, . 




10,600 


- 


- 


755 


- 


41,967 


- 


Nahant, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


100 


2,400 


- 


Nantucket, . 




- 


20,793 


6,556 


61,883 


- 


156,570 


- 


Newburyport, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


160,168 


- 


North Truro, 




418,600 


850 


68,770 


13,262 


- 


130,520 


- 


Oak Bluffs, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Plymouth, 




- 


200 


- 


200 


- 


- 


23 


Provincetown, 




10,000 


1,430 


482,278 


186,178 


- 


29,430 


- 


Raynham, 




226,400 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Rockport, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,620 


- 


Sandwich, 




- 


- 


- 


1,180 


- 


- 


- 


Segregansett, 




55,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Somerset, 




72,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Tisbury, 




19,500 


4,120 


12,350 


1,525 


- 


4,650 


- 


Vineyard Haven, 




20,000 


26 


6,660 


450 


200 


- 


- 


Yarmouthport, 




- 


- 


400 


- 


- 


1,000 


- 


Totals for Stat 


e, 


1,276,132 


30,396 


667,928 


302,109 


300 


774,702 


23 



1908. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



135 



in Nets, Pounds, Traps, etc. 



a 

o 
CO 


e3 

c3 
CO 


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n 

e3 
CO 


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ar 

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a 

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CS 


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Is » 

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o 


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> 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


41,625 


1,941 


- 


$404 39 


- 


- 


120,079 


50 


5,084 


22 


6,870 


696 


30,830 


2,952 67 


350 


- 


6,000 


60 


3,000 


20 


150,000 


- 


- 


2,352 51 


71,512 


1,667 


450 


- 


89,677 


- 


7,595 


54 


126,875 


9,695 46 


- 


- 


21,650 


134 


1,685 


- 


218,500 


- 


99,900 


3,972 82 


- 


- 


- 


3,529 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5,898 


2,153 92 


400 


- 


- 


- 


7,700 


- 


6,600 


- 


1,100 


709 00 


166,000 


9,300 


- 


- 


64,750 


- 


6,250 


- 


1,240 


10,973 20 


- 


10 


257,902 


25,627 


- 


- 


42,335 


82 


649,634 


6,753 83 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5,828 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,349 00 


1,203 


- 


72,400 


264 


- 


- 


7,000 


180 


224,422 


2,285 97 


- 


- 


608,150 


- 


- 


- 


1,200 


- 


338,582 


12,751 57 


21,398 


1,000 


3,400 


2,600 


54,143 


- 


2,250 


- 


39,908 


22,508 44 


- 


- 


39,500 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


151,617 


3,462 94 


- 


- 


988,620 


2,826 


1,250 


- 


799,100 


- 


1,582,146 


27,557 01 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,000 


160 00 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6,400 


100 


1,000 


110 00 


- 


- 


501,300 


8,000 


1,900 


- 


540,315 


- 


710,859 


38,611 72 


- 


- 


- 


1,210 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2,332 50 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2,500 


- 


16,959 


489 2? 


- 


- 


- 


390 


15 


- 


23,513 


- 


165 


283 42 


- 


- 


- 


4,500 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12,000 


1,120 00 


- 


- 


- 


354 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,010 80 


42,325 


600 


- 


50 


119,890 


- 


3,225 


9,245 


500 


8,612 52 


11,000 


250 


- 


- 


39,982 


- 


7,800 


- 


1,590 


3,309 85 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3,175 


199 05 


314,188 


12,827 


2,619,451 


49,594 


394,904 


42 


1,873,078 


12,298 


3,999,400 


$166,121 86 



136 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 






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1908." 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



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1908.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



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140 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Number 
of Egg- 
bearing 
Lobsters. 


28 


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1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 141 



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FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



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1908.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



143 



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Public Document No. 25 



REPORT 



Y^. COMMISSIONERS 



^aS*J> 



Fisheries and Game 



Year ending December 31, 1909. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1910. 



IS LIBRARY 01- IHUSETTS, 

UtG 211910 

STATE HOUSE, BOSTON. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



COMMISSIONEKS ON FISHERIES AND GAME. 



GEORGE W. FIELD, Sharon, Chairman. 
JOHN W. DELANO, Marion. 
GEORGE H. GARFIELD, Brockton. 

Chief Deputy Commissioner, 

WILLIAM W. NIXON, Cambridge. 

Clerk. 

W. RAYMOND COLLINS, Boston. 

DAVID L. BELDING, Chatham, Biologist. 
FERDINAND C. LANE, Wellfleet, Assistant Biologist. 
ARTHUR MERRILL, Sutton, Superintendent. 

Office : Room 158, State House, Boston. 

Telephone: Haymarket 2700. 



CONTENTS 



Report 

General considerations, 

Expenditures, 

Mollusk fisheries, 

Inland fisheries, 

Game birds, . 

Deer, 
Marine fisheries, . 

The Gloucester fisheries, 

Mackerel seining fleet, 

Halibut fleet, 

Swordfish, 
The lobster fishery, 

Summary of statistics, 

The purchasing of egg lobsters, 
The mollusk fisheries, 

Growth and habits of the sea clam {Mactra solidissima) , 
Utilization of public waters as a source of food supply 

Pollution of streams, 

Recreational fishing, 
Inland fisheries, ..... 

Distribution of fish and eggs during 1909 

Hatchery expenses, 

Summary of output of fish and pheasants, 

Report of superintendent of Sutton hatchery, 
Game and insectivorous birds, .... 

Birds distributed during 1909, 

Report of superintendent of Sutton hatchery, 
The deer problem, ...... 

Summary and comparison of statistics, 1907-09, 
Enforcement of law, ...... 

List of paid deputies, with district, residence and telephone numbers, 

Cities and towns alphabetically arranged, with the number of the 
district, 



Districts, with cities and towns included in each, 
Report of chief deputy, . 

Automobiles, .... 

Some changes in game laws (wild fowl 

Arrests for killing deer, 

Summary of deer killed, . 

Money paid by State Treasurer, 



deer) , 



CONTEXTS. 



Enforcement of law — Con. 








PAGE 


Report of chief deputy — Con. 


Forest fires, .......... 73 


Pheasants, ...... 








73 


Partridge, ...... 








73 


Quail, ....... 








74 


Rabbits, ....... 








74 


Squirrels, ...... 








74 


Lobsters, ...... 








74 


Feathers used for millinery purposes, . 








74 


Power boats, ...... 








75 


Hunting licenses, ..... 


* 






75 


Classification of arrests, . ... . . 








78 


Comparative table of law enforcement, 1908-09, 








79 


Itemized list of money received, 








80 


Recommendations for legislation, . . 








80 


Courtesies, permits, etc., . 








83 


Appendices. 


A. List of commissioners in United States, ...... 91 


B. Distribution of food fish, .... 








99 


Ponds stocked, ..... 








105 


C. Distribution of pheasants, .... 








106 


D. Distribution of Belgian hares, .... 








108 


E. Arrests and convictions, ..... 








109 


F. Returns from the shore pound and net fisheries. 








. 121 


Lobster fisheries, ..... 








. 128 



Stye €ommontocoltl) of ittassacljuseite. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully sub- 
mit this their forty-fourth annual report. 

General Considerations. 
It is no longer necessary to discuss the fact that the fisheries, 
the game and the insectivorous birds are worthy of every effort 
not alone for their conservation, but for their extension as well. 
Similarly, the unwise introduction and the still more deplora- 
ble extinction of various useful species is a matter of grave 
moment from the biological aspect in its widest and in its 
most intimate complications. Even the State of Massachusetts 
has not been above criticism in this policy of depletion. The 
most important factor of this depletion doubtless has been 
public ownership of fish, game and birds. This necessarily 
tends to a laissez faire doctrine, and to the widespread belief 
that the most rapid possible private appropriation of such pub- 
lic property is a criterion of business ability and shrewdness. 
There has been a noticeable lack of biological knowledge in the 
general attitude of the people and in the policies of the various 
legislatures. In spite of all the laws both for protection and for 
the exploiting and maintenance of such public property, the de- 
struction has been general and lamentable. Even under our 
restrictive laws the wild pigeon and the wild turkey have been 
exterminated within the State ; the heath hen, woodcock, wood 
duck, upland plover, piping plover and other birds naturally 
breeding here are on the very verge of local extinction. The 
natural supply of ruffed grouse, quail and woodcock has shown 
alarming depreciation, largely due to the destruction of breed- 
ing grounds, and owing to the introduction of species which 
have brought infectious diseases; in part, perhaps, to develop- 



8 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

merit of more deadly methods of hunting, both by the employ- 
ment of improved firearms and more skilfully trained dogs; 
but above all these to the feral cat, which is increasingly 
infesting the covers. The decimation of these birds has 
made it possible for various species of destructive insects to 
secure a foothold. Further, the introduction of the English 
sparrow has, in addition to the destruction of the small insect- 
ivorous birds, laid a heavy tax upon owners of grain fields, 
barns and poultry yards. So, if the commissioners were asked 
what line of work within the province of their activities requires 
the most urgent attention, the answer would doubtless be that 
the birds at the present time require most careful consideration: 
through ( 1 ) a study of the diseases and the extent to which these 
diseases are transmitted by various species of birds to other 
species, and what remedies may be applied; (2) development 
and application of the most approved methods for increasing 
the bird population per square mile, in order that the birds may 
co-operate as an effective check to prevent the increase of insect 
enemies to cultivated crops, to shade trees and to all other types 
of vegetation. These methods would doubtless take the line of a 
greater number of " bird sanctuaries/ 7 i.e., places from which 
the general public is excluded, where special preparations are 
made for furnishing food and suitable nesting places to useful 
birds of all types. In addition to this, some restrictive legisla- 
tion is necessary, but the time has passed when restrictive legis- 
lation alone can meet the full measure of the situation. Some 
positive methods must be developed for increasing the number 
of our native birds. Every encouragement should be given to 
intelligent efforts looking towards the breeding of various 
species, with a provision for the greatest possible number and 
diversity of sanctuaries. Increased attention should be paid 
to preventing the damage done by those greatest enemies of 
the wild game and song birds, — the domestic cat, and the dog 
which is allowed habitually to run at large in the woods. 
Along with these there should be a more efficient enforcement 
of the constantly multiplying laws. The people must be edu- 
cated towards a wider and more accurate knowledge of the 
natural laws which govern the species of birds and mammals. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 9 

Investigations by competently trained persons must be under- 
taken for the purpose of securing a definite basis of fact for 
legislation. Thus we may hope ultimately to reduce the ex- 
cessive amount of inconsequential demands for legislation. 

Finally, all the territorial resources of the State must be fully 
utilized for the purpose of furnishing food and business oppor- 
tunities for Massachusetts people. The most conspicuous among 
these is the area between high and low water mark, which at 
present is practically unutilized. Under certain restrictions 
oysters and quahaugs may be cultivated by individuals. This 
opportunity should be extended so as to include also the soft 
clam (My a arenaria). 

The law passed by the last Legislature, prohibiting spring 
shooting (chapter 421, Acts of 1909), is expected to increase the 
number of birds breeding within the State, and ultimately to 
result in a large number of ducks breeding in all sections of the 
Commonwealth, with improvement of the duck shooting in the 
middle and western section of the State, instead of being prac- 
tically restricted to a thin line of migrants passing only through 
the eastern counties. 

Expenditures. — The details of all expenditures are published 
in the annual report of the Auditor of the Commonwealth. In 
general, $4,958.99 was expended for the benefit of the sea and 
shore fisheries; $6,950.49 for maintenance of inland resources 
by the purchase and propagation of trout, quail, grouse and 
pheasants; $32,971.63 for the enforcement of the fish, game and 
bird laws on land and sea; $4,420.90 for the protection of adult 
female lobsters by purchase of those caught when carrying eggs ; 
$11,421.25 for the salaries for the commissioners, printing, 
postage, travelling expenses of the commissioners and for clerical 
and office expenses. The total amount of fines was $5,804.50; 
and of all other additional moneys received and turned into the 
treasury of the Commonwealth, $1,799.24. 

For the reason that several of our recommendations were re- 
ferred last year to the next General Court, we repeat the state- 
ments made in our forty-third annual report relative to the mol- 
lusk fisheries, to the inland fisheries, to the game birds and 
to deer : — 



10 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Mollusk Fisheries. — In 1905 the Legislature ordered a biological 
survey of the coastal areas below high-water mark, in order to as- 
certain : — 

(1) The present and past conditions of the mollusk fisheries. 

(2) The possibilities of increasing the annual production by (a) in- 
creasing the annual yield per acre; (b) suitable methods of securing 
an annual yield from areas at present unproductive. 

(3) Ascertaining definite methods of increasing production by study 
of: — 

(a) Life histories of the economic mollusks, particularly the oyster, 
clam, quahaug and scallop. 

(b) Methods of feeding and rate of growth. 

(c) Effects of unfavorable conditions; e.g., pollution. 

(d) Methods of checking ravages of enemies; e.g., starfish, "drills," 
" winkles," etc. 

A report to the Legislature upon this work states, in general, that of 
upwards of 60,000 acres of shellfish ground only about 3,552 acres are 
to-day yielding anything approximating the natural yield, i.e., from 
$100 to $800 profit per annum; while upwards of 40,000 acres are 
producing at least 90 per cent less than normal production; and about 
15,000 acres at present unsuitable could at an expense of $50 to $300 
per acre be made to yield from $100 to $500 profit annually. Under 
such development and utilization employment would be furnished to 
about 20,000 skilled and unskilled laborers, as compared with 2,184 in 
1907; and a total production valued in the hands of the producers at 
$6,000,000 annually, instead of $752,000 as in 1907. 

The results from more than 300 experimental plots prove conclusively 
that clams {My a arenaria) and quahaugs {Venus mercenaria) can by 
appropriate methods be as successfully cultivated as are oysters to-day, 
or as any farm crop; that the value of a quahaug crop upon arrival 
at a marketable size often exceeds $1,800 per acre; and that the annual 
profit should average not less than $200 per acre. 

These fisheries are prosecuted upon what is now in the east the last 
remnant of the public domain, viz., between high and low tide marks. 
The titles to the uplands have been acquired by individuals, and are 
subject to individual control and responsibility; and the title of the 
riparian owner extends to mean low-water mark, or to 100 rods beyond 
the mean high-water mark in cases where more than 100 rods of tidal 
flats are exposed by the average tide, but the riparian owner does not 
have an exclusive control of the fishing, fowling and boating. He may 
participate in these only on equal terms with the public, and subject 
to the disposing right of the General Court. Similarly, State laws 
have been enacted by which areas below high-water mark may be leased 
for oyster cultivation, but the lease holder can claim as his property 
only the oysters grown thereon. Curiously enough, present laws permit 
the cultivation of oysters in the waters below low-tide mark, but not 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 11 

clams or scallops, either below or above low-water mark. It would be 
quite as logical for the State to permit the farmer to grow only corn. 
The fisheries (which include the mollusk fisheries) are still public, 
and subject to the disposing action of the Legislature. If the Legis- 
lature should by appropriate laws make possible intensive cultivation 
of shellfish, e.g., the oyster, clam, quahaug, scallop and lobster, in the 
area below high-water mark, under proper safeguards devised to secure 
public and private rights, there would follow : — 

(1) Increased opportunities for skilled and unskilled labor. 

(2) Increased yield per acre above the natural productiveness. 

(3) Increased daily profits in proportion to the time and labor of 
the fishermen. 

(4) Increased definiteness of supply, thus permitting the fishermen 
to take advantage of market conditions. 

(5) Increased income to town from taxable property on the shell- 
fish beds. 

(6) Increased subsidiary industries. 

(7) Increased revenue to citizens, communities and State, from leases 
of public domain. 

An extended discussion is to be found in a special report to the 
General Court upon the mollusk fisheries of Massachusetts. 

Inland Fisheries. — As a result of drought, directly traceable in very 
considerable measure to unwise methods of deforestation of our hills, 
many of the smaller brooks and the upper reaches of larger brooks, 
which are the nurseries of brook trout, have been entirely depop- 
ulated. In addition, we again repeat the statements given in the pre- 
vious reports, that we should not be longer compelled to maintain 
unwise, inadequate and unbusiness-like methods of stocking public 
waters. We respectfully urge consideration of an improved system of 
stocking, whereby certain well-known and suitable waters, definitely 
designated as public waters under the control of the Commonwealth, 
and adequately protected and stocked, are maintained at their highest 
productive capacity. 

Our present system of propagating, rearing and distributing fish is 
antiquated, and, while entirely adequate to meet the conditions under 
which it was developed, was not planned with a view to future ex- 
tension of facilities, and has become entirely incapable of meeting the 
present demands. Greater results can be obtained from one model 
hatchery, having a sufficient water supply to maintain a stock of 
selected brood fish, and with hatching house, trays and rearing pools 
sufficient to turn out annually 5,000,000 fry, at least 500,000 fingerling 
trout, and at least 1,000,000 white perch. 

Many inquiries have been made relative to the State hatcheries, which 
were established by special acts of the Legislature, as follows: resolve 
114, Acts of 1896, appropriating $3,000 for the establishment of a 
hatchery at Hadley; resolve 74, Acts of 1897, appropriating $3,000 for 



12 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the establishment of a hatchery at Winchester; resolve 60, Acts of 
1898, appropriating $2,500 for the establishment of a hatchery at 
Adams. 

From 1880 to 1894 inclusive trout fry to a number of not less than 
43,000 or more than 600,000 in any one year, and an average of 
316,000 annually, were received from the hatchery at Plymouth, N. H., 
the cost of maintenance of which the State of Massachusetts shared 
equally with New Hampshire. Since the establishment of the hatcheries 
at Winchester, Hadley and Adams the annual output from each has 
averaged about 200,000 trout fry. At the time of the estabiishment 
of those hatcheries there were practically no commercial hatcheries in 
the State, and the price at which the fish could be bought was at 
least five times that at which they may be bought at present. The total 
cost of maintaining the three small hatcheries for the rearing of fry 
only is less than $1,100 annually. The average aggregate output for 
the three hatcheries is about 600,000 fry, which at $1.50 per thousand 
would make the total yield valued at $900. The cost of distribution 
from these three hatcheries, situated respectively in the eastern, the 
middle western and western part of the State, is very much less than 
if the entire distribution were made from the eastern part of the State, 
as might be necessary if the fish were purchased ; so that, in our opinion, 
there is practically no difference in the cost of buying the fish and the 
cost of hatching by the State. 

We are informed by the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor 
that wild trout are taken in this State to the value of $66,000 per 
annum, at a total cost to the Commonwealth of about $5,000 in the 
maintenance of the above three hatcheries and of the Sutton hatchery, 
which latter annually produces about 200,000 fry and from 70,000 to 
155,000 fingerlings, or a total for the State of 800,000 to 900,000 fry 
and 70,000 to 115,000 fingerlings. 

The chief difficulties in the maintenance of fish in Massachusetts 
waters are connected with the excessive pollution of the larger streams 
and the deforestation of the mountain slopes, resulting in the drying 
up of the nursery brooks. There is absolutely no question that a larger 
plant of cultivated fish would be more economical to the State, and is 
beyond question necessary in order to secure proper results. 

In reference to the abandonment of the hatcheries at Winchester, 
Adams and Hadley, the commissioners are of the opinion that it is not 
expedient at present to discontinue these hatcheries, for the reasons 
stated above ; and we are further of the opinion that we would have no 
right to abandon them until ordered to do so by legislative act. 

On account of the need of extensive repairs to the water sup- 
ply, we have thought it unwise this year to attempt to use the 
Winchester hatchery until the general policy has been definitely 
settled. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 13 

Game Birds. — In the pioneering work of devising methods of rear- 
ing game birds in captivity much progress has been made. The area 
available for rearing the birds has been so circumscribed and so subject 
to infectious diseases, from long occupation, that many untoward 
losses have been experienced which would not have occurred in a loca- 
tion suitable for breeding quail and ruffed grouse, where the ground 
and air were uncontaminated by disease germs from domestic poultry 
and the birds safe from the abandoned cat. A movement to establish 
" sanctuaries/' wherein native birds may breed in safety, is under way. 
The State reservations should be multiplied and utilized, particularly 
for breeding and feeding refuges for native birds. 

There is a mistaken opinion abroad that the State reserva- 
tions are in themselves sufficient sanctuaries for breeding and 
feeding refuges for birds. Nothing could be farther from the 
truth, for the reason that from their very size they are difficult 
to control, not alone in respect to human poachers, but also 
against the numerous enemies of nesting birds; and especially 
from the fact that it is well known that birds, particularly game 
birds, are not likely to resort to and breed in places which are 
freely open to the public, and which are daily visited by hun- 
dreds and even thousands of people. 

We again express the opinion that the breeding of pheasants 
.perhaps may ultimately be safely left to private individuals. 

Beer. — While it is certainly a fact that the wild lands of the State 
are well adapted for producing an annual crop of wild deer, an undue 
increase will without doubt entail hardship upon farmers and property 
owners. Every possible safeguard should be adopted to protect prop- 
erty and the rights of property owners. In the near future it may be 
necessary to controlthe increase of deer. A general open season, even 
for a very few days, would bring out an indiscriminate rush of inex- 
perienced and irresponsible hunters. To prevent untoward results it 
may be necessary to issue a special license for deer hunting, with a fee 
sufficient to limit it to persons of responsibility, and to ensure to the 
State reimbursement for moneys paid to land owners for damage to 
crops by deer. 

Marine Fisheries. 
The dominant tone of the industry is that of a return to the 
normal, — an average catch, a living wage for the fishermen, a 
fair profit for the vessel owners and distributor, and improved 
quality and service for the public. All of this reacted to furnish 
employment to an increased number of workers in the allied in- 



14 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



dustries, so that on the whole the year has been a reasonably 
prosperous one to Massachusetts' fundamental industry. 

There are those who ascribe to the visit to Massachusetts of 
the delegates to the International Fisheries Congress, in 1908, a 
stimulus to co-operation and augmented activity on the part of 
fishermen, dealers and manufacturers, which has resulted in 
convincing the best minds in the fisheries of Gloucester, Boston, 
Cape Cod, and, indeed, the entire shore, that the fishing interests 
of Massachusetts are State-wide, rather than local ; that sectional 
jealousies should be eliminated; and that broad-gauge methods 
of legitimate, keen and generous business competition should 
displace invidious, narrow business methods, and, by the stimu- 
lus of active, scientific constructive competition, maintain un- 
rivalled the reputation of Massachusetts fish and fisheries 
products in the markets of the world. During the past season a 
special advance was made in a method of getting the fish to the 
curers in better condition, which has shown marked results ; the 
shack fishermen have successfully inaugurated the practice of 
salting the catch of the first baiting and bringing in fresh the 
catch from the second baiting. 

The total receipt of fresh fish at Boston Avas nearly 2,000,000 
pounds greater than in 1908. 





Year. 


Haddock. 


Cod. 


Hake. 


Cusk. 


Pollock. 


Halibut. 


Totals. 


1909, 
1908, 


38,485,250 
37,581,600 


25,840,700 
27,502,000 


11,469,400 
11,365,800 


1,962,700 
1,668,100 


7,968,850 
6,617,400 


1,204,950 
300,550 


86,931,850 
85,036,450 



The fleet numbered 291 sailing vessels, 1 steam otter trawler 
(" Spray "), 2 gasolene steamers and 150 boats of various kinds, 
— a total of 444. 

Great consideration on the part of the State is due to fisher- 
men and dealers who, under the exceedingly unfavorable condi- 
tions which have long obtained at T wharf, have developed here 
the second largest fresh-fish mart in the world (exceeded only by 
Grimsby, Eng.), by sheer force of business capacity, ability for 
persistent hard work, and a determination to furnish for the 
consuming public a cheap and wholesome food supply in the best 
sanitary condition possible under existing circumstances. It is 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

certainly to be expected that the State should recognize the 
immense value of the fisheries trade to Boston and to Massachu- 
setts, and by providing a suitable location upon the Common- 
wealth flats, remove the handicap under which the fishermen 
and dealers have long been working, and speedily permit an ex- 
tension of the business, that a still more rapid growth may ensue 
from which the public will derive immediate benefits. The State 
should see to it that our " original industry " should be fostered, 
and should recognize that it deserves adequate quarters equal 
or better than the Commonwealth dock at South Boston. 

The Gloucester Fisheries. — Many vessels in the various 
branches of the fisheries made remarkable stocks. Records of 
many years' standing were excelled by some craft, while others 
established new marks in certain special lines. The fishermen, 
the skippers and vessel owners participated in the general pros- 
perity which came to the sea toilers of Gloucester. 

The leader of the record-breakers was the schooner " Arkona," 
Capt. Newman Wharton, which established a new high-water 
mark for a season's stock and for the amount of fish landed 
in one season in the salt bank cod fishery. This craft made three 
trips, one trawling and two dory handlining, landing the enor- 
mous amount of 835,470 pounds of salt cod, and stocking, on the 
three trips, $24,949.28. The crew's share was $546.50 per 
man. 

Another record breaker was the dory handline trip of the 
schooner " Tattler," Capt. Alden Geel. This craft made a late 
summer trip, fishing on Quero bank, and as autumn came con- 
tinued on to the grounds at the Virgin Rocks, coming home with 
nearly all the fish the big craft could carry. The fare weighed 
off 479,433 pounds, — the largest salt cod fare ever landed at 
this port, also the largest ever recorded on the Atlantic coast by 
a two-masted schooner. On the big catch the fine stock of 
$15,277.31 was made, the high line of the crew taking $342.93 
for his share, while the average share was $263. Captain Geel 
has held many records in the salt fishing line, and this is another 
one to his credit. 

Another record was made by the schooner " Onato," Capt. 
J. Henry Larkin. This craft, during the spring and summer, 
was engaged in cod shacking on Quero bank, and one of her 



16 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

fares exceeded all previous records in this branch of the fish- 
eries, both for amount of fish brought home and for stock and 
share. The vessel weighed off 139,800 pounds of fresh cod, 
113,000 pounds of salt cod, stocking $5,550, the crew sharing 
$138 clear. 

During 1909 among the other noteworthy performances in 
the big trip and stock line were the following : — 

Schooner " Aloha," Capt. John Mclnnis, on a dory handline 
salt cod fishing trip to the Virgin Rocks, weighed off 356,000 
pounds of salt cod, stocking $11,081.39, the high line of the 
crew sharing $288.38. Twelve of the crew on the trip made over 
$200 each. 

Schooner " John Hays Hammond " had a big year in com- 
mand of Capt. Lemuel E. Spinney, her owner. She made seven 
fresh halibut trips, his stock being $21,473.82, thus averaging 
over $3,000 for each trip. During the balance of the year the 
craft went haddocking under command of Capt. Horace Wildes, 
who also did well in her. Her year's stock reached the fine total 
of $30,352.64. 

One of the most brilliant performances of the year was that 
of Capt. James D. Goodwin. On Nov. 1, 1908, he took com- 
mand of the big gasolene auxiliary knockabout " Benjamin A. 
Smith," and engaged in the winter haddock fishery until spring, 
when he fitted out his own schooner, u Ella M. Goodwin," for a 
salt bank trawl cod fishing trip, following this up with a dory 
handline trip in the same vessel, and ending his year Sept. 12, 
1909, thus having been in commission a little less than ten and 
one-half months. In that time he stocked $34,925.85. The 
haddock season gave him a stock of $15,925.85, while the re- 
maining $19,000 was the stock of the trawl and dory handline 
bank cod fishing trips. 

Another big year's work was that of Capt. Clayton Morrissey, 
in the big knockabout schooner " Arethusa." He made two salt 
trawl bank cod fishing trips, weighing off 770,040 pounds of salt 
cod, stocking $21,063.65. The crew's share was $410.12 per 
man. 

Schooner " Maxine Elliott," Capt. Thomas Benham, made 
three dory handline cod fishing trips during the season, landing 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

700,200 pounds of salt cod, making the fine stock of $21,200, the 
high line of the crew taking down $537, while the average share 
was ahout $415. 

Schooner " J. J. Flaherty," Capt. Fred LeBlanc, made two 
dory handline cod fishing trips to the banks during the season, 
and brought home 682,000 pounds of salt cod. On this a stock 
of $20,808.19 was made, the high line share being $516 and the 
average share $377. 

Schooner " Hazel K. Hines," Capt. Fred Morrissey, of the 
salt trawl bank fleet, made two trips, weighing off 597,206 
pounds of salt cod, stocking $16,21 5.43. The sharesmen profited 
to the extent of $527.18 each. 

Our fishermen are ever alert for new methods and for infor- 
mation which enables them to " follow the fish " more closely. 
The deck handline salt cod fishing fleet could in previous years 
generally be divided into three sections, drifters or " Kippers," 
" Georges " and " Eastern." But last season almost the entire 
fleet fished to the eastward, on Quero and Western banks ; and, 
as almost all combined both deck and dory handlining, it is 
therefore hard to draw any distinguishing lines. A few of the 
regular " Rip " or drift fleet stuck to straight deck drifting, and 
some of the old Georgesmen did the same ; but the great majority 
went after the codfish to the eastward, and got them any way 
they could catch them, from deck drifting or at anchor, or with 
double dories. In this " combined " branch of the fisheries some 
fine fares were secured. 

Schooner " Hattie A. Heckman," Capt. Israel Bellevue, one 
of the eastern deck handline anchor fleet, with double dories, 
weighed off as the result of one trip 122,000 pounds of salt cod, 
making the big stock of $4,002.10, the high line of the crew tak- 
ing down $142.56. Several others of the crew also made over 
$100. 

Schooner " Gladiator," Capt. Nelson Thorburn, going the 
same as did the " Hattie A. Heckman," weighed off on one trip 
123,000 pounds of salt cod, stocking the fine amount of 
$3,763.50, while the high liner of the crew made $110.17. 

Schooner " Mina Swim," Capt. William Forbes, one of the 
Eips or drift fleet, fishing to the eastward and carrying double 



18 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

dories, weighed off, as the result of one trip, 122,000 pounds of 
salt cod, stocking $3,761.23, the high line of the crew making 
$153.37. 

Similarly, the schooner " Eugenia," Gapt. John Williams, 
made two of these big trips, weighing of! 106,000 pounds of salt 
cod on one and 112,000 pounds on the other. On the latter trip 
the stock of $3,295 was made, the high line getting $137 and 15 
out of the 18 men of the crew receiving $100 or more each. 

Schooner " Gertrude," Capt. James Vanamberg, fitted like 
the " Swim " and " Eugenia," weighed off 106,000 pounds of 
salt cod on one trip, the stock being $3,200 ; while the schooner 
" E. C. Hussey," Capt. Clifford Hopkins, fitted likewise, 
weighed off 100,554 pounds of salt cod on one trip, stocking 
$3,082, 

The Mackerel Seining Fleet. — The mackerel seining fleet, as 
a whole, had a poor season last year ; but in spite of this, several 
vessels made a good year's work. 

Schooner " Mary E. Harty," Capt. Reuben Cameron, was 
high line of the fleet, with the fine stock of $22,200. Beside 
carrying off the high line honor, Captain Cameron placed a 
record to his credit by landing the most remunerative trip in 
the history of the southern mackerel fishing season. He struck 
the fish off the back side of Long Island, and ran to market at 
Newport, R. I. The fare counted out 48,808 mackerel, and the 
stock was $6,571, — the record for a single " out south" 
mackerel trip. 

Among the others who made good stocks in the mackerel sein- 
ing fishery were the following : — 

Schooner " Pontiac," Capt. Enos Mckerson, $16,700. 

Schooner " Priscilla Smith," Capt. William J. Corkum, 
$13,000. 

Schooner " Constellation," Capt. Thaddeus Morgan, $12,600. 

Schooner " Victor," Capt. John W. McFarland, $12,200. 

Schooner " Benjamin A. Smith," Capt. Solomon Jacobs, 
$12,200. 

Schooner " Oriole," Capt. Charles H. Harty, $11,400. 

Schooner " Erne M. Prior," Capt. Elroy Prior, $11,300. 

Schooner " Judique," Capt. Gourley Anderson, $11,000. 

Halibut Fleet. — The so-called " Georges " halibuters had a 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

fine season almost without exception, and a number of them did 
remarkably well. The high liner of the fleet was the schooner 
" Dictator/' Capt. Fred Thompson, and this craft was also the 
leader of all the fresh halibut vessels for the year 1909. The 
stock was $26,312.98 and the crew's share $635.22 per man. 

Other highly satisfactory stocks were also made : — 

Schooner " Teaser," Capt. Peter Dunsky, stock $24,922.87 
and share $651.68. 

Schooner " Kineo," Capt. John G. Stream, stock $22,904.66, 
the crew sharing $617.98. 

Schooner " Selma," Capt. Charles Colson, stock $22,489.18, 
the crew sharing $611.36. 

Some of the crafts in this Georges halibuting fleet, mentioned 
above, made their stocks in from nine and one-half to eleven 
months. 

Of the straight halibuters, the schooner " Mooween," Capt. 
Daniel McDonald, made a phenomenal record. From ~Nov. 20, 
1908, to Dec. 20, 1909, the craft made the splendid stock of 
$28,600, the crew sharing just $700. The loss of six of his 
crew in a terrible squall last spring so affected Captain McDon- 
ald that he stayed ashore for a while, and late this fall decided 
to haul up until the beginning of the year, when he fitted out 
again and made another trip. But for these occurrences the 
chances are that the season's work of the craft would have been 
very remarkable. On one trip Captain McDonald stocked 
$5,289, the crew sharing $138.20, — the largest stock and share 
on a halibut trip for many seasons. 

Some of the vessels of the Hitched halibut fleet did finely last 
season. 

Schooner " Oregon," Capt, Albert Flygore, was high line, 
weighing off 135,000 pounds of flitches, stocking $10,783.27, the 
crew sharing $274.48. 

Schooner " Admiral Dewey," Capt. James Hayes, weighed off 
122,948 pounds of flitches, stocking $10,195, the crew sharing 
$258.14. 

Schooner " Fannie A. Smith," Capt. Joseph V. Bonia, stocked 
$9,220 on her flitching trip, the crew sharing $221.48. 

The Pacific halibut fishery owes much to Massachusetts 
brains, enterprise and capital. 



20 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

For the first time in the history of the halibut fisheries of the 
British Columbia coast fish have been taken on banks in the ocean to 
the west of Graham Island, the most northerly of the Queen Charlotte 
Islands. 

These banks, lying from two to eight miles off the coast, were dis- 
covered recently by Captain Rorvick of the Canadian fishing steamer 
" Celestial Empire," owned by the New England Fishing Company, 
according to the statement of a member of the ship's crew. On this 
virgin ground the " Celestial Empire " made a catch of 140,000 pounds 
of fish in three days. In one instance 900 fish were caught by three 
dories at one set of gear. The fish are declared to have been all large, 
averaging in the vicinity of 250 pounds apiece. ( " Fishing Gazette," 
Jan. 15, 1910.) 

Schooners " Francis P. Mesquita," " Maud F. Silva," " Mary 
DeCosta," " Edith Silveira " and " Belbina P. Domingoes " and 
others of the market fleet from this port have made a big 
year's work. The crew of the " Frances P. Mesquita," Capt. 
Joseph P. Mesquita, from November 1 to November 16, just 
fifteen days, shared $117.50 per man; while the schooner 
"Maud F. Silva," Capt. John Silva, stocked $7,000 from 
August 7 to September 29, — big work for fifty-three days. 
The " Mary E. Cooney " and the " Maud F. Silva " each stocked 
$1,700 in one week last fall; and the crew of the schooner 
" Edith Silveira," Capt. King Silveira, shared $124 in two 
weeks. Several of these boats made crew shares of over $70 in 
one week. 

The high line of the shack and haddock fleet from Gloucester 
in 1909 was the schooner " Thomas S. Gorton," Capt. William 
H. Thomas, with a stock of $36,000. Captain Thomas always 
makes a big year's work, and is one of the biggest fishermen on 
the Atlantic coast, being exceeded only by the schooner " Mary 
C. Santos," Capt. Manuel C. Santos of Provincetown, stocking 
1)39,900. 

Schooner " Kaymah," Capt. Felix Hogan, stocked $24,632.85 
last year in the haddock and shack fisheries, the crew sharing 
$550. 

Schooner " James W. Parker," Capt. George Tufts, was an- 
other vessel which did well haddocking and shacking, stocking 
$22,840.10 for 1909. 

Sword fish. — The swordfishing fleet consisted of 66 vessels, 
nearly all having gasolene motors. 



1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



21 



Schooner " Eose Standish," Capt. James O'Keil, was high 
line of the swordfish fleet, with a stock of $7,333.33 and a crew 
share of $425.90. 

Schooner " Valentinna," Capt. Charles O'lSTeil, stocked 
$6,200, the crew sharing $360. 

The cod shack fishing last summer was very profitable to the 
vessels engaged. The fleet fished on Quero bank, and most of 
them made three and four trips. Schooner " Thomas S. Gor- 
ton," Capt. Wm. H. Thomas, stocked nearly $15,000 on four 
trips, the crew sharing $316.93. Schooner " Onato," Capt. J. 
Henry Larkin, got about $14,000 on her three big fares. Many 
of the fleet made trips which netted over $100 shares to the men 
of the crews. 

Schooner " Corona," Capt. Horace Wildes, in this fishery 
weighed off 170,000 pounds of salt cod on one trip, stocking 
$4,555, the crew sharing $114 clear. 

Schooner " Susan and Mary," Capt. Albert Hubbard, had two 
big salt shack fares in succession, weighing off the big total of 
306,000 pounds of salt cod as the result of the two trips. 

Details of the catch of the Gloucester fleet follow. Although 
there was a decrease in the total catch, the increased price ob- 
tained more than covered the deficiency to the fishermen. 







1909. 


1908. 


1907. 


Fish. 
















Barrels. 


Pounds. 


Barrels. 


Pounds. 


Barrels. 


Pounds. 


Salt cod, 


. 


33,107,085 


_ 


23,115,705 


_ 


15,712,700 


Fresh cod, . 


. 


12,299,259 


- 


13,130,700 


- 


16,167,400 


Halibut, 


. 


2,368,582 


- 


2,816,050 


- 


3,081.765 


Haddock, . 


. 


4,402,100 


- 


8,409,100 


- 


6,063,800 


Hake, . 


. 


1,805,590 


- 


7,868,400 


- 


9,801,950 


Cusk, . 


- 


1,362,960 


- 


3,405,800 


- 


4,805,300 


Pollock, 


- 


5,901,125 


- 


7,133,200 


- 


16,754,400 


Flitched halibut, 


- 


800,109 


- 


880,542 


- 


826,210 


Fresh mackerel, 


3,348 


669,600 


4,365 


873,000 


3,067 


613,400 


Salt mackerel, . 


14,805 


2,961,000 


17,450 


3,490,000 


29,725 


5,945,000 


Fresh herring, . 


5,288 


1,057,600 


20,537 


4,107,400 


13,091 


2.618,200 


Salt herring, 


46,420 


10,583,760 


36,737 


8,376,036 


71,561 


16,315,908 


Frozen herring, . 


17,635 


4,408,750 


26,450 


6,612,500 


21,565 


4,313,000 


Swordfish, . 


- 


6,184 


- 


11,954 


- 


8,250 


Cured fish, . 


. 


4,091,100 


- 


3,404,800 


- 


2,004,800 


Porgies, . . . 


817 


163,400 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Halibut fins, 


298 


59,600 


358 


71,600 


413 


S2,600 


Whiting, 


500 


100,000 


4,000 


800,000 


16,000 


3,200,000 


Shad, . 


749 


159,800 


1,653 


330,600 


355 


71,000 


Fresh fish from boat= 


• • — 


300,000 


- 


600,000 


- 


750,000 


Miscellaneous, . 




1,743,800 


- 


1,285,200 


- 


744,176 


Total landed at Glouc 


ester, 


88,351,404 


_ 


96,722,587 


_ 


109,879,859 


Total by Gloucester v< 


jssels 












at other ports direc 


t (.es- 












ti mated), . 


• 


36,359,800 


- 


32,601,850 


- 


39,100,000 


Total at Gloucester 


and 












by Gloucester vess 


els at 












other ports, 


■ 


124,711,204 


- 


129,324,437 


- 


148,979,859 



22 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The Lobster Fishery. 

Your special attention is .directed to the deplorable conditions 
which exist in the lobster fisheries of this State. On account of 
the organization of the trade in live lobsters from JSTova Scotia 
and Maine, the real conditions are effectively masked to the 
public eye. The actual status, however, is evident only to those 
who attempt to catch lobsters in waters where they were formerly 
abundant. The public waters of our coasts, except in certain 
regions where the pollution is obvious, are as well suited for 
producing an annual crop as formerly. The actual catch, how- 
ever, is vastly reduced, as a result of unwise legislation, whereby 
the reproductive capacity of the race is disastrously impaired by 
killing the best breeders through a long series of years. Without 
adequate knowledge of biological conditions, the Legislature in 
the early '70's was led to believe that if the lobster had a chance 
to breed at least once, sufficient young would be annually pro- 
duced to meet the market demand. Although experience has 
proved the contrary, the Legislature of 1907 was hoodwinked 
and cajoled by the " special interests " to carry still further this 
mistaken manner of "protection" ( ?), and has made a bad 
matter worse by permitting the capture of any lobster above 9 
inches, instead of above 10% inches, as formerly, so that at 
present the only practical protection in any degree adapted for 
maintaining the future supply is that exceedingly small measure 
afforded by the prohibition of killing the egg-bearing females, 
the purchase of such by the State, and the liberation of the 
young by the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 

Our lobster laws as to-day existing are capable of such facile 
evasion that they can be enforced only by the constant presence 
of an officer in the boat of every dishonest fisherman, — a con- 
dition obviously impracticable. 

The disastrous effects of these laws are notoriously evident in 
(1) the decreased average size of lobsters taken in Massachusetts 
waters ; (2) the diminishing number taken, even by an increased 
number of men and traps ; (3) and the diminishing ratio of egg- 
bearing lobsters, — facts which are now too well known to 
require further proof. 

The chief argument against a law which would at least tend in 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

a small measure to check the unwise and selfish destruction of 
the breeding lobsters, and thereby insure the production of a 
greater number of eggs, is the cry from the fishermen, that 
many poor and honest people would by a change in the present 
law be deprived of a means of livelihood ; and from the trade, 
that their business arrangements would be inconvenienced. 

However, evidence is accumulating that the public will not 
long permit the present destructive methods of fishing to be con- 
tinued, and will demand a law which can be enforced without 
excessive cost to the public. As tending towards such a desir- 
able condition, we are urgently recommending that every one 
who fishes for lobsters should be required to take out a license, 
thus making an effective enforcement of law possible by provid- 
ing that all persons who are convicted of violation of the lobster 
laws shall be refused a license for one year from date of con- 
viction. Such a license law would disarrange the organization 
at present existing, whereby there is a pooling of interests, so 
that the fines incurred through violations of the lobster laws are 
assessed pro rata among members of the combination. 

Further, we recommend that the measurements be made 
according to the Maine method, upon the " body shell " (cara- 
pace), instead of upon the whole lobster, as the law reads at 
present, — " from the extremity of the bone protruding from the 
head to the end of the bone of the middle flipper of the tail." 

The intelligent fishermen already recognize the importance 
of maintaining a sufficient number of adults to produce eggs, and 
are not misled by assertions that if a law were passed to place 
a perpetual close season upon the large lobsters, all the small 
lobsters would be caught, and none left to reach the period where 
they would be immune to capture ; or the other, even more spe- 
cious, which appeals most strongly to the merely commercial 
tendency, — that a 9-inch lobster at the next moult becomes a 
10% or 11 inch, worth twice as much on the market. This 
argument entirely ignores the biological fact, of utmost im- 
portance, that the larger lobster is worth even still more as an 
egg producer, and that the maintenance of the market supply 
depends entirely upon the large lobsters ; e.g., a 16-inch lobster 
produces 80,000 to 100,000 eggs, whereas a 9 to 11-inch lobster 
averages 5,000 to 10,000. But, most important, a 12-inch lobster 



24 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



lias practically no enemies except man, and, having passed suc- 
cessfully through all the innumerable vicissitudes of early life, 
is probably the sole survivor of at least 15,000 (very probably 
many thousands more) who began life together, and is prac- 
tically certain to continue as a breeding individual for at least 
ten or twenty years longer, producing in that time an aggregate 
of approximately 500,000 young, or probably more. On the 
other hand, the 9 or 10 inch lobsters are destroyed in enormous 
quantities by codfish, sharks and other bottom-feeding fish ; and 
therefore a considerable proportion of all the lobsters below 12 
inches used as food by man would have been destroyed by natu- 
ral enemies had man not intervened. Therefore, if man is 
content to use only lobsters below 12 inches, he is, as it were, 
only competing with other animals who use lobsters as food; 
whereas, if man insists upon destroying those which have 
escaped, viz., f those above 12 inches, he is slowly but surely 
reducing the breeding stock, and the ultimate depletion is as 
certain as if he daily ate the laying pullets from his flock. In 
the case of the lobster, the vastness of the flock, spread over 
130,000 square miles, and the fact that we therefore cannot 
actually, but only indirectly, and after decades or even gener- 
ations, see the results of such a destructive policy, conceals the 
actual facts from the public. The public is after all most in- 
terested in and responsible for the maintenance of the State 
and national fisheries, and the people must emphatically de- 
mand consideration. 



Summary of Statistics 


relative 


to Lobster Fisheries. 




Year. 


Men. 


Traps. 


Lobsters. 


Average 
per Pot. 


Egg 
Lobsters. 


Ratio of 
Egg Lobsters 
to Total Catch. 


1890, .... 
1905, .... 
1907, .... 

1908 

1909, .... 


479 
287 
379 
349 
522 


19,544 
13,829 
21,342 
19,294 
29,996 


1,612,129 
426,471 
1,039,886 
1,035,123 
1,326,219 


82 
31 
49 
54 
45 


70,907 
9,865 

10,348 
9,081 

11,656 


1 : 22 
1:42 
1:100 
1 : 115 
1:115 



The above statistics indicate the status both of the lobster 
catch and of the source of supply. Previous to 1890 there had 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

been a progressive decline, but the results became most conspicu- 
ous later, when from 1890 to 1905 the catch declined 75 per 
cent., and the egg-bearing lobsters dropped from 70,000 to about 
10,000, or a decrease of about 84 per cent. 

In 1907 the passage of the 9-inch law made legal the catching 
of all above 9 inches. ~Note that in 1907 the number of men 
increased over 1905 32 per cent. ; the number of traps increased 
54.32 per cent. The number of legal lobsters reported in- 
creased 144 per cent., but the total number of egg-bearing lob- 
sters increased only 4.9 per cent. The price to the consumer 
has increased since 1890 200 to 300 per cent. The change 
in the law has temporarily masked the decline formerly shown 
by statistics. But this decline will soon again become obvious. 

We predict that within five years the decreased marketable 
supply will become still more reduced, and that commercial ex- 
tinction of the lobster in Massachusetts waters is certainly im- 
minent, unless effective measures are immediately taken. 

The Purchasing of Egg-bearing Lobsters (Acts of 1904, 
chapter 408). — The method of collecting egg-bearing lobsters 
by the launch " Egret " has proved costly and unsatisfactory. 
J^ext year an attempt will be made to furnish better service at 
less expense. This branch of the work has been productive of 
so much bad feeling among the fishermen that the wisdom of the 
law is frequently questioned. The total number of egg-bearing 
lobsters collected by the " Egret " was 2,725 ; by Deputy Me- 
carta, 1,732. 

The Moeeusk Fisheries. 

Reference has already been made to the generally unsatis- 
factory condition of the mollusk fisheries. Vast areas are now 
unproductive, awaiting fair and intelligent legislative action. 

Our investigations this year have continued upon the determi- 
nation of the potential food productivity of the seashores. 

A report upon the scallop fisheries is in press. 

A brief report follows upon the sea clam (Mactra), so-called, 
in distinction from the soft clam (My a) and the hard clam 
(Venus). 



26 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



The Growth and Habits of the Sea Clam {Mactra solidissima). 

Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Massachusetts Department of Fish- 
eries and Game, State House, Boston, Mass. 
Sir : — I herewith submit the following report upon the growth and 
habits of the sea clam (Mactra solidissima), one of the valuable bait 
mollusks of Massachusetts. The material was collected in connection 
with the mollusk investigations conducted by this department from 
1905 to 1910. 

Respectfully submitted, 

David L. Belding, Biologist. 

Presentation of the Report. 

The following notes are compiled from observations made at various 
localities along the Massachusetts coast, principally at Monomoy Point 
and at Wellfleet on Cape Cod, during the years from 1905 to 1910, 
in connection with experimental work on other mollusks. Although no 
definite plan of experiments was outlined, these observations are suffi- 
cient to add to the popular knowledge of the growth and habits of this 
important food and bait mollusk. 

The primary object of this report is to show, by a description of the 
life and habits of the sea clam, what means, if any, can be employed for 
the future conservation of the fishery. For this reason the investigation 
was conducted along the following lines: (1) a survey of the i>resent 
distribution in the waters of the Commonwealth; (2) a study of the 
habits, including the method of life, enemies and spawning; (3) the rate 
of growth and adaptability for culture. For securing brevity, the 
subject matter is presented in the form of answers to such questions 
as are propounded by the practical fisherman. 

Methods of Investigation. 
As the migratory habits of the sea clam rendered confinement neces- 
sary, the growth experiments were conducted in pens and boxes at 
Monomoy Point, Chatham, one of the few localities where sea clams 
are found in abundance at the present time. The actual planting was 
carried on in the Powder Hole, an enclosed body of water connected 
with the ocean by a shifting channel in the vicinity of the natural sea 
clam beds. The pens, usually one one-thousandth of an acre in area, 
were constructed of boards projecting three to four inches above the 
surface of the sand, in order to confine the sea clams. The pens were 
planted below low-water mark and between the tide lines. Also, or- 
dinary dry goods boxes were partly filled with sand, the projecting 
sides making them comparable to the raised pens. Part of these boxes 
were placed in shallow water, two to three feet in depth, on the south 
side of the Powder Hole; while the remainder were suspended from a 



The upper figure shows an external view of the right valve of a five-year- 
old sea clam; the lower, the interior of the left valve. The exterior of the 
shell is covered by a thin yellow epidermis, except at the umbo or beak, 
where this " skin " is worn off. The interior of the valve shows the hinge, 
with the horizontal teeth and the elastic pad, the scars of the adductor 
muscles, and the pallial line and sinus of the mantle and siphon. 



The internal anatomy. The left valve and mantle have been removed, 
leaving the siphon intact. The large muscular foot, the curtain-like gills, 
the adductor muscles and contracted siphon are clearly shown. 



The stages of growth for the average sea clam six and one-half years old 
are here represented by concentric lines, which show the actual size at yearly 
intervals from the age of one-half year to six and one-half years. The 
actual lengths are: one-half year, 1 inch; one and one-half years, 13/. 
inches; two and one-half years, 31/ inches; three and one-half years, 
33/. inches; four and one-half years, 4 inches; five and one-half years, 4^4 
inches; six and one-half years, 4V> inches. 



Sea clams from the raft boxes at Monomoy Point, five-eighths life size. 
The size when planted is shown by the growth line and notch. The increase 
in size has taken place in one year. 



A view of the small outer harbor at Monomoy Point, showing the quan- 
tities of small sea clams which have been destroyed by the winkles (Lunatia 
duplicata and heros) and by washing ashore. The beach at this point was 
literally paved with the shells, a striking instance of the destructive powers 
of nature. 




\ 



> 



v: 




The winkle or cockle (Lunatia lieros) , an enemy of the quahaug, clam 
and sea clam, with a soft clam (Mya), which it has bored. The winkle 
attacks the sea clam by boring a similar hole through the umbo, usually 
slightly higher, in the case of the sea clam, than is shown in the photo- 
graph, and sucks out the contents. Notice the countersunk rim, which is 
characteristic of the work of the winkle. Large quantities of sea clams are 
annually killed bv this enemy. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 27 

raft in the center of the harbor, where the best circulation was 
obtainable. 

The main difficulty in conducting growth experiments was the in- 
ability to simulate the natural conditions under which the sea clam 
lives. The habitat of this mollusk is the shifting sand bars of exposed 
coasts. Attempts at planting in such an environment proved failures, 
as the sea clams all escaped, and it became necessary to conduct the 
growth experiments in quieter waters. The sea clam in its natural 
habitat receives a good circulation of water, — the essential factor in 
shellfish growth. Although the experimental beds were not under 
absolutely natural conditions, it is nevertheless reasonable to assume 
that the growth in beds receiving a like circulation of water should be 
approximately the same as on the natural flats. 

In recording the growth experiments, the measurements were made 
with the triangular measuring instruments described in the report on 
" The Scallop Fishery of Massachusetts," 1910. The different periods 
of growth were checked by notching the edge of the shell with a file, in 
the same manner as used in the quahaug and clam experiments, which 
rendered identification and recording easy. The habits and enemies of 
the sea clam were observed at Monomoy Point, the spawning season 
at Monomoy Point and Wellfleet, and the data for the survey collected 
at different localities along the coast. 

1. What are the names of the sea clam? 

Mactra solidissima has several names, the most common being " sea 
clam," as it is styled in southern Massachusetts, while in the northern 
part of the Commonwealth it frequently goes by the name of " hen 
clam." In other parts of the country, because of its habitat upon the 
open coasts, it is called " surf clam " and " beach clam," while from 
the use of its shell it has acquired the local names of " dipper " and 
" skimmer." 

2. To what family does the sea clam belong? 

The sea clam belongs to the class of mollusks called the Lamelli- 
branchia, which are characterized by an internal and external sym- 
metry. According to the classification given by Pelseneer 1 in his work 
on the " Mollusca," Mactra solidissima is of the order Eulamelli- 
branchia, sub-order Tellinacea, family Mactridce. Geologically, the 
family of the Mactridce extends from the cretaceous age to the present 
day. According to Verrill's 2 " Invertebrates of Vineyard Sound," 
Mactra solidissima is found fossil in the Post-Pliocene at Point Shirley, 
Chelsea, Mass.; and apparently in the Miocene of North and South 
Carolina. Smaller bivalves, which by some authors have been given 
the names of Mactra lateralis, Mactra tellinoides and Mactra arctata, 

1 A Treatise on Zoology, Part V., Mollusca, by Paul Pelseneer, D. Sc, London, 1906. 

2 A Report upon the Invertebrate Animals of Vineyard Sound, by A. E. Verrill, United 
States Fish Commissioner's Report, 1871-72. 



28 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

are found in Massachusetts; while from Hatteras to Brazil is found a 
southern variety, Mactra similis. 

3. Distribution: ichat is the range of the sea clam? 

The range of the sea clam comprises the Atlantic coast, from the 
Gulf of Mexico to Labrador. It is found on the sandy bars of exposed 
coasts below low-water mark, and occasionally on flats exposed during 
the low-course tides. It is found from low-water mark to a depth of 
ten fathoms (Verrill). 

4. What is the present extent of the sea clam beds in Massachusetts? 

No large beds, as formerly existed at Dennis, Nantucket and Chat- 
ham, are known to the fishermen, although sea clams are found in more 
or less abundance at several places along the Massachusetts coast. The 
largest bed at the present time is at Monomoy Point, Chatham. In 
Plum Island Sound and Ipswich Bay sea clams are found on the low 
flats, but the fishing is limited to the low-course tides. Off Nahant, 
Hull and Winthrop are scattering beds of these large clams, which are 
occasionally washed ashore after storms. Sea clams are gathered off 
Plymouth by the fishermen. The numerous bars off Barnstable, Yar- 
mouth and Dennis on the north side of the Cape furnish an extensive 
territory, while along the inner side of the Cape small beds are located 
at Wellfleet, Truro and Brewster. At Provincetown the fishermen 
thoroughly dredge the beds at Wood End in their search for bait. 

On the outside of the Cape many shells are found on the beaches, 
showing that beds exist on the ocean side. At Chatham there is a fine 
bed at the present time. The south shore of Dennis formerly was a 
great locality for this mollusk, but few are now found. At Nantucket 
sea clams are now gathered in many parts of the harbor, principally 
from a large bed on Hussey shoal. Sea clams are also found near 
Cape Poge and on the shores of Martha's Vineyard. In certain 
waters of the Commonwealth the shells of this mollusk form the greater 
part of the shell deposits on the ocean bed. The principal fisheries 
are at Chatham, Provincetown and Plymouth. 

5. What are the commercial uses of this mollusk? 

The sea clam is used both for food and as fish bait. As a food it is 
not generally in favor, principally because its edible qualities, owing 
to its tough appearance, are not commonly known. It is prepared for 
the table in the form of 'sea clam pie, stew or chowder. Any dimi- 
nution of the future supply of quahaugs will increase the popularity 
of the small sea clam, as there is no reason why this mollusk should not 
prove a valuable shellfish for the market. At the present time the 
chief demand for the sea clam is as bait, especially during the winter, 
when other forms of fish bait are hard to obtain. 

6. What is the method of fishing? 

The former method of gathering sea clams was by raking. Various 
kinds of rakes similar to the implements employed in the quahaug 
fishery were used, the style depending upon the depth of water. Now 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 

these mo-Husks are taken by dredging, as it is possible to scrape sea 
clams from a sandy bottom with a dredge which will fail to extract 
quahaugs from a tenacious soil. 

7. Has there been a decline during the last thirty years? 

If reliance can be placed on historical writings, the present genera- 
tion perhaps is witnessing the passing of the sea clam. While it is 
indeed true that the large beds, which once made Chatham, Dennis and 
Nantucket famous for their bait fishery, have passed away, the lack of 
authentic statistical figures for the past years, and the erratic nature 
of the fishery, large beds appearing first in one locality and then in 
another, lasting only a few years before they become exhausted, render 
any conclusions indefinite. Comparing the yield of 1907 and 1877 
for Cape Cod, as given by E. Ingersoll, 1 we would find a decrease 
from three thousand barrels to a few hundred, which would imply a 
serious decline, were it not known that in 1877 the large bed at Dennis 
was in a flourishing condition. Nevertheless, it has been clearly demon- 
strated that whenever a large bed in any locality has been discovered 
it has been depleted in the course of seven years by overfishing. There 
are several specific examples of the depletion of large natural beds by 
ill-advised methods of fishing, which have contributed to the decline 
of the fishery. 

8. What is the remedy for the depleted beds? 

Usually, when a bed has been raked clean, nothing can be done; the 
remedy lies rather in preventive measures. By proper restrictions as 
to raking, the beds can be made to last longer, perhaps indefinitely, 
if a certain amount of " spawners " are saved and the young sea 
clams protected by a size limit. The sea clam furnishes the instance of 
a shellfish which it is advisable to protect by means of a size limit, in 
order to insure a greater return to the fisherman. But a size limit will 
only increase the yield of one particular set, and in order to suc- 
cessfully provide for future generations, it is necessary to leave part 
of the larger sea clams for " spawners " by setting aside certain por- 
tions of the beds. 

Another remedy is the transplanting from outside areas of adult sea 
clams, which will act as " spawners " and possibly restock the depleted 
areas. This form of sea clam culture is worthy of trial in some of 
our waters. A similar method is artificial culture by private indi- 
viduals, which will be considered in another part of this paper. 

9. Anatomy. 

The anatomy is described only in brief terms, to give the reader a 
general idea of the principal organs and their relation to the life and 
habits of the animal. 

The Shell. — The shell is a smooth, calcareous structure, covered with 
a yellowish-brown epidermis, except at the umbones, where it is worn 

1 The Clam Fisheries, by Ernest Ingersoll, Section V., Vol. II., The Fisheries and Fishing. 
Industries of the United States, 1887. 



30 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

off, showing the white lime. The sea clam attains a large size, shells 
from five to six inches in length often being found on the beaches. 
Usually the size taken for market is between four and six inches, 
the size depending upon the length of time the bed has escaped the 
notice of the fisherman. The shape of the shell varies greatly, the 
usual form being eliptical, but occasionally they almost approximate 
a triangular shape. Fine concentric lines of growth are found over 
the exterior of the shell, with here and there one more prominent than 
the others. The shell consists of two equal valves, joined together 
dorsally by a hinge and ligament. A dark-colored elastic pad, similar 
to that of the scallop, is placed between two triangular depressions, 
one in each valve at the hinge line, and acts as a spring to force the 
valves apart in contra-action to the adductor muscles. The interior of 
the shell has a smooth, glistening appearance, due to the secretion of 
the mantle. On the hinge, extending horizontally from the triangular 
depression for the elastic pad, are two ridges, which interlock with the 
corresponding ridges of the opposite valve to form a strong hinge. 
Below the hinge line is a deep concavity passing outward to the umbo. 
Toward each end of the shell are two oval sears, corresponding to the 
attachment of the anterior and posterior adductor muscles. Connecting 
their lower margins is the pallial line, which marks the attachment of 
the mantle to the shell. Posteriorly this line takes an inward curve to 
form the pallial sinus, which corresponds to the attachment of the 
siphon. 

The Internal Anatomy. — The sea clam should prove an excellent 
specimen for class room demonstration, as with the simplest dissection 
the different organs are clearly demonstrated to the pupil, possessing 
in this way an advantage over the more specialized clam, oyster and 
scallop. 

(a) The Mantle. — On removing one valve a thin, transparent cover- 
ing, the mantle, is noticed, closely lining the interior of the shell and 
enclosing the animal in a fleshy case when the thick yellow edges of the 
mantle lobes meet. The two mantle flaps are joined together except at 
the ventral (lower) edge for the extrusion of the foot. At the poste- 
rior end the mantle is joined in the form of two fleshy tubes, the 
siphons, corresponding to the " little neck " of the quahaug. The lower 
tube is the incurrent, through which the water enters the mantle cham- 
ber; the upper the excurrent, through which the water leaves the shell. 
When expanded these tubes, tipped with delicate tentacles, form a short 
" neck," projecting above the sand, through which food and water are 
sucked down to the buried sea clam. The chief function of the mantle 
is the formation of the shell, by the secretions of the cells on its edge 
and outer surface, which become impregnated with lime salts. 

(b) The Muscles. — The two principal muscles are the anterior and 
posterior adductors, commonly known as the " eyes." They are situated 
a little distance from each end of the shell, and by their contraction 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 31 

offset the action of the elastic pad on the hinge and thus keep the shell 
closed. When the action of the muscles ceases, as in a dead sea clam, 
the shell gapes open. In its burrow the shell gapes slightly as the 
muscles partially relax. Just dorsal to the attachments of the adductor 
muscles are the points of attachment of the foot retractors, which are 
useful in regulating the action of the muscular foot. The other im- 
portant muscles of the body are the retractors of the mantle and inter- 
nal fibers of the foot. 

(c) The Foot. — The chief characteristic of the sea clam is its large, 
muscular foot, which has the shape of a broad dagger or arrow head. 
It is situated on the lower side of the visceral mass. The foot itself 
is a tough, flexible organ, composed internally of many cross bands of 
muscle running longitudinally and transversely, on the same plan as 
the minute structure of the mammalian tongue. In the upper portion, 
between the intervening bands, lie the sexual organs. The method of 
life of the sea clam on the exposed beaches has necessitated this strong 
and useful organ for locomotion. 

(d) The Gills. — On removing the mantle, two delicate flaps, lined 
with vertical furrows, are observed hanging like the leaves of a book 
on each side of the foot and visceral mass. These lamellated struc- 
tures are the inner and outer gills, the two inner uniting dorsally, the 
two outer being attached to the mantle, so that they hang down as four 
folds in the mantle chamber, separating it into an upper compartment 
directly connected with the excurrent siphon, and a lower connected 
with the incurrent siphon. Water passes into the lower chamber, bath- 
ing the gill bars, thus bringing oxygen to the blood inside the gills by 
diffusion, and receiving carbon monoxide. It then passes through an 
opening lined with cilia into the upper chamber, and thence out the 
excurrent siphon. The second function of the gills is the collection of 
the microscopic food, which is strained from the water by the cilia 
of the gills, and is carried in definite channels to the tip of the palps 
and thence to the mouth. The gills also assist in the removal of silt 
and other matter which may flow in with the water, thus evidencing a 
selective power in procuring food. 

(e) The Digestive Tract. — The digestive system consists of the 
palps, which are exceedingly long and slender in the sea clam, and 
are situated in the form of a moustache on the upper and lower sides 
of the mouth. Their function is to receive the food from the gills and 
guide it into the mouth. A short oesophagus opens into a broad 
stomach, surrounded by a digestive gland, the liver, which is in com- 
munication with the stomach by two ducts. A long coiled intestine, 
containing in its upper part a large gelatinous rod, the crystaline 
style, leads from the posterior part of the stomach, and after passing 
through the heart ends near the posterior adductor muscle. 

(/) The Blood System,. — The circulatory system consists of a heart, 
situated in the upper part of the body posterior to the stomach, the 



32 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

ventricle of which is pierced by the intestine. From this extend blood 
vessels anteriorly and posteriorly to the various parts of the body. 

(g) The Reproductive Organs. — These glands are located in the vis- 
ceral mass, just above the foot, and are spread around the coils of the 
intestine. In the female they contain the eggs; in the male, the sper- 
matozoa in various stages of development, according to the season of 
the year. Considerable variation in size and color is noticeable. 

10. When is the spawning season? 

The spawning season comprises the two months of June and July, 
and attains its height during the last week in June and the first week in 
July. At Wellfleet in 1908 spawn was obtained from sea clams in the 
aquaria on the 10th of June. The season varies in different localities, 
according to temperature, spawning taking place earlier in the warmer 
waters. 

11. How do sea clams spawn f 

The sexual products are developed in glands situated in the visceral 
mass above the foot, the eggs in the female, the spermatozoa in the 
male clam. In either case the ripe spawn passes through a narrow 
opening into the mantle chamber, and is from there shot out of the 
excurrent siphon as a fine cloud into the water, where, after fertiliza- 
tion, the young sea clam enters upon an independent embryonic exist- 
ence. In the aquaria the sea clams extruded the spawn in small 
quantities at successive intervals; but under natural conditions it may 
be possible for the entire contents of the glands to be liberated at once. 

12. At what age does the sea clam spawn? 

It is possible for the sea clam to produce mature spawn at the age 
of one year, but the first important spawning season occurs in its 
second year. Each succeeding summer the sea clam reproduces, the 
quantity of spawn increasing in proportion to the size. 

13. The early life history. 

The Egg. — The eggs are extruded in white clouds or in masses held 
together by brown connective tissue. The size of the sea clam egg is 
slightly smaller than the egg of the scallop, measuring one five-hun- 
dredth of an inch in diameter. 

The Spermatozoa. — The spermatozoa pass out in a white cloud, 
which, on diffusion, gives a milky appearance to the water. The 
" milk " from the female clam has a granular appearance, due to the 
individual eggs, while that of the male has a homogeneous consistency. 
The individual spermatozoon consists principally of a head, which con- 
tains the important male cellular elements and a long cytoplasmic tail 
for locomotion. 

Embryology. — Fertilization is accomplished by the union of the 
spermatozoon and the egg in the water external to both parents, the 
active male cell seeking the floating egg. In nature fertilization is 
largely a matter of chance, and, owing to the currents, winds and tides, 
a great percentage of the eggs never become impregnated. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

The subsequent development of the embryo is by the process of un- 
equal cell division, similar in all lamellibranch mollusks. The first 
polar cell is given off twenty minutes after fertilization, fifteen min- 
utes before the first division into two cells. The four-cell stage is 
reached in the next thirty-three minutes. Repeated divisions give eight, 
sixteen, thirty-two, sixty-four, etc., cells, until the embryo reaches what 
is commonly known as the mulberry stage, where it consists of a com- 
pact mass of small cells surrounding a few large cells, which are to 
form the inner or endodermal layer. The surface cells acquire cilia, 
hair-like processes, in the course of nine to ten hours, and the embryo 
is able to swim aimlessly through the water. By the time it is twelve 
to fourteen hours old it has attained definite motion, has a primitive 
mouth, and traces of a shell gland are beginning to appear. A few 
hours later a shell gradually envelops the animal, which now enters 
upon the so-called veliger stage. 

The Veliger Stage. — Between thirty and forty hours after fertiliza- 
tion the embryo is completely enveloped by a transparent shell, which 
has gradually extended over the soft parts. The animal is still a 
swimming form, locomotion being effected by an organ called the 
velum, which is a circular pad lined with a fringe of strong cilia, a 
direct modification of the anterior ciliated area of the previous stage. 
During the spawning season the water is full of swimming shellfish 
veligers. In about five days the velum gradually disappears, giving 
place to a slender, active foot, which functions first as a swimming and 
later as a crawling organ. The young sea clam is now ready to settle 
to the bottom and take up its life in the sand. 

The Set. — Observations are lacking on the early set of sea clams. 
No byssal attachment, such as is found with the young clam and qua- 
haug, has been observed in this form; but, as the nature of its early 
life would indicate the need of such an organ, there is reason to believe 
that a byssus may be present at an early stage. The set consists in 
the animal leaving its free-swimming existence in the water and taking 
up its life in the sand. At this time the young sea clam measures 
about one one hundred and twenty-fifth of an inch, and has most of 
the characteristics of the adult. 

14. Locomotion. 

Anatomically, the shape and size of the foot suggest an active crawl- 
ing existence, such as the animal's method of life would indicate. The 
muscular foot is capable of great activity, and can push the shell along 
the sand by its forceful thrusts, — a frequent means of travelling. 

Crawling. — In a similar manner to the quahaug, crawling is accom- 
plished by working the extended foot into the sand, and by its con- 
traction bringing the shell after it with a tipping movement. In this 
movement the siphon brings up the rear. No observations have been 
made on the rate of crawling, except that the sea clam can travel faster 
than the quahaug. Another method was observed in young sea clams, 



34 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

one-quarter of an inch in length, in water six inches deep; the young 
animals apparently hopped along, moving nearly an inch at each kick 
of the muscular foot. 

Jumping. — A curious instance was recorded at Monomoy Point on 
sea clams, one and four-fifths inches in length, which were lying on 
the sand in a box at a depth of two to three inches from the surface 
of the water. A sea clam at one end of the box suddenly extended its 
foot, and by a twisting kick sent its body in one leap through the 
water and air in a beautiful arch, covering a distance of eight inches. 
This performance was repeated several times by the other clams in the 
box. By such a means it is possible for the clam to travel much faster 
than by crawling, and accounts for the ease in surmounting enclosures 
less than three inches above the sand. 

Swimming. — The sea clam, like the razor clam, by a kicking move- 
ment of the foot can glide for a short distance through the water, — 
a method of locomotion which might possibly be styled swimming. 
Rarely more than one kick is taken in these flights, which are not of 
common occurrence. 

Burrowing. — The sea clam, when exposed, can burrow within a few 
minutes, either when the water is over it, the easier and more natural 
way, or when exposed on the damp soil. It is also capable of crawling 
when exposed between the tide lines. Burrowing, like crawling, is ac- 
complished by the extension of the foot and the resultant downward 
pull on the shell by its contraction. 

It. Do sea clams migrate f 

The escape of the sea clams planted in the first bed, a pen with sides 
only one inch above the sand, definitely settled all question of their 
ability to move, but gave no information as to the rate and length 
of their migrations. Later observations were made on the movement 
of the sea clam in the following manner: stakes, three by two inches, 
were driven in the sand, sea clams placed around with end of shell 
touching stake, so that the slighest change in position could be deter- 
mined. Observations were made both between the tide lines and below 
low-water mark. (1) Stakes were driven between the tide lines in the 
channel connecting the Powder Hole and the ocean at Monomoy Point, 
and sea clams one and four-fifths inches in length placed around them. 
After twenty days only four out of the twenty-nine originally planted 
were found in a radius of eight feet. (2) Similarly, at a depth of two 
feet at low water seven were planted. In three days five were found, 
in fourteen days three, and in thirty-eight none. The sea clams between 
the tide lines showed a greater tendency to move than below low-water 
mark, possibly being less satisfied with their environment. 

There seems no question that the sea clam can move from one part of 
the flat to another. The writer has seen small sea clams (two inches in 
length) work across a sand flat partly by their own exertion, partly by 
tidal action. They are well equipped for travelling, but apparently have 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 35 

little sense of direction. For this reason it is doubtful if extended 
migrations occur, as the sea clam would have no reason for leaving a 
favorable environment. The idea that whole beds of sea clams migrate 
hither and thither is probably erroneous, and the depletion of a bed 
can only come from overfishing or through the destructive powers of 
nature. 

16. What are the feeding habits f 

The mantle lobes unite posteriorly to form two short tubes, the ex-, 
current and incurrent siphons. Through the lower or incurrent siphon 
water is sucked into the mantle chamber, as the sea clam lies under the 
sand with the tip of the siphon reaching the surface. By the action 
of the cilia on the gills, which hang as four perpendicular flaps in the 
mantle chamber, the food is strained from the water, which passes 
into the upper mantle chamber and thence out through the excurrent 
siphon, bearing the waste products. The food is taken by definite 
channels to the ventral part of the gills, and from there to the edge 
of the long palps, where it is caught up by other ciliary currents and 
transferred to the mouth. In its normal position in the sand the sea 
clam feeds continually, a constant stream of water entering and leaving 
the shell. 

The food of the sea clam, like other bivalved mollusks, consists 
chiefly of microscopic plant forms, called diatoms, tiny forms, found 
in more or less abundance in all waters. These minute plants have a 
wondrous variety of shapes, but are identified by their silicious cover- 
ing. 

17. What are its natural enemies ? 

The enemies of the adult sea clam can be classified in two groups: 
(1) adverse physical agencies; (2) living forms. The second group 
can be subdivided into (a) active enemies, which prey directly upon 
the sea clam; and (b) passive enemies, which indirectly injure or affect 
its life. This last group, while large, is of relatively little importance, 
and contains the forms which partake of the same food or affect the 
sea clam in any way. 

Besides man, the chief active enemy is the common winkle or cockle 
(Lunatia heros and L. duplicata), which perforates the shell at the 
umbo by a beautifully countersunk hole by means of a rasping tongue, 
and sucks out the contents. The sea clam appears to be the special 
prey of this gastropod mollusk, which likewise attacks the clam and 
quahaug, though to a less extent. Nearly all the sea clam beds are 
infested with them, as the numbers of bored shells on the beaches 
testify, great quantities being destroyed annually by this enemy. The 
following observations were made on one hundred and fifty-nine shells 
taken from the beach at Monomoy Point: (1) the perforation is made 
either on the right or left valve, according to chance; (2) the usual 
location of the hole was one to three millimeters from the beak; (3) 
the size of the hole varied from a fraction of a millimeter to five milli- 



36 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

meters, according to the size of the winkle; (4) often the shell was not 
completely perforated, showing that the enemy sometimes had to aban- 
don the attack; (5) the perforation is not always at the umbo, but 
may be found along the median line, even within two millimeters of 
the edge of the shell. Various sea fowl also prey upon the small clams. 

The natural elements play an important part in the destruction of 
the sea clams, particularly in regard to the young larvae, which perish 
in large numbers during the cold rains, changes in temperature, winds, 
currrents, storms, etc. The adult sea clam itself does not escape the 
ravages of the elements, as quantities are annually washed ashore in 
gales, to perish on the exposed beaches. 

18. How long does it take to furnish a marketable sea clam? 

Rate of growth varies according to the location, in respect to cur- 
rent, tide and other physical conditions; therefore, the following 
answer will not apply in all cases. However, there is more uniformity 
in the growth of sea clams in their exposed beds than with the other 
shellfish, as the location on the sandy bars swept by the tides and 
current are favorable for rapid growth. Unfortunately, it proved 
impossible to obtain the rate of growth on the natural beds, owing to 
their exposed conditions, and the experiments on the rate of growth 
were made in more sheltered places. The results from the beds situ- 
ated in the " current " should most nearly approximate the growth 
under natural conditions, and the rate of growth of the sea clams is 
given from the favorably situated beds. 

Considering a three and one-quarter inch sea clam as of marketable 
size, such can be obtained two and one-half years from the time it is 
spawned; i.e., by the third winter be ready for market. By the second 
winter, one and one-half years old, the sea clam should measure two 
and five-eighths inches, as it acquires its largest growth the second sum- 
mer of its life. It is therefore recommended that a growth period of 
not less than two and one-half years be given before capture, as the 
two and five-eighths inch clam is scarcely of sufficient size for market- 
ing, and a substantial gain in volume is obtained by waiting an addi- 
tional year. Beds of sea clams will be found where the rate of growth 
may be less than the above citations, as all beds cannot be favorably 
situated in respect to the natural conditions. 

19. What is the average annual growth? 

Starting with a twenty-five millimeter sea clam, the size it attains 
at the age of six months (January 1), the average annual growth will 
be twenty-two millimeters (seven-eighths of an inch) for the next three 
years. Naturally the growth during the first year is greater than the 
second, and the second greater than the third, as the sea clam grows 
more slowly as it increases in size. These figures were obtained under 
favorable conditions for growth. 

20. What is the growth of the sea clam for the -first five years of its 
life? 



1909." 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



37 



The sea clam hatched July 1, 1905, by Jan. 1, 1906, would measure 
twenty-five millimeters (one inch) in length; Jan. 1, 1907, it would 
measure sixty-five millimeters (two and five-eights inches), showing a 
gain of forty millimeters (one and three-fifths inches) ; Jan. 1, 1908, 
eighty millimeters (three and one-fifth inches), a gain of fifteen milli- 
meters (three-fifths of an inch) ; Jan. 1, 1909, ninety millimeters 
(three and three-fifths inches), a gain of ten millimeters (two-fifths of 
an inch) ; Jan. 1, 1910, ninety-eight millimeters (three and seven-eighths 
inches), a gain of eight millimeters (one-third of an inch) ; and July 1, 
1910, one hundred millimeters (nearly four inches). 

21. What are the growing months? 

The sea clams in the raft boxes at Monomoy Point in 1906 were 
measured at monthly intervals, to determine the relative value of the 
different months. The greater part of the shell formation takes place 
during the summer months; but the sea clam, unlike the quahaug and 
the scallop shows a slight growth during the warmer winter months, 
which is only noteworthy as illustrating tne fact that the clam (My a 
arenaria) and sea clam, as cold water species, are able to keep in an 
active feeding state longer than the two former. In the following table 
each month is given a number representing the gain per cent, for that 
month, the entire year being considered as one hundred per cent. The 
table is made on the basis of the growth of a forty-millimeter (one 
and three-fifths inches) sea clam, starting January 1. No allowance 
for slowing of growth in regard to size is made. On examination of 
the table, it will be noted that the two best months are August and 
September, while the growth during April, November and December 
is of slight consequence. 



Months. 


Per Cent. 


Months. 


Per Cent. 


January, 


- 


July 


16.75 


February 


- 


August 


24.00 


March, 


- 


September, .... 


23.00 


April 


3.75 


October 


10.00 


May 


6.00 


November, 


2.50 


June, 


12.75 


December, 


1.25 



22. How old are the large sea clams f 

The answer to this question is at best but a calculation, as sea clams 
have been under observation for only five years, which but rarely car- 
ries them beyond four and one-half inches. The large, heavy specimens, 
measuring from five to six inches, must be at least ten years old and 
possibly more, as the larger clams grow more slowly. Growth varies 
according to the environment, and if the sea elam is unfavorably 
situated it will take longer than ten years to reach the maximum size. 



38 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

23. How does the growth of the sea clam compare with the clam 
and the quahaugf 

Under similar conditions, the growth of the sea clam is between the 
growth of the quahaug and the clam, but more nearly approximates 
the growth of the clam. In fact, a series corresponding to the weight 
of the shell would read, in order of rapidity of growth : clam, sea clam, 
and quahaug, — the heavier-shelled animals showing the slowest in- 
crease. In amount of gain per year for the same sized specimens (one 
inch) the figures would be roughly: clam, two inches; sea clam, one 
and five-eighths inches; quahaug, seven-eighths inch, under excellent 
growing conditions. 

24. Can sea clams grow out of sand? If so, can it be made of 
economic importance f 

As sea clams obtain their nourishment from the water, the exact 
relation of soil to growth is problematical. In conducting experi- 
ments upon this subject it was found that sea clams, when suspended 
in wire baskets (one and one-quarter inch mesh) at a depth of five 
feet from a raft in the Powder Hole, Monomoy Point, increased in 
size, proving that a covering of sand, their natural environment, was 
not necessary for growth. The method of growing out of sand did not 
prove as efficient as in the natural environment; the gain for the year 
only totalling 12.25 millimeters, as compared with 40.45 millimeters for 
the sea clams in the boxes with sand. The growth for the first month 
proved much less than the average for the following months, being 
4.14 times smaller than it should have been. This check was due to 
the change in environment, as the sea clams required some time to 
adjust their feeding powers to the changed method of life. The same 
observations have been made on quahaugs confined in wire baskets. 
When taken up the shells were covered with a mass of barnacles, silver 
shells (Anomia), crepidula, etc. From a practical standpoint, while 
it is worth while to know that sea clams can be successfully kept in 
wire baskets out of the sand and held this way for the market without 
serious loss, it is not recommended as a method of culture, as the slow 
growth of the sea clams would render any basket culture unprofitable. 

25. Do sea clams grow between the tide lines? 

The sandy bars inhabited by the sea clams are frequently exposed 
at the low-running tides, when these mollusks are gathered for market 
as in Plum Island Sound. Often sea clams are found wandering be- 
tween the tide lines. So not infrequently the sea clam is left exposed 
by the water, and is accustomed to life between the tide lines. Growth, 
however, is not so rapid as when the water is constantly over the bed, 
as the feeding time is limited. At Monomoy Point a bed was tried 
between the tide lines near a channel connecting the Powder Hole with 
the ocean at high tide. The bed received a good circulation of water, 
but was only covered a few hours a day. The growth for the year 
amounted to 11.5 millimeters, which is poor compared with the more 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 

favorable growth, 40.45 millimeters, on the raft, where, besides having 
good circulation, water was constantly over the clams. For every quart 
planted in between the tide lines 2.15 quarts were obtained, as com- 
pared with 8.15 quarts for the sea clams on the raft. 

26. What are the conditions influencing the growth of the sea 
clam? 

The rate of growth of the sea clam depends upon two factors: (a) 
the amount of food; (b) the amount of lime salts in the water for 
shell formation. The growth in wire baskets shows that the mineral 
matter of the shell is derived from the water. The quantity of lime 
determines the weight and rapidity of shell formation. The question 
of food is even more important than that of lime, as the soft parts 
must increase in bulk before the shell can enlarge. The greater part of 
the food of the sea clam consists of microscopic plant forms, called 
diatoms, which are more or less abundant in all waters. The sea clam 
sucks these little forms through its siphon, as is described under the 
feeding habits. 

(a) Current. — The natural habitat of the sea clam places it where 
it can get good circulation of water. The chief office of the current, 
in addition to sweeping away pollution, is that of food carrier. There- 
fore, as growth depends on food, the fastest-growing localities would 
be where a good current brought more food to the sea clams. A rapid 
current is not necessary, as merely a good flow of water is essential 
for the growth of all shellfish. As experimental evidence of the effect 
of current, the following examples are cited. In 1906 boxes containing 
sea clams were under observation on the raft and near the shore at 
Monomoy Point. On the raft was a good circulation of water; near 
the shore only the rise and fall of the tide caused any flow of water. 
The result for sea clams 40 millimeters in size was as follows: in one 
year's time the shore sea clams gave an increase of 12.04 millimeters, or 
2.2 quarts for every quart planted. On the raft a gain of 40.45 milli- 
meters was recorded, or a gain in volume of 8.15 quarts for every 
quart planted. The only difference was in the circulation of water. 
The two places were only 100 yards apart. 

(b) Tide. — The effect of tide, in exposing the animals, is injurious 
to growth in two ways: (1) in the severe winters the exposed sea clams 
may perish; (2) it limits the feeding time. The effect of exposure 
has already been cited, in considering the subject of growth between 
the tide lines. 

(c) Soil. — Sea clams are invariably found in sand, especially on 
the bars rippled by the action of the waves. Probably the clean sand 
affects the sea clam only as a resting place. There is little chemical 
action on the shell such as has been noted on clams in muddy organic 
soils; and the smooth sand is less prolific in diatoms than are the 
numerous mud flats, which furnish the breeding grounds of this micro- 
scopic food. 



40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

27. Additional facts derived from the growth experiments? 

(1) Variation in the Different Years. — In growth in the raft boxes 
from 1906 to 1910 the average of each year gave the following results, 
showing considerable variation in 1908 and 1910. Owing to the few 
boxes in use each year, the variation may be due wholly to the boxes 
themselves; but it is also believed that these two years showed less 
growth than the other three, although the difference may possibly be 
exaggerated by the peculiarities of the boxes and their position. 

Mm. 

1906, 40.45 

1907, 37.OO 

1908, 27.00 

1909, 42.81 

1910, 32.92 

Average, 36.04 

(2) Box Growth compared with Pen Growth. — In 1906 experiments 
were made in three places: (1) between the tide lines, which gave an 
average of 11.49 mm.; (2) on the raft, which gave an average of 
40.45 mm.; (3) on the south side of the Powder Hole near the shore, 
in about two feet of water at low tide. Here sea clams were planted 
both in boxes and in beds made by driving boards into the sand. The 
average for the pens was 4.57 mm., practically but little growth; while 
the boxes situated exactly under the same conditions but raised slightly 
above the sand with projecting sides gave a gain of 12.04 mm., or 
over two and one-half times as much. No explanation is offered for 
this fact, which has been likewise recorded for clams and quahaugs in 
other experiments in which the box growth exceeded the bed growth. 

28. Can the sea clam be cultivated? 

As an edible shellfish, the sea clam may some day become important, 
and it is not an impossibility that the small sea clam may replace the 
" little neck " as a table delicacy, if the diminution in the supply of 
quahaugs cannot soon be checked by cultural methods. The sea clam 
has a strong, sweetish flavor; but there is no reason to believe that 
the public taste could not be educated to " sea clams on the half shell n 
if " little neck " prices become prohibitive. At the present time there 
is little call for sea clams except for use as fish bait. Until the de- 
mand for this mollusk is sufficient to render the returns from sea 
clam culture as remunerative as those from clam and quahaug farming, 
little attention will be given to sea clam planting. At the present time 
artificial culture is impossible, owing to the legal difficulties which stand 
in the way, as described at length in our " Report upon the Mollusk 
Fisheries of Massachusetts," 1909. 

Two methods of culture can be employed with the sea clam: (1) 
individual planting on private grants. This has been shown impractical 



1909] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

at the present time, both from a legal and a financial standpoint. Sea 
clam culture is possible, as the growth experiments have demonstrated 
the rapid growth under cultural conditions. Planting will have to be 
done in pens made either of netting or boards projecting one foot above 
the sand, in order to confine the active sea clams. To manufacture 
such pens will cost but little, and when the legal difficulties are removed 
and the demand for sea clams has increased, there is no reason why 
sea clam farming cannot be made a profitable business. (2) Communal 
culture offers a satisfactory means of protecting the fishery, as by the 
importation of " spawners " the flats and waters which have been 
raked clean can once more be made productive. Often attempts, such 
as the bedding of quantities of large sea clams upon the depleted flats, 
will fail, as there is no' positive assurance that the spawn will catch on 
these flats, only the chances are greatly increased of its " setting " in 
the immediate vicinity. In this speculative way the towns may restock 
their waters by local action. 

29. Recommendations. 

Until the shellfisheries are put on a cultural basis under the proper 
laws, nothing remunerative in artificial propagation can be done for the 
sea clam. The question at the present time is the protection and conser- 
vation of the natural supply by careful regulation. Such legislation 
naturally comes under the control of the towns, whose duty it is to 
see that proper regulations are imposed for the maintenance of the 
fishery within their borders. The regulation should be along the fol- 
lowing lines : — 

(1) The protection of the small sea clams, by the proper enforce- 
ment of a size limit. In this way larger returns would be insured by 
the growth of the small sea clams, and the fishery would last longer. 

(2) Preservation of "spawners," by setting aside certain portions, 
thus protecting the large sea clams, which furnish the greater part of 
the spawn. In this way the bed could never be depleted by overfishing, 
as has been the case in past years, when all the " spawners " were 
taken, without regard to the future welfare of the fishery. 

(3) Restrictive legislation by the town, to insure the best market 
returns and the prevention of overfishing. 

(4) Restock the barren areas by the transplanting of adult sea clams 
as " spawners." 

Utilization of Public Waters as a Source of Food 

Supply. 

No one can doubt that the food supply is a fundamental basis 
of existence, or that a straitened food supply may lead to social, 
political and economic chaos. Long ago Lord Macaulay made 
this prediction to an American friend : " The day will come 
when the multitude of people, none of whom has had more 



42 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

than half a breakfast or expects to Have more than half a din- 
ner, will choose a legislature. Is it possible to doubt what 
sort of a legislature will be chosen ? . . . There will be, I fear, 
spoliation. The spoliation will increase the distress ; the dis- 
tress will produce fresh spoliation. . . . Either civilization or 
liberty will perish." 

In proportion to our area, Massachusetts has relatively little 
farm land, and what we have is peculiarly liable, from the 
configuration of the surface, to loss from erosion of plant food 
(chiefly in the forms of nitrates and nitrites) from the soil. 
But this loss is in some measure offset by the peculiar con- 
figuration of our seashores. When under natural conditions, 
before the advent of civilization, this waste of nitrates and 
nitrites was so utilized in the tidal waters as to result in a very 
large production of mollusks and Crustacea, which are a very 
valuable food for man. Thus did nature conserve this natural 
resource, by utilizing along the shore the normal waste of the 
uplands. But, now, as a result of unwise legislation, the people 
are not permitted to utilize this source of food and wealth. 
Neglecting the waters, we farm the land solely, and only there 
strive to assist nature to an increased yield of human food per 
acre. By our farming operations we increase in an approxi- 
mately corresponding degree the flow of nitrates and nitrites 
into the waters, where under proper economic conditions it 
should indirectly produce an increased yield of Crustacea (lob- 
sters and edible crabs) and mollusks (oysters, clams, quahaugs, 
scallops, etc.) in the shallow waters of the coast. Instead of 
utilizing these conditions, however, we make the tidal areas a 
desert by killing as many as possible of the lobsters before they 
have reached the breeding age; by unsystematic digging we 
destroy a large proportion of the growing clams, in order to 
get a few large ones " before some one else does ; " we sell at 
a low price the breeding quahaugs, and the growing quahaugs 
under the breeding age at a higher price. Instead of planting 
our " seed " clams and quahaugs we ship them for planting 
in other states. These planters reap large profits from which 
our short-sighted policy precludes our own citizens. We either 
destroy the scallops before they have laid their single litter of 
eggs, or we waste a considerable proportion of the normal mar- 
ket supply by delaying until late autumn the capture of the 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 

large ones which have already spawned and therefore are of no 
further use in increasing the number of young, until such a time 
in the winter as unnecessarily high prices may be obtained ; or, 
worst of all, and as completing the unwise existing trend of 
public and private ignorance and negligence, we destructively 
inundate these tidal flats, valuable above any farming land in 
the potential food productive capacity, with a flood of unspeak- 
able refuse and detritus of civilization. Not alone is it a well- 
recognized municipal practice to turn sewage, garbage and 
manufacturing wastes without let or hindrance into such public 
waters, in violation of decency, of sanitary and economic laws, 
but we permit the relatively few clams and quahaugs which may 
survive to be eaten by the very class which can least afford 
to meet unnecessary illness and expense. The State can better 
support in idleness the ignorant fisherman who digs clams osten- 
sibly for bait but in fact for food than permit these clams to 
become available for food. We speak whereof we know, when 
we say that a large majority of the clams and quahaugs dug 
" for bait," under permits of the local boards of health in Bos- 
ton, Lynn and New Bedford harbors, are ultimately used for 
food. This practice exists in spite of 355 arrests and convic- 
tions in the past six years, since the practice was forbidden by 
law. We have said in another report (" Report upon the Mol- 
lusk Fisheries of Massachusetts," 1909) that the dumping of 
the metropolitan sewage into Boston harbor destroys annually 
more than $400,000 worth of food which should be received 
from that area for the benefit of the citizens of Massachusetts. 
The figures relative to Lynn and New Bedford harbors are even 
proportionally greater. A considerable proportion of the pollu- 
tion is unnecessary, in the sense that the polluting material 
could be disposed of on land at equal or less expense and with 
greater economic results. 

Pollution of Streams. — Attention has been called many 
times to the inadequacy of the present laws relative to pollu- 
tion in its effect upon fish life. Under the law the commission 
acts only upon cases of pollution by sawdust, but as the law 
reads at present, shavings and wood-manufacturing refuse of 
various kinds, which are equally as destructive as sawdust, can 
be put in with impunity. In a smaller way, many manufac- 
turers unnecessarily turn into our streams materials which could 



44 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

more efficiently and cheaply be cared for on land. It is a curi- 
ous fact that the Commonwealth forbids such polluting material 
to be turned upon land of an individual, but it may be put 
upon the public lands and waters with absolute impunity, re- 
sulting in a waste of material which with a little more care 
could often without additional expense be profitably utilized on 
land, instead of resulting in the destruction of public property 
and public rights. 

The aspect of this most conspicuous to the public is the pol- 
lution of certain rivers and streams which empty into the sea 
near clam and quahaug beds. The resulting pollution of the 
shellfish grounds constitutes a most insidious danger to the pub- 
lic health. In spite of our remonstrance, passage was secured 
of a law (Acts of 1907, chapter 285) by which shellfish in cer- 
tain polluted areas, from which the taking of shellfish is pro- 
hibited by the State Board of Health, may be used for bait, 
provided they are not sold. This law is absolutely impossible 
of enforcement, for the reason that the officer is compelled, in 
the nature of the case, to keep those same shellfish under obser- 
vation from the time they are dug until the time they are used 
as bait. Biological examination indicates that clams and qua- 
haugs from these areas are dangerous as conveyers of typhoid 
fever germs. Certain evidence has come to our attention of 
typhoid fever cases in the families of poor fishermen who are 
known to be violators of this law. We repeat our recommen- 
dation that the digging of shellfish from this area should be 
absolutely prohibited, until such time as the danger of contagion 
is removed. If, however, some arrangements can be made 
whereby the mollusks from polluted regions can be placed for 
at least a month in uncontaminated waters, it would render 
them safe for use as food, though the danger to the diggers, and 
through them to their families and the public, would not be 
entirely eliminated. Such arrangements would be possible 
under an adequate system of leases for mollusk cultivation. 

Recreational Fishing. — With the increase of population of 
our cities, the demand becomes more important for a sane type 
of recreation such as is furnished by fishing. Many of the best 
streams of the Commonwealth are passing into private owner- 
ship, by which the public are excluded. The time is not far 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 

distant when it will be necessary for the Commonwealth to con- 
sider the advisability of securing for the benefit of the public 
the most important streams in various sections of the State, 
and keeping those streams stocked in such a manner that rea- 
sonably good fishing can be maintained, instead of sending out 
a large number of trout the greater majority of which are 
wasted by being improperly liberated or placed in unsuitable 
streams. 

In this connection we again respectfully call attention to our 
recommendations that an investigation can be made of the pro- 
ductive capacity of the various types of public waters in the 
State, with a view to determining the quantity of food fish 
which could be annually produced. This work has been suc- 
cessfully carried on in Switzerland, in Germany and in other 
European countries, where the problem of food supply is more 
urgent than in the United States. The extent and methods 
of stocking the streams of the State with food and game fish 
have long been notoriously inadequate. Legislative action is 
necessary to meet the requirements. 

Inland Fisheries. 

Distribution of Fish and Eggs during 1909. 

Fry distributed, 802,000 

Fingerlings distributed, 152,200 

Adult fish put out, 2,823 

Fish eggs distributed, . . 1,000,000 

Number of brooks stocked with fry, 137 

Applications filled for fry, 145 

Number of brooks stocked with fingerlings, .... 255 

Applications filled for fingerlings, . . . ...''. . 246 

Great ponds stocked, ........ 19 

Rivers stocked, 3 

Hatchery Expenses during 1909. 

Adams, . . . $204 47 

Hadley, 261 24 

Sutton, 1 5,171 74 

Winchester, 142 38 



1 Including trout eggs purchased (400,000 at 50 cents per 1,000), $200. 



46 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Summary of Output of Fish and Pheasants during 1909. 



Description. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings. 


Adults. 


Eggs. 


Pheasants. 


Brook trout, 
Brown trout, 
Rainbow trout, 
White perch, 
Smelt eggs, 
Pheasants, • 






802,000 


130,900 
17,800 
3,500 


1,073 
75 

1,675 


1,000,000 


668 


Totals, . 


802,000 


152,200 


2,823 


1,000,000 


66S 



That part of the report of the superintendent of the Sutton 
Hatchery relating to the propagation of trout follows : — 

To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

Gentlemen : — I herewith submit a report on fish cultural work and 
other work connected with the same. 

Though natural conditions were somewhat adverse, the present season 
has shown much better results in fish cultural work through the im- 
provements carried out in the past two years. The production of eggs 
was increased to 900,000 and the fingerlings to 155,000, — over twice 
the average for the past three or four years, and there is ample assur- 
ance that further increase is practical and safe. 

The season of 1908 ended with a severe drought, and, while this did 
not interfere with carrying a much larger stock of breeders and finger- 
lings than usual, or in any way affect the quality or yield of eggs, it 
caused considerable loss during the winter as the eggs developed, and 
by weakening the embryos endangered the whole stock through greater 
liability to disease. This condition was brought about through shrink- 
age of the only available water supply for the hatchery, for the 
reason that another pipe drawing from a more abundant source has 
become so clogged as to be useless. The supply of water through 
December and January was less than one gallon per minute for 100,000 
eggs; but the shipment of 200,000 eggs to Winchester gave some relief, 
and soon after our increased flow made it possible to carry the eggs 
and fry until the outside troughs could be used. These troughs, placed 
at the springs and operated under conditions similar to what is pro- 
posed for the new hatchery, developed the fry rapidly, and supplied 
so vigorous a stock for the rearing ponds that the early loss was the 
least experienced, and many thousand fry intended for rearing were 
not required and were distributed as advanced fry. These fry, that at 
the first to the middle of May were shipped 5,000 to the ten-gallon 
can, could not by the middle of May be shipped more than 500 to the can. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 47 

The eggs collected in 1908 for hatching in 1909 amounted to 750,000, 
57,000 of these being brown trout. 

The stock of brown trout that yielded these eggs was kept in the pool 
below the dam formerly used only for keeping large fish for exhibition 
purposes, the restricted space seemingly making it impracticable to 
keep a considerable number of breeders. In 1908 this pool was en- 
larged and partly concreted, and during the two succeeding seasons 
carried its stock so well that when it is completed as planned it can 
undoubtedly be depended upon to yield 100,000 eggs yearly. The 
brown trout fry were reared in the pens below the dam, and 16,000 
were distributed, 800 being reserved as breeders. 

The capacity for trout fingerlings was increased by the addition of 
two concrete ponds. Some of the older ponds yielded more by in- 
creasing the shade. The one pond which was considered to be insuffi- 
ciently shaded (No. 3), suffered a severe loss, and came through to 
the end of the season stocked to little more than half its capacity. 
Several ponds yielded less than the usual number, but this was more 
than made up by the heavy yield of others, especially the group built 
in the weeded ground just below the principal spring supply. It is 
evident that if all the ponds could be made to yield to the full capacity 
of each the output would be more largely increased, and the most 
promising step towards securing this is shading and protecting the 
more exposed ponds. The work that has been done is of such value 
and is so necessary to keep up the yield and check the raids of preda- 
tory birds that it ought to be more profitable to build permanent cover- 
ings, rather than to continue the makeshift structures of brush and 
bagging now in use. 

The ponds built in the woods are well shaded, but need covering for 
the purpose of keeping out the falling leaves. Where the shipment 
of fingerlings is long delayed, the leaves blow in and often fill the ponds 
nearly to the surface of the water. This endangers the fish, and results 
in long-continued and vexatious work in separating the fish and the 
leaves. 

Fifty thousand rainbow trout eggs, forwarded by the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries, were received and hatched in December. This 
early hatching at the time of an extreme shortage of water made it 
impossible to give them proper accommodations, and by the time that 
the season was so advanced that they could be moved outside, they 
were in an enfeebled condition. The pond in which they were placed 
froze over frequently, interfering with regular feeding, thus causing 
further loss, so that by the time the weather moderated and permitted 
the pen below the dam to be occupied they were greatly reduced in 
number. Placed in this water, which has been found to agree best 
with them, they thinned to a marked degree, and 3,500 fingerlings of 
the largest sizes were distributed. 

As in past years, improvements for increasing the rearing capacity 
were undertaken only after careful consideration of the effect on 



48 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

existing facilities, and so far no curtailment elsewhere has resulted by 
reason of any extensions. The concrete ponds built the present season 
were constructed of heavy concrete, possibly the most enduring work 
on the place. Though they were on water already used, it was plainly 
capable of further use. On the east side, the new pond used the water 
flowing from the outside troughs; on the west side, the water from the 
west ponds was used again; and in the construction of the pond there 
the concrete was continued to form a dam for the large west pond, re- 
placing the mud dam. 

Below the hatchery the brook was changed into a runway, built of 
concrete slabs supported by a chestnut frame, as the soft bottom was 
not favorable for the heavy work built on the hard ground above the 
pond. This runway is intended for yearling spawners, and will un- 
doubtedly carry enough so that the pond used so many years for 
yearlings can be used for rearing fingerlings, thus increasing the out- 
put of those by fully 20,000. An extension of this runway up the 
brook to the dam would materially increase its capacity, and would 
prevent the troublesome wash from the muck beds along this part of 
the stream into the completed part, and, by permitting the use of 
covers, would keep out the leaves from the heavy growth of hard w T ood 
between the meat house and hatchery. 

Below this runway and extending for 100 yards down the brook the 
conditions are very favorable for a larger and deeper extension that 
would carry a large stock of adult brown trout. The water as it 
leaves the present runway is still good, and at this point it receives 
the drainage from the four lower rearing ponds, while further down 
a good supply of unused spring water flows in, and this locality is 
believed to offer the best prospects for flowing wells. 

The outside troughs were found so useful that stands were built for 
increasing the number from 16 to 40, and lumber to make the increased 
number, with double-hinged covers for the whole 40, was bought and 
fitted. 

In August a 2 horse-power gasolene engine was added to the equip- 
ment for preparing food. An addition to the meat and ice house was 
put up to shelter it, and later a refrigerator with overhead ice chamber 
was constructed in this building. In addition, conditions about the 
meat house were greatly improved by tearing out the wooden floor and 
laying one of concrete, and by building concrete steps and walk from 
the driveway on the dam. The wall extending along the dam from the 
steps was torn out and replaced with concrete, in order to break up a 
troublesome resort of rats. 

The floor of the hatching house had so far decayed that it fell into 
the mud beneath, and therefore, over that part used for hatching pur- 
poses, would not support the troughs. As permanent repairs were not 
desired, the floor was broken up and the debris thrown into the mud to 
support a filling of sand and gravel. The filling was mainly of sand, 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 

with four inches of well-tamped gravel for a surface. The waste 
water was carried away in a cemented ditch. 

The removal of the outside tub stand, repairs to the building and 
troughs, new head trough, changes in piping and heater, made the 
expenditure of labor unfortunately large for such temporary work. 

Many other improvements were carried out about the buildings and 
grounds, though partly with reference to bird work. Grading and 
terracing was done, to get better locations for the brooders ; underbrush 
was cut, to facilitate moving coops; land was cleared of stumps for 
plowing, in order to do some experimental planting for breeding coops; 
fences were put up, to keep visitors under better control; concreting 
for ratproofing was done wherever practical; and many small improve- 
ments were made, valuable in the aggregate, for guarding the safety 
or facilitating the handling of the fish or birds. 

The continued improvement of the station has resulted in a greatly 
increased capacity, with less liability to loss from disease and accident; 
and the further improvements approved will, when carried out, make 
it possible to get a still larger yield of eggs and fingerlings, and in 
addition to feed a large number of fry to the stage called advanced 
fry, — a change that would largely increase the fish-cultural value of 
the place. 

Further work of improvement is desirable, for it is certain that what 
is contemplated does not utilize the water flow to its full capacity or 
in the best way; and an important part of this work must still be 
in replacing the earlier construction with permanent work, which so 
far has hardly kept pace with the rate of decay. 

It is well known that rearing fingerlings was not contemplated when 
the station was located and constructed, and that the equipment for 
this work, as well as for rearing pheasants, grouse and quail, has been 
added yearly, with the expense not in any way separated from the 
ordinary operating expenses. 

The deficiencies of equipment have been made up each year as cir- 
cumstances would permit, and the necessity of constantly adding has 
at all times hampered each season's work of production, for many years 
keeping that of fingerlings down to a point much lower than a proper 
number, and more recently interfering in developing the bird work. 

The recommendations previously made for additional land and a safe 
road are renewed, but the need of these and of a proper hatching house 
have been stated in detail before. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Arthur Merrill, Superintendent. 

Game and Insectivorous Birds. 
While there is an urgent demand for pheasants for libera- 
tion, and although these birds are known to be active feeders 
upon injurious insects and their larvae, including both the gypsy 



50 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and brown-tail moth, we are of the opinion that a greater degree 
of attention should be bestowed upon the maintenance of our 
native birds, — the quail as an unrivalled insect destroyer, and 
the ruffed and pinnated grouse as food and game birds. Of 
these we have demonstrated beyond question that an experi- 
enced person can under suitable conditions rear to an age suit- 
able for liberation a much greater number of young birds than 
a pair of wild quail would normally produce, not to mention 
the undoubted advantages of breeding from selected individuals, 
thus progressively increasing size, productivity and other desir- 
able qualities. 

In the case of grouse, the problem of mating the birds is the 
most troublesome. 

While the general consensus of opinion is that the ruffed 
grouse has this year increased in certain localities under the 
more favorable conditions existing, the areas where this bird has 
in recent years become uncommon or even absent are annually 
becoming more extensive. Attempts to rear this grouse in cap- 
tivity have resulted solely in experience. 

Quail are again becoming established in favorable localities. 
This bird can without doubt be reared in large numbers under 
suitable conditions. 

Birds distributed during 1909. 

Number of pheasants distributed, 669 

Applications filled, 76 

Applications unfilled, 57 

That part of the report of the superintendent of the Sutton 
hatchery which covers the rearing of pheasants, grouse and 
quail, follows: — 

To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

Gentlemen : — I herewith submit a report on raising pheasants, 
grouse and quail for 1909. 

The work on pheasants, grouse and quail was carried on, as usual, 
in connection with fish-cultural work, therefore it was under the dis- 
advantage previously noted, that the attention the work deserves could 
not be given, and that the data collected are neither so complete nor so 
conclusive as was hoped. However, the work of the season, considering 
the practical side, was far more successful and encouraging than any 
yet, inasmuch as many unlooked-for results were achieved in the breed- 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 

ing and rearing processes, with positive demonstration that simpler and 
easier methods could be employed. 

The results, viewing the work as one of experiment and investiga- 
tion are: (1) that feeding and the care of young or old presents no 
difficulties except in so far as the feed of the old birds may affect the 
vitality of the embryos or young, and (2) that infectious diseases do 
not present the menace formerly feared, provided that sufficient intel- 
ligent and careful attention is given; (3) that maintaining maximum 
vitality in the breeding birds and their progeny is the most serious 
problem to be considered at present. A study of the influences that 
affect it is of the utmost importance. 

The breeding of grouse was continued in an experimental way, but 
with good results. Of the breeding lot of four birds, one female was 
killed in the winter by swallowing a rifle shell; another was killed by 
the male in mating; the third nested in one of the large pens, laid 9 
eggs and hatched 5, but failed to raise any chicks. Twenty eggs from 
wild birds were brought by Deputy Mecarta, the first lot of 11 hatching 
7 chicks, 1 a monstrosity, 1 noticeably weak; these and 1 other died, 
the remaining 4 growing to practically full size. The second lot of 9 
eggs all hatched; 2 died and 7 were reared. 

Both lots were reared in brooders with the ordinary 4 by 6 inch 
brooder coop attached, and seeded with grass, clover and buckwheat. 
This vegetation supplied green food; other food consisted of curdled 
milk with shredded wheat, custard and maggots. Fine grain was given 
as they needed it; fruit was given in small quantities, but no attempt 
was made to supply insects. The food given was sufficient for a most 
vigorous growth. 

When the chicks were not quite a month old they were moved to 
larger coops seeded with buckwheat, and a month later were moved 
again. 

Early in September they were moved from the brooder ground to 
the hill west of the pond, where they thrived until late in October, when 
one of the first lot died. The cause was recognized as amoebic disease, 
and this was confirmed by examination of another bird by Dr. Tyzzer. 
The birds were separated upon discovery of the disease, but 2 more 
died, 1 of the 4 escaping infection. 

The second lot developed a very quarrelsome disposition, and were 
separated into small lots, but before this was done one was so badly 
injured that it was liberated. 

The results with these grouse as compared with the results of pre- 
vious years showed that with good sanitary conditions and proper tem- 
perature the feeding and care of the young was not a move difficult mat- 
ter than with quail or pheasants; and in these lots, as with previous ones, 
the characteristic contentment in close quarters when growing up, with 
quarrelsomeness when near maturity, and friendliness with attendants 
or strangers, was noted. 



52 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Work with grouse in the immediate future lies in devising suitable 
breeding methods. Their disposition makes it difficult to keep them 
even in very small flocks, and it is apparently impossible to breed them 
in small pens except singly, and then only with constant attention to 
the safety of the hen from the attacks of the cock. This procedure 
would so increase the equipment and labor for any extensive breeding 
that it might make practical results impossible. Of the experimental 
work that might be suggested for overcoming these difficulties, the most 
promising may be to attempt breeding in the unused hare pen of nearly 
two acres. This is natural breeding ground for grouse, except for the 
lack of underbrush, which was destroyed by the hares, but which is 
rapidly growing up. The present deficiency, however, is made up in 
part by a growth of weeds. The fence is high enough to hold pinioned 
birds, is proof against invasion by any animal, and the danger from 
hawks is not great in the grouse breeding season. Either to allow the 
birds to incubate their own eggs or to collect and hatch the eggs, per- 
mitting continued laying, would give results of some value; the latter 
might be preferable, for it has not yet been shown that a captive bird 
would lay a second clutch. Allowing the birds to rear their own young 
might well follow later, when there is a proper undergrowth to con- 
ceal them. 

The stock of breeding pheasants and the output of young was in- 
creased twofold over last year. The egg yield per bird was increased 
from 50 to nearly 60, totaling 4,300; and the hatching was better, 
resulting in nearly 2,000 chicks, — a number so large that the former 
percentage grown could not be maintained, and dropped from 60 to 
35, but from causes which could be avoided under suitable conditions, 
as will be shown below. Fertilization was very good, rising as high 
as 90 per cent, at mid-season, but falling very low at the last. The 
best lot hatched 80 per cent., but some failures brought the average 
down to below 50 per cent. 

The rearing was satisfactory in the earlier lots, where proper control 
could be kept over them; but poor in the later lots, where the great 
numbers overcrowded the coops and the available open grounds where 
protection could be given, and made it necessary to place them in 
the more exposed and dangerous places. Birds similarly placed the year 
before, but in small lots, did finely, exceeding all other lots in per- 
centage raised and in condition; but the more extended operations 
this year invited numerous enemies, and several of the largest lots were 
successively reduced to 50 or even to 25 per cent, during the first two or 
three weeks ; and when moved to the open lower ground in front, where 
some measure of protection could be given, were attacked by roup. 
This infection remained and decimated them for over two months. 
Two lots hatched subsequently to these were placed for safety near 
the weedy ground bordering the brook, and, while safe here from 
hawks and cats, suffered quite as much from rats, and later with the 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 53 

other lots lost many from roup. A hen hovering a brood in one of 
these lots developed a mania for killing them when they were about a 
week old, and had killed 50 of her own and neighboring broods when 
discovered. 

All of these lots mentioned were reared under hens. Some earlier 
lots placed under hens and kept in near the buildings did very well, 
but it was necessary to reserve some of this ground for quail work. 

The brooders were used all through the season when they could be 
spared from quail work, and gave fair results in all cases. Some lots 
so grown were excellent in condition and numbers; as a rule, though, 
the numbers placed in the brooders were too large to give the best 
results. 

As the birds reached the age of one month they were put in portable 
coops and kept until ready for distribution; but owing to delays in this 
work the coops were crowded, and therefore did not give the best 
results. The insufficient amount of land for moving them was also a 
severe handicap, and when late in the season there was little hope of 
reasonable success for the last lots, additional land was rented and the 
coops moved outside. This afforded some relief from the unfavorable 
conditions which were largely responsible for the drop in the number 
of birds from 990 at the age of one month to 668 distributed or reared. 

Pheasant rearing, when attempted on a larger scale than the few hun- 
dred that can be accommodated here, by reason of the limitations placed 
upon it by the quail and grouse work and the narrow bounds of the 
State property, can hardly be done with proper economy. If the 
scale of work is increased, it should be to such an extent that it will 
be profitable to do it by itself, with ample room, and with the birds 
properly guarded, so that they can be grown in the open, securing 
immunity from disease, and more vigorous birds than penned-up ones 
would be. As done here, the facilities and methods were adapted to 
working in a small way, incidental to the fish-cultural work. The 
number handled could be kept in close to the buildings, guarded and 
cared for with little trouble. The more successful large establishments 
use ample range room, developing their birds more rapidly and better, 
with considerable saving in the cost of caring for them in coops and 
loss from intestinal and other diseases due to confining them in coops, 
which must fairly offset the cost of guarding them in the open and the 
loss from predatory enemies. As a suggestion for a practical change 
in methods for the next year, it is recommended that the work of rear- 
ing the young be moved to some point outside where safe and ample 
range can be secured, retaining that part of the work within the grounds 
that cannot be easily moved or that requires little space for carrying 
it on, such as the breeding pens and pens for retaining and shipping 
grown birds. 

The breeding stock of quail was divided into 27 lots, 24 lots of one 
pair of birds, 2 lots of 2 pairs, and 1 lot of 5 pairs. The lot of 5 



54 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



pairs was somewhat broken up by the escape of several birds, but while 
together they mated and laid well-fertilized eggs. One lot of 2 pairs 
in a small pen laid rather better than the other 2-pair lot in a large 
pen. The following table shows the size of pens, the number of birds 
in each and the eggs laid : — 



Pen No. 


Area 
(Square 
Feet). 


Number 

of 

Birds. 


Eggs 
laid. 


In- 
fertile 
Eggs. 


Remarks. 


1, • 

2, . 

3, . 






192 
144 
144 


1 pair 
1 pair 
1 pair 


28 
41 

27 


6 
4 

4 


Youngest female hatched Oct. 8, 
1908; small, inferior eggs. 

Female incubated 15 eggs; 
hatched 14; raised 12 chicks. 


4, . 






144 


1 pair 


38 


13 




5, . 






144 


1 pair 


65 


3 




6, . 






144 


1 pair 


63 


8 




7, . 

8, . 






144 
144 


1 pair 
1 pair 


42 
20 


19 
6 


Female attempted to incubate 15 
eggs; left nest. 


9, . 






144 


1 pair 


38 


4 




10, . 

11, • 






32 
32 


1 pair 
1 pair 


77 
102 


5 
2 


Female attempted to incubate 12 
eggs; left nest. 


12, . 

13, . 

14, . 

15, . 

16, . 






32 
32 

32 
64 
64 


1 pair 
1 pair 

1 pair 
1 pair 
1 pair 


28 
1 

83 
31 


5 

2 
3 


Escaped about middle of laying 
season. 

Female killed by male after one 
egg was laid; not known if egg 
was fertile. 

Youngest female, hatched Octo- 
ber 8. 

Female attempted to incubate 10 
eggs; disturbed by rats. 


17, . 






32 


1 pair 


67 


19 




18, . 






32 


1 pair 


56 


3 




19, . 






32 


1 pair 


44 


2 




20, . 






32 


1 pair 


57 


12 




21, . 

22, . 






32 
35 


1 pair 
1 pair 


80 
85 


1 
9 


Female, assisted by male, incu- 
bated 12 eggs; eggs eaten by 
rats. 


23, . 






72 


1 pair 


41 


28 


Male sick. 


24, . 






64 


1 pair 


60 


6 




25, . 

26, . 

27, . 






1,300 

2,000 
144 


2 pairs 

5 pairs 
2 pairs 


79 

84 
110 


8 

15 

20 


One female attempted to incu- 
bate 18 eggs, but the eggs were 
taken away for fear of rats. 

Three pairs died or escaped in 
laying season. 

One female incubated 12 eggs; 
hatched 7; raised 2 with no 
assistance. 








1,447 


207 



Some valuable data were secured from the hatching work, as the 
number of eggs was large, and was laid by birds kept under somewhat 
diverse conditions and to some extent of known antecedents. The 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 55 

records kept were sufficient to indicate the hatching quality of each 
bird's eggs, and to denote to some degree what may be considered 
the transmitted stamina in the embryos and young; and these facts, re- 
lating to hereditary influences or as affected by environmental influ- 
ences incidental to the breeding and hatching processes, are perhaps the 
most important matter for study in future quail work. Previously, in 
quail, grouse and pheasant hatching unexpected and unaccountable 
weakness has been shown in the embyros at times, and the effect has 
been attributed to what has been considered the most immediate cause. 
This might be (1) inbred stock; (2) weather conditions, such as ex- 
cessive winter cold affecting the vitality of the breeders, or either ex- 
cessive cold, heat or moisture in the nesting season affecting the eggs; 
or (3) unsuitable practice in incubation. Nothing was observed this 
year to make it appear at all probable that any one of these mentioned 
had a predominant influence, but possibly any or all may be con- 
tributary causes. 

It was noted in the report for 1908 that one quail laid 100 eggs, 
and that these hatched chicks of noticeable vigor even to the last. The 
quail grown from these eggs and others known to be descended from 
prolific layers, while laying well themselves, did not transmit the vigor 
of their parents to their own eggs, for among these the greater loss 
from dead embryos and weak chicks was noted. 

There is a correlation between the failure of the embryos to hatch and 
the loss of young chicks directly after hatching, the heavier loss of 
young chicks following in the lots that showed the greater number of 
dead embryos. What influences and to what extent they acted in 
producing this effect is largely conjectural, and the opinion that the 
trouble is mostly from transmitted weakness is formed only after a 
study of possible causes, with no evidence of any positive effect from 
environmental processes or conditions upon embryos or young. The 
inferior eggs come alike from the very small and the largest hens; 
the best eggs come from some of the small hens. A study of methods 
of incubation gave no light. Where incubators were used to finish the 
hatch, they gave varying results, though but little different from cor- 
responding lots left under hens. In both cases the unfavorable results 
suggested overheating, so during a considerable period the temperature 
of the hens was taken, and a rather wide variation noted, the ordinary 
temperature of 104° to 105° rising at times to 108° to 109°. A hen 
with this higher temperature, sitting very close, near to the time of 
hatching, might injure the eggs; and this hypothesis was apparently 
confirmed when it followed an abnormal temperature in several cases, 
but in some succeeding cases the same results were reached without 
the same temperature to cause it. 

It has been assumed that the hens would not air and cool their eggs as 
much as might be required, and it has been the practice to shut them off 
the nests an hour in cool or moderate weather and longer in hot weather, 



56 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

but so far without proof that the practice was correct, or any good 
reason to change it. However, the very contradictory results with eggs 
set at the same time and given identical treatment indicate that the 
results in the matter under consideration are not influenced by the way 
the hens are handled, unless individual cases call for different treat- 
ment. 

Of the 1,447 eggs laid by the quail, 19 were discarded or broken in 
handling; 65 were spoiled or destroyed in the pens; 207 were infertile; 
128 were broken under hens; 286 were fertile, but had well-developed 
dead embryos; 50 died in hatching or immediately after; 691 hatched 
to all appearances normally, but in many lots aggregating 176 chicks 
weakness quickly developed, and of these latter few reached the age of 
one week and none lived over three weeks. 

The difference was very clearly marked in the quality of the chicks 
in the lots defined as good as distinguished from the poor. In the latter 
there was invariably a heavy loss the first day or two, before any feed- 
ing was done or any probability of disease being introduced. A con- 
tinuous loss to the end was characteristic, the birds at any age appearing 
to be feeble and spiritless. Pathological examinations of specimens 
failed to show any infection that would account for their condition or 
death. 

The better birds, including some intermediate lots that did only fairly 
well, showed a vigorous, healthy growth through this stage, and a small 
loss, even nothing in some cases. Of 515 hatched, 361 grew to the age 
of one month, well past the danger from feeble development or any 
disease or functional disorder that the young might be more sensitive 
to, and subject only to loss from more controllable causes. 

The pens used for the birds up to and past this age were used experi- 
mentally the year before with favorable results, and again this year 
with entire satisfaction, in regard to results and labor required in using 
them. They are 3 by 6, 4 by 6 or 4 by 8, with top partly open and 
partly covered. When placed for use they were filled with three inches 
of loam carted in from the woods, and seeded to clover, grass and 
buckwheat, which was allowed to get a reasonable start before the 
birds were put in, and when properly started gave a better supply of 
green food than could be given in any other way. These coops were 
seeded in succession, so that the birds could be moved at intervals to 
fresh ones. As long as this plan was followed there was freedom from 
losses, with but a single exception, where a lot of 12 was killed by 
an intestinal disease. At length, however, through increasing number 
of birds, it became no longer possible to move the coops freely, and 
larger coops were brought into use on newly terraced ground west of 
the pond. Some of these larger coops were filled with fresh loam, 
others placed on soil brought to the surface in terracing. After being 
here several weeks without loss, disease broke out and destroyed 5 lots, 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

numbering 80 birds, within a very brief period. Five other lots on the 
same ground, 3 of quail and 2 of grouse, escaped infection. Later 
the same disease attacked 2 lots on the brooder ground nearer the barn, 
and 30 birds were lost, but it made no further appearance. The attack 
was fatal to every bird in the lots infected. In the first lot where it 
appeared the last bird of 19 was dead in two and one-half days from 
the time the first one was found. In another instance, 2 birds escaping 
from an uninfected lot were accidentally put in with a diseased lot; 
they contracted the disease and died in from four to five days. The 
progress of the disease was somewhat less rapid in some lots, where 
perhaps it was not communicated from one to another so quickly; but 
the infected birds were sick for only a brief period, and as a rule 
showed no emaciation. 

This disease is considered to be of bacterial origin, and the same 
that was in some grouse in 1908 and quail in 1907, similar lesions in 
the intestines being noted in every bird examined. These lesions gave a 
very characteristic spotted appearance to the lower part of the in- 
testine; but the liver and cseca, usually the infected parts in the case 
of coccidial or amoebic disease, in most cases appeared normal. The 
origin of the disease at this place is difficult to account for, unless it 
was the surviving infection from the use of the ground two or more 
years previous, the terracing operations not covering the infected soil. 
For some weeks after the loss from these attacks the birds did very 
well; but late in October, when the congestion of work greatly delayed 
the moving of coops, a group on the west side containing brooder birds 
hatched about mid-season, and another group on the south side con- 
taining hen-raised birds, began to die from what was recognized as the 
same disease in both lots, but not previously noted here. Dead birds 
from all lots were submitted to Dr. E. E. Tyzzer, who diagnosed the 
disease as " acute nephritis, resulting in the deposition in the tissues 
of material (largely amorphous wastes) normally excreted by the 
kidneys." 

The cause of this disease, in its successive appearance and disappear- 
ance in different lots, suggests that it is a. functional disease caused by 
certain conditions, and may be remedied by changes that are really an 
adherence to the methods that have been recommended as the best. The 
disease appeared in certain lots hatched about mid-season that were 
not nearly as well developed as the earlier lots, probably on account of 
being kept with but few changes to fresh coops; and when this con- 
dition was noted, they were divided into smaller lots in larger coops 
and placed on fresh but rather bare ground, where they were soon 
wholly without incentive to scratch. To make up their deficient growth, 
they were well fed; thus it followed that their food and exercise was 
not properly balanced, and this disease, or practically " bird gout," 
resulted. When the necessity of moving appeared, these birds were 



58 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

transferred to small coops and placed on a piece of newly seeded 
ground with a growth of weeds, clover and stunted millet, where they 
were moved at intervals and came through the winter without further 
loss. Although on a more restricted diet, they matured as well as the 
older lots. 

The hen-raised lots from the south side were transferred to the large 
breeding pens, and the same beneficial results followed. After a brief 
interval the older lot suffered the same loss under similar conditions; 
and the remedy was to place them in the older large pens, previously 
idle on account of being infested by rats, but about this time cleared of 
rats and made ready for use. Later the same disease appeared among 
some of the younger lots and breeding birds, and was remedied in the 
same way; and the origin appeared in these lots as well as in the others 
to result from delay in shifting coops and some incidental overfeeding. 
During the period that this disease was prevalent the pressure of work 
made it necessary to do what was the most urgent, and the amount 
of time consumed in filling, levelling and brush cutting for placing 
coops was so great that no ordered routine could be followed in moving 
them. A proper balance between the means of doing this work and the 
necessities of it has been hard to maintain, and delays in doing many 
things have occurred because some other part demanded more urgent 
attention. This condition is partly incidental to carrying on several 
branches of work frequently demanding coincident attention, and partly 
to doing the work on unimproved ground, which in regard to quail 
work has been found to be the least suitable, as it is practically pro- 
hibitive of a satisfactory routine in growing them. This, as it appears 
from the experience to the present time, is to continue with the small 
brooder coops, using them in weekly or fortnightly succession, with 
fresh loam and tender vegetation each time, until the chicks can be 
taken from heat, which may be at the age of one month, and then put 
in larger portable coops on ground that will admit of moving them at 
frequent and regular intervals. For this purpose no ground used yet 
is as satisfactory as the ground that can be planted and cultivated to a 
very smooth condition. Penned quail are very persistent scratchers, 
and, while the ground that has been in use here — rough, with more or 
less rocks, stumps, underbrush and fallen leaves — is good for the time 
being, the birds soon dig it over and eat any tender vegetation, and 
their removal to fresh ground entails considerable labor. Old 
sod ground is objectionable, the grass being too dry and tough in 
the growing season for quail, and the sod much too tough for scratch- 
ing. The advantage of specially prepared ground is in growing what 
the quail need most in their pens, — weeds, unripe grain, clover and any 
tender vegetation that they can eat, and in supplying these with less 
labor than they can be gathered and fed; also in encouraging scratch- 
ing, which in keeping them busy is a great aid in keeping them healthy. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 59 

The trials that have been made here suggest that a light sandy or 
gravelly soil, that would grow a stunted or a scrub vegetation, and 
furnish loose, easily opened surface, would be suitable. This is 
suggested as the best plan for extending the work and doing it with a 
reasonable amount of labor, and is probably the most practical for 
growing good birds; the need of which could be clearly seen in the 
backwardness of lots that could not be given the conditions for good 
growth that others had, or the quicker way that disease worked in these 
lots, and the change for the better when bad conditions could be 
remedied. 

The loss from the kidney disease was approximately 100 birds. Other 
losses included 20 killed by rats in two raids; a smaller number, 
about 10, killed by birds getting mixed in pens, usually where one 
escaped into an adjoining pen or was put into the wrong pen after 
recapture. A single bird getting into a flock was quite often killed, 
but it was always safe to mix flocks of the same size. The loss from 
incidental causes included a few that escaped and were picked up by 
prowling enemies; many more that died from undetermined diseases, 
mostly intestinal, and doubtless including many cases of coccidial or 
amoebic infection. 

The part that this disease plays in affecting quail-rearing is not at all 
clear, and probably will not be until extensive pathological work is 
done at the place of rearing. It does not appear to have caused much 
loss among the growing quail, and these only occasional cases, while 
the very probable exposure to it of many lots was without apparent 
effect. In the cases where it was the apparent cause of death, the 
birds dying were greatly emaciated and sick a noticeable length of time, 
and their death was not followed by continued loss, as though the vic- 
tims were birds of low vitality, and the more vigorous ones had power 
to resist its action. This infection seems to have quite the same effect 
on both quail and pheasants in producing a slow, emaciating disease. 
In grouse, however, the disease is more rapid in its effects and spreading. 
In the cases mentioned of probable exposure of birds to coccidial 
infection, those mentioned were seven lots of quail grown under hens 
taken from the flock considered to be infected with coccidia. This of 
course could not be determined, but if they did, it could hardly have 
had any effect on the chicks, as what losses were met with were ac- 
counted for in other ways, the birds generally doing quite as well as 
the brooder lots. 

The results with these lots are herewith given, as being of interest 
in showing what can be done with bantams : — 



60 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Lot Number. 


Number 
hatched. 


Number 
at Age of 

One 
Month. 


Lot Number. 


Number 
hatched. 


Number 
at Age of 

One 
Month. 


2, 

12 

14 

17, 


14 
19 
18 
12 


7 
12 
13 
10 


21 

23 

25 


23 
24 
19 


9 

20 
15 



The heaviest loss in lot 21 came the first night, when 10 were ap- 
parently stepped on by the hen. Lot 23 was in the region where the 
bacterial disease broke out in September, and was destroyed in a few 
days. 

This experimental work has been so encouraging that it is well to 
try it more thoroughly another year, and if it can be done with proper 
pathological work, we might determine to what extent quail-rearing can 
be done with bantams, which, were it not for the necessity of considering 
disease, seems a more practical way than with the use of incubators 
and brooders, as the equipment and labor required is much less. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Aethur Merrill. 



The Deer Problem. 

The deer problem in this State is a complicated one. The ma- 
jority of land owners and city residents sojourning temporarily 
in the country enjoy the occasional sight of a deer on the land- 
scape. From this point of view the animal is thus an attractive 
and valuable asset to the community. 

On the other hand, a large group of people regard the deer 
as a source of sport and food. The head, hide and meat of a 
good specimen would bring $25 and upwards, if placed on the 
market. To the farmer and fruit grower, market gardener and 
nurseryman deer are a costly and unmitigated nuisance. Even 
the $8,000 paid by the State Treasurer to settle claims of 
damage to crops by deer does not in the aggregate cover the 
actual damage done, since in many instances the damage to 
orchards and nurseries cannot be repaired by money. 

From the facts which have come to our notice, we are of the 
opinion that deer have not increased in numbers during the 
year. We judge that 1908 showed the high-water mark of 



1909. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



61 



recent years in the deer population, and that now effective 
checks to their further increase have come into action; such as, 
notably, the law permitting deer to be shot when in the act of 
damaging crops, supplemented by the considerable number 
killed by trains and trolley cars, by wire fences, and the " moving 
accidents of flood and field." 



Summary and Comparison of Beer Statistics, 1907 , 1908 and 1909. 





1907. 


1908. 


1909. 


Deer seen, 


1,298 


2,035 


1,594 


Deer chased by dogs, 


114 


120 


72 


Deer seen damaging crops, 


85 


100 


227 


Deer shot illegally, 


40 


36 


49 


Deer killed by trains and trolley cars, 


25 


60 


55 


Deer shot while in the act of damaging crops, .... 


16 


17 


198 


Dead from other causes, . 


47 


83 


82 


Totals, 


1,625 


2,451 
2,255 


2,277 


Live deer 


1,497 


1,893 


Dead deer, 


128 


196 


384 


Totals 


1,625 


2,451 


2,277 


Notices issued relative to dogs chasing deer, .... 


27 


37 


30 


Court cases: — 








Dogs chasing deer, 


5 


2 


5 


Killing, hunting or wounding deer, 


6 


15 


22 


Number of reports from which above statistics were tabulated, 


503 


700 


589 



Enforcement of Law. 
That branch of our duties which relates to the enforcement of 
law has been under the immediate direction of Chief Deputy 
Nixon. The list of paid deputies, with their district, residence 
and telephone number follows : — 



62 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



"William W. Nixon, Chief Deputy, Central Office, State House. Tele- 
phone, Hay. 2700 ; residence telephone, 466-2 Cambridge. 



Assigned 

to 
District — 


Name. 


Residence. 


Telephone 
Number. 


1 


Everett B. Mecarta, 


Harwich, 


36-4 


2 


Samuel J. Lowe, 






New Bedford, 


761-2 


3 


Allen A. David, 






Taunton, 


966-1 


4 


Charles E. Tribou, . 






Brockton, 


2101 


5 


William H. Leonard, 






East Foxborough, 


Foxborough 9-4 


r 


George H. Brown, * . 






Quincy, 


- 


6 


Benjamin A. Foster, 1 






Roxbury, 


- 


1 


Orrin C. Bourne, 1 . 






Maiden, 


1071-4 


7 


Edward J. Cogan, . 






Gloucester, . 


348-L 


8 


Thomas L. Burney, 






Lynn, . 


1613-13 


9 


Walter A. Larkin, 






Andover, 


172-5 


10 


James I. Mills, 






Ayer, . 


51-2 


11 


James E. Bemis, 






South Framingham, 


226-J 


12 


Irving 0. Converse, 






Fitchburg, 


53-14 


13 


A. D. Putnam, 






Spencer, 


75-4 or 75-6 


14 


John F. Luman, 






Palmer, 


17-5 


15 


Dennis F. Shea, 






Ware, . 


132 


16 


James P. Hatch, 






Springfield, . 


2571-3 


17 


Lyman E. Ruberg, . 






Greenfield, . 


376-R 


18 


Arthur M. Nichols, . 






North Adams, 


391-12 


19 


Fred R. Zeigler, 






Pittsfield, 


362-11 


20 


DeWitt Smith, 






Great Barrington, 


72-6 


21 


Charles L. Savery, . 






West Tisbury, 


- 



1 Central office, State House. 



The following were employed as special paid deputies : — 



Name. 



Residence. 



Time of Service. 



Charles H. Gehle, . 
A. H. Eldredge, 
Allan Keniston, 
John P. Murphy, 
Bradford A. Scudder, 
Albert L. Stratton, . 
F. M. Truesdell, 



Westfield, . 
Ware, 

Edgartown, 
Greenfield, 
Taunton, . 
Gardner, . 
Great Barrington 



Sept. 25-Nov. 30, 1909. 
Oct. 28-Nov. 30, 1909. 
June 3-Nov. 30, 1909. 
Sept. 25-Nov. 30, 1909. 
Sept. 23- Nov. 30, 1909. 
Sept. 30-Nov. 30, 1909. 
Sept. 23-Nov. 30, 1909. 



1909. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



63 



Cities and Towns alphabetically arranged, with the Number of the Dis- 
trict in which Each is included. 



4 Abington. 
10 Acton. 

2 Acushnet. 
18 Adams. 

16 Agawam. 
20 Alford. 

7 Amesbury. 
15 Amherst. 

9 Andover. 

8 Arlington. 

12 Ashburnham. 

10 Ashby. • 

17 Ashfield. 

11 Ashland. 

12 Athol. 

3 Attleborough. 

13 Auburn. 

5 Avon. 
10 Ayer. 

1 Barnstable. 
15 Barre. 
20 Becket. 

9 Bedford. 

15 Belchertown. 

5 Bellingham. 
8 Belmont. 

3 Berkley. 

10 Berlin. 

17 Bernardston. 

8 Beverly. 

9 Billerica. 

11 Blackstone. 

16 Blandford. 
10 Bolton. 

6 Boston. 
1 Bourne. 

10 Boxborough. 
9 Boxford. 

13 Boylston. 
6 Braintree. 
1 Brewster. 

4 Bridgewater. 

14 Brimfield. 

4 Brockton. 
14 Brookfield. 

6 Brookline. 

17 Buckland. 
9 Burlington. 
6 Cambridge. 

5 Canton. 
10 Carlisle. 

4 Carver. 

18 Charlemont. 
14 Charlton. 

1 Chatham. 
9 Chelmsford. 

6 Chelsea. 

18 Cheshire. 

19 Chester. 



16 Chesterfield. 

16 Chicopee. 
21 Chilmark. 

18 Clarksburg. 

12 Clinton. 

6 Cohasset. 

17 Colrain. 
10 Concord. 
17 Conway. 

19 Cummington. 

19 Dalton. 

15 Dana. 

8 Danvers. 

2 Dartmouth. 
5 Dedham. 

17 Deerfield. 
1 Dennis. 

3 Dighton. 

13 Douglas. 
5 Dover. 

9 Dracut. 

14 Dudley. 

10 Dunstable. 

4 Duxbury. 

4 East Bridgewater. 

16 East Longmeadow. 

1 Eastham. 

16 Easthampton. 
3 Easton. 

21 Edgartown. 

20 Egremont. 

15 Enfield. 

17 Erving. 

7 Essex. 

8 Everett. 

2 Fairhaven. 

3 Fall River. 

1 Falmouth'. 
12 Fitchburg. 

18 Florida. 

5 Foxborough. 

11 Framingham. 
5 Franklin. 

2 Freetown. 

12 Gardner. 

21 Gay Head. 

9 Georgetown. 
17 Gill. 

7 Gloucester. 

19 Goshen. 
1 Gosnold. 

13 Grafton. 

15 Granby. 

16 Granville. 

20 Great Barrington. 

17 Greenfield. 
15 Greenwich. 
10 Groton. 

9 Groveland. 



15 Hadley. 
4 Halifax. 
7 Hamilton. 

14 Hampden. 
18 Hancock. 

4 Hanover. 

4 Hanson. 

15 Hardwick. 

10 Harvard. 

1 Harwich. 

17 Hatfield. 
9 Haverhill. 

18 Hawley. 

18 Heath. 

6 Hingham. 

19 Hinsdale. 

5 Holbrook. 

13 Holden. 

14 Holland. 

11 Holliston. 

16 Holyoke. 
11 Hopedale. 

11 Hopkinton. 

12 Hubbardston. 

10 Hudson. 

6 Hull. 

19 Huntington. 

6 Hyde Park. 

7 Ipswich 
4 Kingston 

2 Lakeville. 

12 Lancaster. 

19 Lanesborough. 

9 Lawrence. 
19 Lee. 

13 Leicester. 
19 Lenox. 

12 Leominster. 

15 Leverett. 

9 Lexington. 

17 Leyden. 

11 Lincoln. 

10 Littleton. 

16 Longmeadow. 
9 Lowell. 

14 Ludlow. 

12 Lunenburg. 

8 Lynn. 

8 Lynnfield. 
8 Maiden. 

7 Manchester. 

3 Mansfield. 

8 Marblehead. 
2 Marion. 

11 Marlborough. 

4 Marshfield. 

1 Mashpee. 

2 Mattapoisett. 
10 Maynard. 



64 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Cities and Towns alphabetically arranged, with the Number of the Dis- 
trict in which Each is included — Concluded. 



5 Medfieia. 
8 Medford. 

11 Medway. 

8 Melrose. 
11 Mendon. 

7 Merrimac. 

9 Methuen. 

2 Middleborough. 

19 Middlefield. 

8 Middleton. 
11 Milford. 

13 Millbury. 
11 Millis. 

6 Milton. 
18 Monroe. 

14 Monson. 

17 Montague. 

20 Monterey. 
16 Montgomery. 

20 Mount Washington. 

8 Nahant. 

1 Nantucket. 

11 Natick. 

5 Needham. 

18 New Ashford. 

2 New Bedford. 

15 New Braintree. 

20 New Marlborough. 

15 New Salern. 

7 Newbury. 

7 Newburyport. 

6 Newton. 

5 Norfolk. 

18 North Adams. 

9 North Andover. 

3 N. Attleborough. 
13 North Brookfleld. 

9 North Reading. 

16 Northampton. 
13 Northborough. 

13 Northbridge. 

17 Northfield. 

3 Norton. 

6 Norwell. 
5 Norwood. 

21 Oak Bluffs. 
15 Oakham. 
17 Orange. 

1 Orleans. 
20 Otis. 

14 Oxford. 

14 Palmer. 
13 Paxton. 

8 Peabody. 

15 Pelham. 

4 Pembroke. 
10 Pepperell. 

19 Peru. 

12 Petersham. 



12 Phillipston. 

19 Pittsfield. 

18 Plainfield. 

5 Plainville. 
4 Plymouth. 

4 Plympton. 

15 Prescott. 
12 Princeton. 

1 Provincetown. 

6 Quincy. 

5 Randolph. 
3 Raynham. 
8 Reading. 

3 Rehoboth. 
8 Revere. 

19 Richmond. 

2 Rochester. 

4 Rockland. 

7 Rockport. 

8 Rowe. 

7 Rowley. 
12 Royalston. 

16 Russell. 

12 Rutland. 

8 Salem. 

7 Salisbury. 

20 Sandisfield. 
1 Sandwich. 

8 Saugus. 
18 Savoy. 

6 Scituate. 

3 Seekonk. 

5 Sharon. 
20 Sheffield. 

17 Shelburne. 
11 Sherborn. 

10 Shirley. 

13 Shrewsbury. 
15 Shutesbury. 

3 Somerset. 

6 Somerville. 

15 South Hadley. 

16 Southampton. 

11 Southborough. 

14 Southbridge. 
16 Southwick. 

13 Spencer. 
16 Springfield. 

12 Sterling. 

20 Stockbridge. 

8 Stoneham. 

5 Stoughton. 

10 Stow. 

14 Sturbridge. 

11 Sudbury. 

15 Sunderland. 

13 Sutton. 

8 Swampscott. 

3 Swansea. 



3 Taunton. 

12 Templeton. 
9 Tewksbury. 

21 Tisbury. 
20 Tolland. 

7 Topsfield. 
10 Townsend. 

1 Truro. 

10 Tyngsborough. 
20 Tyringham. 

13 Upton. 

13 Uxbridge. 

8 Wakefield. 

14 Wales. 

5 Walpole. 

11 Waltham. 
1.5 Ware. 

2 Wareham. 
14 Warren. 
17 Warwick. 

19 Washington. 

8 Watertown. 
11 Wayland. 
14 Webster. 

11 Wellesley. 

1 Wellfleet. 
17 Wendell. 

7 Wenham. 

13 West Boylston. 

4 West Bridgewater. 

14 West Brookfleld. 

7 West Newbury. 
16 West Springfield. 

20 West Stockbridge. 

21 West Tisbury. 

13 Westborough. 
16 Westfield. 

10 Westford. 

16 Westhampton. 

12 Westminster. 

11 Weston. 

2 Westport. 

5 Westwood. 

6 Weymouth. 

17 Whately. 

4 Whitman. 

14 Wilbraham. 
16 Williamsburg. 

18 Williamstown. 

9 Wilmington. 

12 Winchendon. 

8 Winchester. 

18 Windsor. 

6 Winthrop. 
8 Woburn. 

13 Worcester. 

19 Worthington. 

5 Wrentham. 
1 Yarmouth. 



1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



65 



List of Cities and Towns included in Each District assigned to 
Deputy Fish and Game Commissioners. 



Barnstable. 

Bourne. 

Brewster. 

Chatham. 

Dennis. 

Eastham. 



District No. 1. 

Deputy Everett B. Mecarta, Harwich. 

Telephone, 36-4. 

Falmouth. Provincetown. 

Gosnold. Sandwich. 

Harwich. Truro. 

Mashpee. "Wellfleet. 

Orleans. Yarmouth. 



Acushnet. 
Dartmouth. 
Fairhaven. 
Freetown. 



District No. 2. 

Deputy Samuel J Lowe, New Bedford. 

Telephone, 761-2. 

Lakeville. New Bedford. 

Mattapoisett. Rochester. 

Marion. Wareham. 

Middleborough. Westport. 



District No. 3. 
Deputy Allen A. David, Taunton. 
Telephone, 966-1. 
Attleborough. Mansfield. 

Berkley. North Attleborough. 

Dighton. Norton. 

Easton. Raynham. 

Fall River. Rehoboth. 



Seekonk. 
Somerset. 
Swansea. 
Taunton. 



Abington. 

Bridgewater. 

Brockton. 

Carver. 

Duxbury. 

East Bridgewater. 



District No. 4. 

Deputy Charles E. Tribou, Brockton. 

Telephone, 2101. 

Halifax. 

Hanover. 

Hanson. 

Kingston. 

Marshfield. 



Plymouth. 

Plympton. 

Rockland. 

West Bridgewater. 

Whitman. 



Pembroke. 



Avon. 

Bellingham. 

Canton. 

Dedham. 

Dover. 

Foxborough 

Franklin. 



District No. 5. 

Deputy William H. Leonard, East Foxborough. 

Telephone, Foxborough 9-4. 

Holbrook. Randolph. 

Medfield. Sharon. 

Needham. Stoughton. 

Norfolk. Walpole. 

Norwood. Westwood. 

Plainville. Wrentham. 



66 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



District No. 6. 
Chief Deputy William W. Nixon, Central Office, State House. 
Telephone, Hay. 2700; residence telephone, Cambridge 466-2. 
Deputy Benjamin A. Foster. 1 Telephone, Roxbury 1948. 
Deputy Orrin C. Bourne. 1 Telephone, Maiden 1071-4. 
Deputy George H. Brown, Quincy. 
Boston. Hingham. Quincy. 

Braintree. Hull. Scituate. 

Brookline. Hyde Park. Somerville. 

Cambridge. Milton. Weymouth. 

Chelsea. Newton. Winthrop. 



Cohasset. 



Norwell. 



District No. 7. 

Deputy Edward J. Cogan, Gloucester. 

Telephone, 348-L. 



Amesbury. 




Manchester. 


Rowley. 


Essex. 




Merrimac. 


Salisbury. 


Gloucester. 




Newbury. 


Topsfield. 


Hamilton. 




Newburyport. 


Wenham. 


Ipswich. 




Rockport. 
District No. 8. 


West Newbury. 




Deputy 


Thomas L. Burney, Lynn. 
Telephone, 1613-13. 




Arlington. 




Marblehead. 


Salem. 


Belmont. 




Medford. 


Saugus. 


Beverly. 




Melrose. 


Stoneham. 


Danvers. 




Middleton. 


Swampscott. 


Everett. 




Nahant. 


Wakefield. 


Lynn. 




Peabody. 


Watertown. 


Lynnfield. 




Reading. 


Winchester. 


Maiden. 




Revere. 
District No. 9. 


Woburn. 




Deputy 


Walter A. Larkin, Andover. 
Telephone, 172-5. 




Andover. 




Dracut. 


Lowell. 


Bedford. 




Georgetown. 


Methuen. 


Billerica. 




Groveland. 


North Andover. 


Boxford. 




Haverhill. 


North Reading. 


Burlington. 




Lawrence. 


Tewksbury. 


Chelmsford. 




Lexington. 
District No. 10. 


Wilmington. 




Deputy James I. Mills, Ayer. 








Telephone, 51—2. 




Acton. 




Concord. 


Pepperell. 


Ashby. 




Dunstable. 


Shirley. 


Ayer. 




Groton. 


Stow. 


Berlin. 




Harvard. 


Townsend. 


Bolton. 




Hudson. 


Tyngsborough. 


Boxborough. 




Littleton. 


Westford. 


Carlisle. 




Maynard. 





Assigned to launch " Egret " and to special duty, 



1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



67 



District No. 11. 
Deputy James E. Bemis, South Framingham. 
Telephone, 226-J. 

Ashland. Marlborough. Southborough. 

Blackstone. Medway. Sudbury. 

Framingham. Mendon. Waltham. 

Holliston. Milford. Wayland. 

Hopedale. Millis. Wellesley. 

Hopkinton. Natick. "Weston. 

Lincoln. Sherborn. 



District No. 12. 
Deputy Irving 0. Converse, Fitchburg. 



Ashburnham. 

Athol. 

Clinton. 

Fitchburg. 

Gardner. 

Hubbardston. 



Telephone, 53-14. 
Lancaster. 
Leominster. 
Lunenburg. 
Petersham. 
Phillipston. 
Princeton. 



Royalston. 

Rutland. 

Sterling. 

Templeton. 

Westminster. 

Winchendon. 



Auburn. 

Boylston. 

Douglas. 

Grafton. 

Holden. 

Leicester. 

Millbury. 



District No. 13. 

Deputy A. D. Putnam, Spencer. 

Telephone, 75-4 or 75-6. 

Northborough. Sutton. 

Northbridge. Upton. 

North Brookfield. Uxbridge. 

Paxton. West Boylston. 

Shrewsbury. Westborough. 

Spencer. Worcester. 



Brimfield. 

Brookfield. 

Charlton. 

Dudley. 

Hampden. 

Holland. 



District No. 14. 
Deputy John F. Luman, Palmer. 
Telephone, 17—5. 
Ludlow. 
Monson. 
Oxford. 
Palmer. 
Southbridge. 
Sturbridge. 



Wales. 

Warren. 

Webster. 

West* Brookfield. 

Wilbraham. 



Amherst. 

Barre. 

Belchertown. 

Dana. 

Enfield. 

Granby. 

Greenwich. 



District No. 15. 
Deputy Dennis F. Shea, Ware. 
Telephone, 132. 

Hadley. Pelham. 

Hardwick. Prescott. 

Leverett. Shutesbury. 

New Braintree. South Hadley. 

New Salem. Sunderland. 

Oakham. Ware. 



68 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



District No. 16. 





Deputy- 


James P. Hatch, Springfield. 
Telephone, 2571-3. 




Agawam. 




Holyoke. 


Springfield. 


Blandford. 




Longmeadow. 


West Springfield. 


Chesterfield. 




Montgomery. 


Westfield. 


Chicopee. 




Northampton. 


Westhampton. 


East Longmeadow. 


Russell. 


Williamsburg. 


Easthampton. 




Southampton. 




Granville. 




Southwick. 
District No. 17. 






Deputy 


Lyman E. Ruberg, Greenfield. 
Telephone, 376-R. 




Ashfield. 




Erving. 


Northfield. 


Bernardston. 




Gill. 


Orange. 


Buckland. 




Greenfield. 


Shelburne. 


Colrain. 




Hatfield. 


Warwick. 


Conway. 




Leyden. 


Wendell. 


Deerfield. 




Montague. 
District No. 18. 


Whately. 



Deputy Arthur M. Nichols, North Adams. 
Telephone, 391-12. 
Adams. Hawley. Rowe. 

Charlemont. Heath. Savoy. 

Cheshire. Monroe. Williamstown. 

Clarksburg. New Ashford. Windsor. 

Florida. North Adams. 

Hancock. Plainfield. 



District No. 19. 
Deputy Fred R. Zeigler, Pittsfield. 
Telephone, 362-11. 
Chester. Huntington. Peru. 

Cummington. Lanesborough. Pittsfield. 

Dalton. Lee. Richmond. 

Goshen. Lenox. Washington. 

Hinsdale. Middlefield. Worthington. 



District No. 20. 
Deputy DeWitt Smith, Great Barrington. 
Telephone, 72-6. 
Alford. Mount Washington. Stockbridge. 

Becket. New Marlborough. Tolland. 

Egremont. Otis. Tyringham. 

Great Barrington. Sandisfield. West Stockbridge. 

Monterey. Sheffield. 



1909.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 69 



District No. 21. 
Deputy Charles L. Savery, West Tisbury. 
Telephone, 
Chilmark. Gay Head. Tisbury. 

Edgartown. Oak Bluffs. West Tisbury. 



The districts should he organized with a competent assistant 
or subdeputy in each town. 

The report of Chief Deputy Nixon follows : — 

Boston, Mass., Jan. 1, 1910. 

Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — I herewith submit my annual report as chief deputy 
for the year ending Dec. 31, 1909. 

During the year I have devoted a large part of my time in the 
office to directing and supervising the work of the deputies in the field 
engaged in the enforcement of law. I have also assisted deputies at 
times in field work, and instructed them in work which was to be done, 
always having in mind the enforcement of the fish and game laws in 
a fair and impartial manner, with justice for all and malice toward 
none. The officers in charge of the execution of laws must enjoy 
the confidence of the people, because when information is given it is 
done in absolute confidence, and usually only after assurance is given 
that the informant will not be in any wise connected with the prose- 
cution after such information is given. Then devolves upon this de- 
partment the investigation, the securing of evidence, and the beginning 
of the prosecution if sufficient evidence can be secured. I am pleased 
to say that from indications in the past this office has enjoyed to a 
great extent the necessary co-operation of those who believed in a fair 
and impartial enforcement of the fish and game laws. During the year 
231 complaints have been received at this office for violation of the 
fish and game laws, by coming in person to the office at 158 State 
House, by letters to the office and by telephone, all of which have been 
referred to the deputy in whose district they occurred, where the prompt 
investigations which have been made have resulted in a large number of 
arrests and convictions. 

Automobiles. — The use of the automobile as a means of transpor- 
tation to the hunting grounds has become very popular, and wide 
territories are covered by hunters who use them, with the result that 
birds are liable to be completely exterminated in covers to which the 
auto has easy access. The auto comes again into play as a means of 
escape for violators. It has been used to good advantage (to the vio- 



70 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

lator) in cases of Sunday hunting, killing deer, shooting pheasants, 
etc., as wide territories may be rapidly covered. It is located with 
difficulty by the deputies, as the hunters work an hour or two in cer- 
tain covers if violating the law, and then (for another hour) take the 
auto to fields anew, which may be miles from the last scene of opera- 
tion. Thus it is wholly impossible for the deputies to follow, even 
when they know where the violators are to operate. Partridge, pheasant 
and deer have been shot illegally by this means, and the violators have 
escaped the penalty of the law. 

Some Important Changes in Game Laws {Wild Fowl and Deer). 
— Many important changes were made in the game laws at the last 
session of the Legislature, noticeably in regard to wild fowl (chapter 
421), which puts a close season on geese and brant for the first time 
in Massachusetts, and stops all spring shooting. Under the new deer 
law (chapter 396, Acts of 1909), which became operative June 14 of 
this year, allowing the owner of land which was under cultivation to 
shoot deer doing damage thereon, 198 deer have been shot and the 
meat used by persons shooting it, or given away by them to others for 
food; as compared with 16 in 1907 and 17 in 1908, when the meat 
was required to be sold and the money turned into the State treasury. 
Upon receipt at the office of notice of killing (the law provides that the 
person shall send to the office within twenty-four hours), the nearest 
deputy was notified to make a thorough investigation of the damage 
done and facts of such killing, and a report sent to this office. As a 
result of such investigations, four different parties have been put into 
court, under instructions from the office, for illegal killing of deer; 
two were found guilty and paid fines, one was found guilty and the 
case filed, and one was discharged. 

In looking over the premises when damage was claimed to be done 
by deer, the deputies in nearly every case found damage which fully 
justified the killing under the present law. In one case the owner 
claimed damage done by the deer shot as the value of apples eaten, 
15 cents. The deputy's estimate was 3 cents on the same case. Another 
case, the owner's estimate was 15 cents; deputy's estimate, 5 cents. The 
largest estimate of damage was $60, and was allowed by appraisers 
appointed by the chairman of the selectmen of the town. 

The largest number of deer present at one time and doing damage 
when one of their number was shot was seven. The largest number of 
deer shot by one person at one and the same time while doing damage 
was three, one doe and two fawns. The largest number of deer shot 
by or under the orders of the same person since June 17, when the new 
law became operative, was three each by four different persons. 

In some instances the deer were probably shot first, and the hoof 
marks made later, and there are " rumors " that damage done by wood- 
chucks and rabbits was attributed to deer by the hoof -mark method. 
Salt was sometimes used for enticing the deer to destruction. The 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

number killed by farmers this year appears to be greatly in excess of 
that required. 

The present law has caused a vast amount of criticism among the 
sportsmen, as they claim that it gives the farmer not only an open sea- 
son, but a chance to shoot a deer at any time that he feels so inclined. 
The open season on deer should allow the shooting of one, and not 
confine the hunter to either sex, for the reason that if they are allowed 
to shoot their allotment they will return perfectly satisfied with their 
hunt after getting their deer. If the law makes it illegal to shoot does, 
I think a mistake will be made, for the reason that a person when 
hunting deer will shoot at the deer first, and find out what the sex is 
afterwards; and a good many does will be shot, and after the hunters 
find out their mistake they will either take chances in taking the deer 
in violation of law, or leave it to be destroyed. If they are allowed to 
shoot either sex, then they will be satisfied. I am of the opinion that 
a short open season with special deer license would bring a very sub- 
stantial sum into the treasury of the Commonwealth. It would seem 
that something of this kind should be done to protect the State's 
interest, and to get some return for moneys expended by the State for 
damage done by deer and for the State moneys -expended by this com- 
mission for the deer's protection. The argument is often raised that 
to have an open season on deer will cause the loss of a number of lives 
and many serious shooting accidents. This is a chance that all hunters 
and sportsmen take when they go into the woods with loaded firearms. 
An accident is liable to happen at any moment, no matter how careful 
the hunter may be; and in my opinion would not be any more liable to 
happen in hunting deer than it would in hunting other game. If a 
hunter is allowed to shoot his allotment of deer of either sex, he will 
get out of the covers sooner than if he is restricted to buck deer. 

As the law stands to-day, a farmer not only can shoot a deer doing 
damage, no matter how little or insignificant, but can have the carcass 
for food and can also collect damage from the State in money value. 
If a farmer shoots deer doing damage and can have the deer carcass, 
then no money should be paid to him for damage done by the deer shot. 
In numerous instances when damage was done the past year to crops no 
claim was made, nor was any deer shot, the farmer being averse to 
taking advantage of the law by making claim for damages, or shoot- 
ing, as they like to see the deer around. 

Below is given a summary of deer killed, by counties, amount of 
damages, etc.; a comparison of deer shot doing damage the past three 
years under different laws; also a comparison of deer seen the past 
three years, reported by deputies and others. The estimate of damage 
is somewhat misleading, as in some cases it was almost impossible to 
give any estimate as to deer eating apples, eating buds and blossoms 
from fruit trees, tramping down millet, rye, rape, clover, corn and 
vegetables. In opening up the stomachs of deer, quantities of apples 



72 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



and vegetables would be found. In some cases the owner would not, 
or could not, give any estimate, and the deputies have done the best 
they could. This problem of how to best protect the deer is becoming 
a very important one, and will need careful consideration in regard 
to future laws made concerning them. 

Total Arrests for killing Deer illegally, 1909. — During the year just 
closed, 22 arrests were made by deputies for the illegal killing of deer 
in this Commonwealth. Of these cases, 20 convictions were secured, 
and $1,185 in fines were paid on 19 cases. One case was placed on 
file, and 2 discharged. 



Summary of Deer killed under Chapter 396, Acts of 1909, since the 
Law went into Effect, June 14, 1909. 



















Number 
killed. 


Damage. 


County. 


Owner's 

Estimate. 


Deputy's 
Estimate. 


Barnstable, 


- 


- 


- 


Berkshire, 
















20 


$183 40 


$89 78 


Bristol, 
















- 


- 


- 


Dukes, 
















- 


- 


- 


Essex, 
















5 


40 00 


17 50 


Franklin, . 
















94 


758 00 


727 25 


Hampshire, 
















20 


98 50 


57 00 


Hampden, 
















27 


210 98 


103 58 


Middlesex, 
















4 


23 00 


5 50 


Norfolk, . 
















2 


- 


- 


Nantucket, 
















- 


- 


- 


Plymouth, 
















2 


45 00 


25 00 


Suffolk, . 
















- 


- 


- 


Worcester, . 
















24 


53 00 


76 00 


Total, . 


198 


$1,411 88 


$1,101 61 



Money paid by the State Treasurer, according to Acts of 1903, Chap- 
ter 407, for Damage done by Wild Deer. 

1903, • . $237 30 

1904, 392 25 

1905, 1,117 05 

1906, 2,822 73 

1907, 2,912 78 

1908, 4,370 03 

1909, 7,923 09 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 73 

Forest Fires. — Inasmuch as our deputies spend much of their time 
in the woods, assistance is frequently given in checking forest fires, 
and especially in arresting persons thus violating the State laws rela- 
tive to setting fires. The following cases were reported : — 

Deputy Bemis, 3 

Deputy Burney, 1 

Deputy Converse, 3 

Deputy David, , 8 

Deputy Larkin, 3 

Deputy Leonard, 2 

Deputy Mills, 3 

Deputy Ruberg, 1 

Deputy Marks, . . 3 

Deputy Shea, 1 

Deputy Tribou, 2 

Deputy Stratton, 2 

Deputy Nichols, 1 

Deputy Osborn, 8 

Pheasants. — The pheasant, the game bird of Massachusetts in the 
future, is reported as multiplying in good shape and in excellent con- 
dition ; and I think that when the commission decided to stock the covers 
of Massachusetts with this most popular game bird, they planned better 
than they knew. All the covers of Essex County, the starting-point in 
this work, to-day contain many hundred pheasants. This hardy bird 
has proved its ability to live through the most severe New England 
winters, and has multiplied wherever liberated, and, if it were left 
alone and not hunted for a few years, would spread over a large area. 
From every part of the State where these birds have been liberated 
come good reports of their multiplying and their ability to care for 
themselves. 

A number of complaints have been made by farmers regarding the 
pheasants doing damage to growing crops, peas, corn, etc., but no 
serious damage was reported. In some cases pheasants were accused 
of doing damage which was not done by them. The pheasant, if the 
farmer only knew it, is a benefit to him, as they eat numerous bugs and 
insects which destroy crops, chiefly the gypsy and brown-tail moth, 
locust, etc. These they consume by the hundred daily. I think the 
new law, Acts of 1909, chapter 309, putting a close season on them, 
will be very beneficial, although a good many will in all probability 
be shot in violation of the law. Pheasant hunting is a very exciting 
sport when done legally with a good dog and gun, and will give any 
sportsman a good run for the bird. 

Partridge. — From all reports in regard to the partridge, I think 
that they have come through the season fairly well, and that a goodly 



74 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

number have been left over for the breeding season. In the absence 
of strong public sentiment against the sale of partridge, it is very 
difficult to secure convictions, for the reason that the law is easily 
evaded. 

Quail. — Good reports are received from deputies in various parts of 
the State regarding the increase of the quail, notably from the Cape 
district. In various parts of the State there is an unwritten law that 
the quail shall not be shot, but left for breeding purposes; the sports- 
men have lived up to it very well the past few seasons, and a good many 
covies have been left, and with a mild winter and proper care much 
good will result. 

Rabbits. — Gray rabbits have from all reports increased during the 
past season, and are affording good sport to those hunters who like 
this kind. White " rabbits," or, more properly, hares (northern vary- 
ing hare), are gradually disappearing. Foxes, gray rabbits and over- 
shooting are believed to be the cause. A law should be passed making- 
it unlawful to dig out rabbits after the dog has driven them into their 
burrows, as this kind of work will soon deplete the covers. In certain 
localities to-day good covers have been completely cleaned out by this 
method. 

Squirrels. — A large increase of gray squirrels is reported all over 
the State, due no doubt to the close season. The law on gray squirrels 
should be changed so as to allow the owner of fruit trees and corn 
fields to shoot them when found in the act of doing damage to the same. 
Numerous complaints have been made to the office and to deputies in 
regard to damage done by squirrels to pears and corn, mainly to pears, 
when they go into the tree and destroy large quantities of pears by 
eating holes in them and taking out the seed, which seems to be the 
objective point. I have had experience at my home in Cambridge in the 
heart of the city. I have three pear trees in the yard, and during 
the month of September every morning at daybreak I could see two 
gray squirrels in the pear trees, and on going out could pick up from 
two to three quarts of pears which had been destroyed. I also know 
of instances where squirrels have gone into corn fields and have carried 
off whole ears of corn in large quantities. I have seen them at this 
work in West Gloucester, in 1907. 

Lobsters. — In the enforcement of the lobster law for the past season 
29 arrests were made, on which 28 convictions were secured, with 1 case 
discharged; fines amounting to $546 were imposed and paid. The mini- 
mum penalty was $5; the maximum, $75. One case, where a $45 fine 
was imposed, is still pending. 

Four hundred illegal lobsters were returned to the water from which 
they were taken, after being seized by the deputies, in the above cases. 

Feathers used for Millinery Purposes. — I have devoted considerable 
of my time to the enforcement of the law regarding the sale of illegal 
feathers used for millinery purposes, and I am pleased to report that 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 75 

the dealers, dyers, cleaners and wearers who formerly handled and used 
these feathers have become aware of the fact that the law is to be 
enforced without fear or favor, and I find that all (with a very few 
exceptions) are in full sympathy with such enforcement. I have found 
in my visits to these places that all intend to live up to the letter of the 
law. I have always been treated in a courteous manner, whether 
I was there for the purpose of giving a warning or for more serious 
business. I have endeavored to stop the having in possession 
of these illegal feathers by a number of warnings, but when that 
method failed I took more severe measures by putting the parties 
into court, where they were convicted and fined. I find that the general 
public are in full sympathy with such enforcement 2nd I have received 
information of much value at different times from persons who were 
interested in the work. 

The display of the Massachusetts Audubon Society at the Boston 
1915 Exhibit, from Nov. 1 to Dec. 11, 1909, in which were shown some 
of the feathers and birds (loaned to the society by this commission) 
upon which convictions were secured and fines paid, attracted consider- 
able attention, and was very instructive to the ladies and others who 
were interested in the law enforcement. 

I was at the exhibit each night, and gave to the public all information 
desired as to which birds and feathers were in violation of the law, 
and which were not. 

Power Boats. — Chapter 328, Acts of 1909, should be more clearly 
defined in relation to the pursuit of water fowl by power boats. 

The number of power boats is rapidly increasing and the temptation 
to hunt from them is very strong, as no labor is required in getting to 
the hunting grounds along the shore and out in the bays. The law 
should be changed so as to allow the shooting of wild fowl from motor 
boats while at anchor, but not when under power, nor should they be 
allowed to pursue birds of any kind when the boat is under power. 
Considerable violation is being done by power boats hunting, pursuing 
and killing wild fowl in various waters along the shores in Massachu- 
setts, and it is a very hard matter for the deputy to catch them. In 
order to do so the deputy is compelled to hire another boat, which some- 
times is rather a hard proposition, as the owner will not consent if he 
knows for what purpose the boat is to be used. I would say, however, 
that deputies have at times found sportsmen who have not only been 
willing to let their boats, but have even assisted the deputy in making 
the arrest. 

A good many violators use high-speed boats, and cannot be caught 
by a boat of ordinary speed. In some cases they use a boat with speed 
as high as 20 miles an hour. 

Hunting Licenses. — The certificate of registration of all hunters 
should be confiscated by the court upon conviction of a violation of the 
act, and given to the deputies who make the arrest, to be immediately 



76 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

forwarded to this office and placed on file. If the certificate is not 
taken away, the convicted person could use it indefinitely and show it 
on demand to any officer or other person who did not know it was 
void. 

No person should be allowed to hunt without a license. Farmers, 
land owners and all should be included. If the farmers feel that they 
should be given special privileges, then give them the license free, or 
for the recording fee of 15 cents, but compel all to have a license. 
When deputies meet a hunter in the covers, and ask to see the license, 
and the hunter claims to be the owner of the land and does not require 
one, it is impossible to detect an impostor except by a very rare chance. 
If he is acquainted with the locality, and perhaps knows the person, 
then the matter is easily looked up. If, on the other hand, he does not 
know the locality, or the parties or owner, what is he to do? 

Similarly, many hunters found in the covers, when approached by 
the deputy and asked to show the license, evade the law by claiming to 
be hunting foxes, woodchuck, crows and various other animals, or birds 
which are not protected, and for which no license is required unless the 
hunter is a nonresident or alien. If the law were changed so as to in- 
clude all birds and animals, this prolific source of evasion could be very 
easily stopped. The act should also be changed so as to make it com- 
pulsory that the certificate be carried on the person when hunting. 

I am of the opinion that no duplicate certificates should be issued, 
and I think it would be in violation of law to issue them. If a certifi- 
cate is lost or destroyed, that should be a matter for the party to whom 
it was issued to be responsible for, and not the State. I think the fee 
should be changed so as to make it $1.15, so that the State could get 
the $1, and the clerk issuing it the 15 cents, as they are put to some 
expense for postage, stationery, etc. This would greatly assist the 
State Treasurer, by avoiding the necessity of drawing checks for trivial 
amounts, and would avoid the delay incidental to the return of the 
fee to the town clerks. 

Numerous complaints have been made to the office regarding persons 
hunting without licenses, all of which have been investigated, and in 
some cases arrests have been made. In most cases it was too late for 
the deputies to locate the violators. 

Acting under instructions from this office, the paid deputies have sent 
in since September 21 the registered number of 1,004 certificates of 
hunters whom they have met on the hunting grounds and looked over 
for illegal game. 

The total number of different offences committed by violators was 
51, of which one was for interfering with a deputy in the discharge 
of his duty; this offender was arrested, convicted, and paid $30. 
Another was for assault on a deputy; and the offender was arrested, 
convicted and fined $10, together with a fine of $25 for hunting without 
a license, making a total of $35, which was paid. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 

The number of persons arrested for violation of Acts of 1909, chap- 
ter 325 (violation of act requiring the registration of hunters), since 
Jan. 1, 1909, was 23. The details and summaries are given on another 
page. 

The assignment of deputies to definite districts and the publication 
of the districts in the fish and game laws was, I think, a step in the 
right direction, as it put the public in a position to report violations 
to deputies at short notice, with resulting quick service and sometimes 
the catching of violators in the act. 

Deputies should be brought more under the control of the office, and 
not allowed to go into each other's districts, thus adding additional ex- 
pense to the State without good reason therefor. Each deputy is given to 
understand that he must be as economical as possible in the expenditure 
of all moneys which are to be charged up to the State, from whose 
treasury comes his wages and expenses. It is important that it should 
be firmly impressed on the mind of every deputy that the best work 
with the least possible expenditure of public money will bring to him 
and to this commission the hearty co-operation of all. 

Criticism of the methods of work of the deputies is gladly welcomed, 
as is also any suggestion for the enforcement or betterment of the work 
done by them, as only in this way can an efficient force be maintained 
and the best results accomplished. 

I wish at this time to speak a good word for the deputies and for the 
work which they have to do. A large majority of them are honest, 
capable, faithful, conscientious and willing public servants. The life 
of a deputy is not one grand, sweet song. At times he has to stand 
a lot of criticism concerning the methods of work of himself and the 
commission, which is often unjust. The deputies of this department, 
unlike most, other employees of this Commonwealth, do not have an 
eight-hour schedule, but give their entire time, if necessary, to the work 
which they have to do. I know of numerous instances when the deputies 
have worked out in the coldest weather the entire twenty-four hours, 
without sleep. They work all Sundays and holidays, as well as every 
day of the week; generally the hardest work brings the least results. 
A deputy must have good common sense, sound judgment, and be quick 
to act on things as he finds them; sometimes the most important matters 
must be decided in an instant, and be decided in the right way. I 
think the deputies of this commission will compare favorably with any 
body of men similarly employed anywhere in the United States. 

Much credit should be given to the various police officials, police offi- 
cers, constables and all officers who have during the past year assisted 
the various deputies in the work which they had to do; also to the 
clerks of the several courts, for their assistance and help to the depu- 
ties; and more especially to the judges of the courts of the Common- 
wealth, for their fairness and the judicial manner in which they have 
disposed of the various cases for violation of the fish and game laws, 



78 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



always having in mind their duty to the Commonwealth and the right of 
the defendant. As the enforcement of the fish and game laws lies 
largely with the court, the decisions rendered educate and enlighten 
the public, which is most vitally interested, and without whose assist- 
ance and co-operation no law can be upheld. I think the general pub- 
lic and the law-abiding sportsman are in full sympathy with the 
commission for a full and impartial enforcement of the fish and game 
laws. 

Certain unpaid deputies should be commended for the good work 
done by them the past year. This work was not done for what was in 
it, but for the good of the cause and a wish to see the law upheld, and 
was done in some cases at a financial loss to the deputies. 
Respectfully submitted, 

William W. Nixox, Chief Deputy. 



Classification of Arrests during the Year 1909. 



Form op Violation. 



Number of 
Counts. 



Shellfish from polluted waters, ...... 

Hunting on Lord's Day, 

Aliens hunting without license, . 

Residents hunting without license, . 
Possession of and hunting with ferret, . 

Shooting pheasant, . 

Using over ten hooks on ponds, etc., , 

Possession of seed scallops, ...... 

Killing or possession of gray squirrels, . 

Hunting, wounding or killing deer, . . . . , 

Shooting gulls or terns 

Setting traps or snares 

Interfering with officer, ....... 

Possession of smelts in close season, 

Taking smelts with net, 

Taking trout in close season 

Possession of pickerel under ten inches, . 

Taking fresh-water fish with net 

Possession of short lobsters, 

Killing song or insectivorous birds, . . . . , 

Possession of short trout, 

Killing fish by dynamiting waters, 

Fishing in closed ponds, . 

Using over one hook on stocked pond, . . . . 
Destroying or taking eggs of wild birds protected by law 



1909. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



79 



Classification of Arrests during the Year 1909. — Con. 



Form of Violation. 



Number of 
Counts. 



Possession of short bass, .... 
Having egg-bearing lobsters for sale, 

Mutilating lobsters 

Torching herring, 

Having unmarked lobster car, . 

Spearing fish 

Larceny of lobsters 

Pursuing wild fowl with power boat, 
Assault with dangerous weapon, 
Nonresidents hunting without license, 
Possession of ruffed grouse in close season, 
Residents refusing to show license, . 
Killing rabbits in close season, . 

Killing wood duck, 

Using seine of less than five-inch mesh, . 
Maintaining fish trap without permit, 
Pursuing ducks in Great Pond, Edgartown, 

Dogs chasing deer 

Possession of prohibited feathers for millinery 
Possession of black ducks in close season, 

Seining pond 

Total, 



417 



Comparative Table of Law Enforcement, 1908-09. 





1908. 


1909. 


Total fines imposed, 

Fines from arrests by paid deputies, 

Fines from arrests by unpaid deputies, 

Total number counts taken to court, 

Total number persons arrested, 

Convictions, . 

Discharged, 

Defaulted, 

Cases filed, 


$7,097 50 

6,348 50 

759 00 

472 

455 

424 

45 

2 

77 


$5,804 50 

5,400 50 

404 00 

417 

383 

397 

19 

1 

59 



80 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Of two cases appealed in 1908, not included in above, one 
paid $20 and the other $53. One lobster case, fine $45, appealed 
in 1909, still pending. 



Itemized List of Moneys received by the Commissioners on Fisheries and 
Game during the Year 1909 and paid to the Treasurer and Receiver- 
General. 



Received for — 


Amount. 


Issuance of nonresident hunters' licenses (chapter 198, Acts 1907, as amended by- 
chapter 262, Acts of 1909). 
Heath hen fund (chapter 504, Acts of 1907), 


S988 20 
100 00 


Sale of egg-bearing lobsters to United States Bureau of Fisheries stations, . 


672 25 


Sale of deer carcasses (chapter 377, Acts of 1908), . . . . 


38 50 


Interest on deposits in bank 


29 


Total, 


§1,799 24 



There have been no applications for the inspection of fish 
under the Acts of 1902, chapter 138, and no fees have been 
received. 

Under the Acts of 1907, chapter 198, as amended by chapter 
262, Acts of 1909, this commission, which issues licenses to 
nonresidents, has granted licenses as follows : — 



1907, 81 licenses, at $10 each, 
18 licenses, at $1 each, 

1908, 46 licenses, at $10 each, 
21 licenses, at $1 each, 

1909, 1 92 licenses, at $10 each, 
68 licenses, at $1 each, 



$810 00 


18 00 


460 00 


21 00 


920 00 


68 00 



Total, 



$2,297 00 



Recommendations foe Legislation. 

We respectfully recommend the passage of laws designed to 
accomplish the following purposes : — 

1. That investigation be made of the infectious diseases of 
native birds and of foreign birds introduced into the State, with 

1 In addition to the issue of $10 licenses for 1909, as here given, we issued 5 licenses as ex- 
changes, 2 for licenses paid for in 1908 and not used, 3 in exchange for licenses issued in error 
by town clerks and money paid by them into State treasury. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 81 

a report including expert opinions upon the probability of such 
diseases spreading among our native birds, and, so far as pos- 
sible, suggesting remedies and methods for preventing such 
infection; and that for these purposes money be appropriated 
from money received by the Commonwealth for hunting licenses. 

2. That a biological investigation and report be made upon 
the adaptability of the public waters of the State for rearing 
food fishes, to devise methods and to determine as nearly as 
possible the quantity of fish which various waters are capable 
of producing annually and to ascertain the best methods of 
stocking such waters; and that an appropriation not exceeding 
$2,000 a year for three years be appropriated for this purpose. 

3. That the laws relative to shooting from boats propelled by 
mechanical means other than oars should be so defined as to make 
plain their meaning relative to power boats when not under 
power. 

4. That the commission should have authority to purchase, 
lease or receive as a gift lands to be used as bird reservations, 
i.e., specially protected breeding places for birds. Property 
thus acquired should become the property of the Commonwealth, 
to be administered by the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, 
for the purpose of securing the utmost possible population of 
useful birds. Whenever necessary to confirm titles, power of 
eminent domain should be given similar to that in chapter 504, 
Acts of 1907 ; and that of the money received by the Common- 
wealth for hunters' licenses a sum not exceeding $5,000 annually 
may be expended for the purpose of acquiring land for such 
purposes. 

5. That to secure more satisfactory enforcement of the laws 
the legal measurement of lobsters should be made upon the shell 
(carapace), exclusive of the tail; and that this legal measure of 
length should be 4% inches, in conformity with the law of 
Maine. 

6. That all lobster fishermen, dealers and all persons catching 
or transporting lobsters within this Commonwealth should be 
licensed. 

7. That all lobsters or parts of lobsters sold for use in this 
State or for export therefrom must be sold and delivered in the 
shell. 



82 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

8. We renew our recommendations of last year for more ade- 
quate and economical facilities for propagating and distributing 
food fish and useful birds. 

9. Also, for such amendment of the laws as to ensure the de- 
velopment of the mollusk fisheries below high-water mark in 
such a manner as to permit increase in the economic yield of 
food material ; to furnish wider opportunities for remunerative 
employment of skilled and unskilled labor. 

10. The laws relative to deer should be amended so as to per- 
mit a short open season, under suitable restrictions. 

11. Dogs should not be allowed to run at large during the 
breeding season of birds in areas frequented by them, from 
March first to October first. 

12. Special investigations should be made to determine how 
those birds which feed upon gypsy and brown-tail moths, leop- 
ard moths, cut worms and other noxious insects, can be increased 
or colonized within the infected regions or in special locations. 

13. Some decision should be made relative to the issuance of 
duplicate licenses under Acts of 1907, chapter 198, as amended 
by Acts of 1909, chapter 262, and Acts of 1908, chapter 484, as 
amended by Acts of 1909, chapter 325. 

Also, under same acts, the persons applying for a license 
should be required to establish their identity; and for the pur- 
pose of permitting effective enforcement the requirements for 
license or registration should be extended to all persons hunting 
for any species of bird or mammal, and further require that the 
license or certificate of registration should be carried on the 
person when hunting. 

Minors under sixteen years of age making application for 
registration should be obliged to have the consent of their par- 
ents or guardian in writing. 

Upon conviction of violation of game laws, persons holding 
licenses should be instructed by the court convicting them to sur- 
render such license to the deputy who secures the conviction, 
and that said license shall then be sent to the office of the com- 
mission. 

14. Many complaints have arisen relative to damage done 
to crops and to other property by gray squirrels. Some pro- 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 83 

vision should be made for reimbursement by the State; or else 
a short open season, with a " bag limit/' should be permitted in 
those sections where damage is most frequent. 

15. The protection of upland plover expires by limitation 
July 15, 1910. We recommend that this be extended until 
July 15, 1915. 

16. Section 12 of chapter 92 of the Itevised Laws, as amended 
by Acts of 1906, chapter 278, should be further amended to 
coincide with date of the open season on hares and rabbits. 

IT. Chapter 285, Acts of 1907, which permits the taking of 
clams and quahaugs from contaminated waters, should be re- 
pealed. 

18. Depositing shavings, garbage, ashes, acids, dye stuffs and 
other waste materials, which may directly or indirectly injure 
the economic value of public waters, should be prohibited. 

19. On petition of the mayor and aldermen of a city or of 
the selectmen of a town within which a great pond or any por- 
tion thereof is situated, the Commissioners on Fisheries and 
Game, subject to the approval of the Governor and Council, 
may prescribe such reasonable regulations relative to the fishing 
in such ponds and their tributaries, with such penalties, not 
exceeding $20 for one offence, as they deem to be for the pub- 
lic interest, and shall cause such regulations to be enforced. 

20. The deputies of this commission should be authorized to 
arrest hunters whom they find in the act of tearing down walls, 
destroying fences, cutting trees or injuring or destroying other 
property. 

21. That chapter 367, section 1, Acts of 1904, be amended 
so as to allow the commissioners or their deputies or other 
officers to search in certain places for game or fish without a 
warrant. 

Courtesies. 
It is a pleasure again to acknowledge the assistance so cour- 
teously rendered to the commission by Mr. Arthur L. Millett, 
local agent of the United States Bureau of Fisheries at Glouces- 
ter, and by Mr. F. F. Dimick, the efficient secretary of the 
Boston Fish Bureau, in furnishing statistics and special infor- 
mation relating to the marine fisheries. 



84 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Permits to hold egg-bearing lobsters in confinement, for col- 
lection by the agents of this commission, according to chapter 
408, Acts of 1904, were issued to 553 fishermen and dealers. 

Permits for taking birds and eggs under section 9, chapter 
92 of the Revised Laws, as amended by chapter 287, Acts of 
1903, were issued to the following-named persons : — 



Albert H. Tuttle, Cambridge. 
Frederick H. Carpenter, Seekonk. 
B. G. Willard, Millis. 
John H. Hardy, Jr., Boston. 
Clarence Birdseye, Amherst. 
Frederick H. Kennard, Boston. 
Chester S. Day, West Roxbury. 
Chester A. Reed, Worcester. 
Arthur F. Gilbert, New Bedford. 
Robert O. Morris, Springfield. 
Fred B. McKechnie, Boston. 
George M. Gray, Woods Hole. 
William Dearden, Springfield. 
J. A. Barton, Fitchburg. 



A. C. Bent, Taunton. 
Nathan F. Stone, Shrewsbury. 
Owen Durfee, Fall River. 
William Brewster, Cambridge. 
James P. Porter, Worcester. 
Frank S. Akin, Fall River. 
Haynes H. Chilson, Northampton. 
Charles R. Lamb, Boston. 
Edward R. Adams, Canton. 
Henry P. Burt, New Bedford. 
F. A. Binford, Hyannis. 
R. H. Carr, Brockton. 
Frank Blake Webster, Hyde Park. 



Permits to have wild ducks in possession, for purposes of 
propagation, were issued to : — 



Seth A. Borden, Fall River. 
Alfred V. Freeman, South Duxbury. 
J. Goulding, South Sudbury. 
Bayard Thayer, Lancaster. 
Thos. S. Plummer, Dartmouth. 
Spencer Borden, Fall River. 
James E. Rothwell, Brookline. 



Guilford C. Hathaway and Benjamin 

W. Brown, Fall River. 
Allan Keniston, Edgartown. 
H. S. Little, Newbury. 
Frederick E. Mosher, New Bedford. 
Wm. H. Thurston, Plymouth. 



Permits to have wild Canada geese in possession, for pur- 
poses of propagation, were issued to : — 



H. S. Little, Newbury. 

James E. Rothwell, Brookline. 



Permit to have native insectivorous birds in possession, to 
be used in connection with experiments and observations upon 
the use of birds for destroying certain flies in greenhouses, was 
issued to : — 

Seth A. Borden, Fall River. 



Permits to bring into the Commonwealth during the close 
season not exceeding 50 birds known as Anatidse, in accordance 



1909.' 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



85 



with the provisions of Acts of 1909, chapter 421, section 2, 
were issued to : — 



H. B. Endicott, Boston. 
Thomas S. Silsbee, Boston. 
H. Wendell Endicott, Dedham. 
Eben C. Norton, Norwood. 
James M. Codman, Brookline. 
Thomas Barbour, Brookline. 
Henry E. Bigelow, Cambridge. 
John N. Beebee, Boston. 
Decim Beebee, Boston. 
P. S. Mead, Brookline. 
Frank B. Bemis, Boston. 



Wilton Lockwood, Boston. 
Arthur N. Milliken, Boston. 
John B. Paine, Weston. 
Charles Merriam, Weston. 
G. P. Blake, Weston. 
Charles J. Paine, Weston. 
Dr. B. Vincent, Boston. 
J. D. Upton, Boston. 
Paul Windsor, Weston. 
Wm. H. Slocum, Boston. 



Permits to have quail in possession, for purposes of propaga- 
tion, were issued to : — 



Clarence M. Snow, Provincetown. 
Edmond L. Sinnott, Bridgewater. 
J. Goulding, South Sudbury. 



Spencer Borden, Fall River. 
C. F. Hodge, Worcester. 
James H. Porter, Worcester. 



Permits to have ruffed grouse in possession, for purposes of 
propagation, were issued to : — 



C. F. Hodge, Worcester. 
James P. Porter, Worcester. 



Permit to have native insectivorous birds in possession for 
purposes of observation, was issued to : — 



James P. Porter, Worcester. 



Permit to have northern varying or white hares in possession, 
for purposes of propagation, was issued to : — 

Fish and Game Protective Association, Brockton. 



Permits to rear and sell pheasants, in accordance with the 
provisions of Acts of 1909, chapter 309, were issued to : — 



86 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Howard E. Newton, Foxborough. 
Thomas R. Sherburne, Lexington. 
Frederick W. Fisher, Newton. 
Albert L. Brown, Cohasset. 
Andrew S. Coyle, Taunton. 
Minnie Blagden, Rowley. 
H. S. Little, Newbury. 
Austin L. Millett, Rowley. 
Milan A. Brayton, Fall River. 
Grenville Lindall Winthrop, Lenox. 
Charles M. Emerson, Taunton. 
Edward C. Alden, Taunton. 
C. L. Converse, Stoneham. 
Elmer A. Macker, North Grafton. 
James Ashton, Fall River. 
A. N. Reynolds, Westwood. 
Chester H. Keyes, Middleborough. 



E. H. Allen, Stoneham. 

S. B. S. Keyes, Middleborough. 

Frank R. Boston, Beverly. 

G. Marston Whitin, "Whitinsville. 

John Clark, Brockton. 

J. Goulding, South Sudbury. 

George M. Ballard, Danvers. 

Charles F. Berry, Needham Heights 

Bayard Thayer, Lancaster. 

E. P. Wilbur, South Framingham. 

Seth A. Borden, Fall River. 

John C. Phillips, Boston. 

M. J. McQuaid, Clinton. 

Spencer Borden, Fall River. 

Frederick E. Mosher, New Bedford. 

James E. Rothwell, Brookline. 



Permits to take sand eels for bait, under chapter 164, Acts 
of 1902, were issued to the following persons: — 



Elmer A. Durgin, Rowley. 
A. P. Hilton, Newburyport. 



Permit to have lobsters of any size in possession, for scientific 
purposes, was issued to : — 



Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole. 



Permit to transfer spawning white percji and pickerel to a 
satisfactory spawning ground was issued to : — 



Charles E. Tribou, Brockton. 



Permit to take smelts during close season, for the purpose of 
ascertaining facts regarding breeding habits, was issued to : — 



William W. Nixon, Somerville. 



Permit to take trout from the waters controlled by the town 
of Mashpee, for purposes of propagation, was issued to : — 



Frank E. Hitchings, Sandwich. 



Permit to have live brook trout of less than legal length in 
possession, for purposes of study, was issued to : — 



Lester F. Potter, New Bedford. 



1909. 1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



87 



Permits to use a seine in the waters of Pleasant Lake, lying 
between Harwich and Brewster, and in the ponds in Barnstable 
County, for securing white perch for scientific purposes, were 
issued to : — 



Everett B. Mecarta, Harwich. 



Permits to buy and sell or have in possession trout artificially 
propagated and maintained, in accordance with the provisions 
of Acts of 1909, chapter 377, were issued to : — 



Sandwich Trout Company, Sandwich. 
A. R. Graham & Son, Berkley. 
A. B. Savery, Wareham. 
Jacob Diegel, Agawam. 
Estate of Walter L. Gilbert, Chas. S. 
Davis, trustee, Plymouth. 



Plymouth Rock Trout Company, 

outh. 
H. F. Hurlbut, East Freetown. 
N. F. Hoxie, Plymouth. 
William A. Gaston, Barre. 
Charles R. Doten, Plymouth. 



Plym- 



Eespectfully submitted, 



GEOEGE W. FIELD, 
JOHN W. DELANO, 
GEOEGE H. GAEFIELD, 

Commissioners. 



APPENDICES 



[A.] 
List of Commissioners. 



United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 
George M. Bowers, Commissioner. 
Hugh M. Smith, Deputy Commissioner. 
Irving H. Dunlap, Chief Clerk. 

R. S. Johnson, Assistant in charge of Division of Fish Culture. 
Barton W. Everman, Assistant in Charge of Division of Inquiry Respect- 
ing Food Fishes. 
A. B. Alexander, Assistant in Charge of Division of Statistics and Methods. 
Hector Von Bayer, Architect and Engineer. 

Superintendents of United States Fisheries Stations. 
E. E. Race, Green Lake, Me. 
Charles G. Atkins, Craig Brook, East Orland, Me. 
E. E. Hahn, Boothbay Harbor, Me. 
W. F. Hubbard, Nashua, N. H. 
E. N. Carter, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

C. G. Corliss, Gloucester, Mass. 
E. F. Locke, Woods Hole, Mass. 
Chester K. Green, Cape Vincent, N. Y. 
L. G. Harron, Washington, D. C. 
George A. Seagle, Wytheville, Va. 

R. K. Robinson, White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. 

H. D. AUer, Beaufort, N. C. 

J. J. Stranahan, Cold Springs, Bullochville, Ga. 

James A. Henshall, Tupelo, Miss. 

W. E. Morgan, Edenton, N. C. 

A. G. Keesecker, Fishery, Tenn. 

S. W. Downing, Put-in-Bay, 0. 

Frank N. Clark, Northville, Mich. 

S. P. Wires, Duluth, Minn. 

S. P. Bartlett, Quincy, 111. 

M. F. Stapleton, Manchester, la. 

W. 0. Buck, Neosho, Mo. 

J. L. Leary, San Marcos, Tex. 

W. T. Thompson, Leadville, Col. 

D. C. Booth, Spearfish, S. D. 



92 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

H. D. Dean, Bozeman, Mont. 
G. H. Lambson, Baird, Cal. 
Henry O'Malley, Clackamas, Ore. 
A. H. Dinsmore, Baker Lake, Wash. 
W. K. Hancock, Yos Lake, Alaska. 
M. F. Stapleton, Mammoth Spring, Ark. 
C. P. Henkle, Afognak, Alaska. 
R. E. Coker, Fairport, la. 

Alabama. 
Game and Fish Commissioner. 
John H. Wallace, Jr., Montgomery. 

Arizona. 
Fish and Game. 

T. S. Bunch, Safford. 

W. L. Pinney, Secretary, Phoenix. 

E.A. Sliker, Flagstaff. 

California. 

George Stone, President, San Francisco. 

F. W. VanSicklen, Alameda. 

M. J. Connell, Los Angeles. 

Charles A. Vogelsang, Chief Deputy, . . . San Francisco. 

Colorado. 

Thomas J. Holland, Commissioner, . . . Denver. 

R. L. Spargur, Chief Clerk, Denver. 

W. E. Patrick, Superintendent Fish Hatcheries, . Denver. 

James A. Shinn, Deputy Commissioner, . . Denver 

Connecticut. 

George T. Mathewson, President, .... Thompsonville. 

E. Hart Geer, Secretary, Hadlyme. 

E. Hart Fenn, Wethersfield. 

Delaware. 
Game Protective Association. 

A. D. Poole, President, Wilmington. 

E. G. Bradford, Jr., Secretary and Treasurer, . Wilmington. 

Florida. 
Honorary Fish Commissioner. 
John Y. Detwiler, New Smyrna. 



1909.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 93 

Georgia. 
Fish Commissioner. 

A. T. Dallis, LaGrange. 

Idaho. 

Fish and Game Warden. 
William N. Stephens, State Game Warden, . . Boise. 

B. T. Livingston, Chief Deputy, . . . . Boise. 

Illinois. 
State Game Commissioner. 
John A. Wheeler, Springfield. 

Board of Fish Commissioners. 

Nat H. Cohen, President, Urbana. 

S. P. Bartlett, Secretary, Quincy. 

Henry Kleine, . . . . . . . . Chicago. 

Indiana. 

Z. T. Sweeney, Commissioner, Columbus. 

E. E. Earle, Chief Deputy, Indianapolis. 

Iowa. 
Fish and Game Warden. 
George A. Lincoln, Cedar Rapids. 

Kansas. 
L. L. Dyche, . Lawrence. 

Maine. 

Inland Fisheries and Game. 

J. W. Brackett, Chairman, Phillips. 

L. T. Carleton, Winthrop. 

Edgar F. Ping, Orono. 

Sea and Shore Fisheries. 
James Donahue, Commissioner, .... Rockland. 

Maryland. 
Fisheries Commissioners. 

Samuel J. Twilley, . . ' Worcester County. 

Dr. Herbert J. Wade, Washington County. 



94 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



Game Warden. 

H. F. Harmonson, Berlin. 

Massachusetts. 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

George W. Field, Chairman, Boston. 

John W. Delano, Marion. 

George H. Garfield, Brockton. 

Michigan. 
Fish Commissioners. 

Charles D. Joslyn, President, Detroit. 

Delbert H. Power, Vice-President, .... Sutton's Bay. 

Fred. Postal, Detroit. 

State, Game, Fish and Forestry Warden. 

Charles S. Pierce, Lansing. 

Charles N. Smith, Chief Deputy, .... Petoskey. 

Minnesota. 
Game and Fish Commissioners. 

Robert Hannah, President, Fergus Falls. 

George J. Bradley, First Vice-President, . . Norwood. 

0. J. Johnson, Second Vice-President, . . . Glenwood. 

Joseph A. Wessel, Secretary, Crookston. 

H. A. Rider, Executive Agent, .... Little Falls. 

Missouri. 
Fish Commissioners. 

L. A. Geserich, President, St. Louis. 

T. N. McHaney, Vice-President, . . ■ . . Kennett. 

W. S. Willard, Secretary, St. Joseph. 

Ed. Willoughby, Windsor. 

Richard Porter, Paris. 



State Game and Fish Commissioner. 
Jesse A. Tolerton, Jefferson City. 

Montana. 
State Game and Fish Warden. 

Henry Avare, Helena. 

D. H. Morgan, Deputy, Helena. 



1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



95 



Nebraska. 

Gov. A. C. Shallenberger, Commissioner ex officio, Lincoln. 

Dan Geilus, Chief Deputy, Lincoln. 

W. J. O'Brien, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . Gretna. 



George T. Mills, 
E. B. Yerington, 
James Clark, 



Nevada. 

Fish Commission. 



Carson. 
Carson. 
Reno. 



New Hampshire. 
Nathaniel Wentworth, Chairman, .... Hudson Centre. 
Charles B. Clarke, Concord. 



Frank P. Brown, 



Whitefield. 



New Jersey. 



B. C. Kuser, President, 
William A. Logue, Treasurer, 
Percival Christie, 
Ernest Napier, . 
Walter H. Fell, Secretary, 



Trenton. 
Bridgeton. 
High Bridge. 
East Orange. 
Trenton. 



New Mexico. 
Game and Fish Warden. 
Thomas P. Gable, Territorial Game and Fish 

Warden, Santa Fe. 

Willis G. Fischer, Chief Deputy Game and Fish 

Warden, . . . Santa Fe. 

New York. 

Forest, Fish and Game Commission, Capitol, Albany, N. Y. 

James S. Whipple, Commissioner, .... Salamanca. 
J. Duncan Lawrence, Deputy, .... Bloomville. 
John D. Whish, Secretary, Albany. 

State Superintendent of Marine Fisheries. 
B. Frank Wood, New York. 



North Carolina. 

Dr. R. H. Lewis, Raleigh. 

T. Gilbert Pearson, Greensboro. 



96 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



North Dakota. 
District Game Warden. 

W. N. Smith, District No. 1, Grafton. 

Olaf Bjorke, District No. 2, Abercrombie. 

Ohio. 
Commissioners of Fish and Game. 

Paul North, President, . • . • . . . . Cleveland. 

Thomas B. Paxton, . . . . . . . Cincinnati. 

J. F. Rankin, . .... . . . South Charleston. 

D. W. Greene, Dayton. 

George W. McCook, Steubenville. 

George C. Blankner, Secretary, . . . . . . Columbus. 

J. C. Speaks, Chief Warden, . . . . . . Columbus. 

Oklahoma. 
State Game and Fish Warden. 

J. S. Askew, Chickasha. 

Oregon. 
Master Fish Warden. 

H. C. McAllister, ....... Portland. 

State Game and Forestry Warden. 

R. 0. Stevenson, Forest Grove. 

Pennsylvania. 
Game Commissioners. 

James H. Worden, President, Harrisburg. 

C. K. Sober, Lewisburg. 

Charles B. Penrose, . . . . . . . Philadelphia. 

John M. Phillips, . Pittsburg. 

Arthur Chapman, Doylestown. 

Dr. Joseph Kalbfus, Secretary, .... Harrisburg. 

Department of Fisheries. 

W. E. Meehan, Commissioner of Fisheries, . . Harrisburg. 

Board of Fishery Commission. 

John Hamberger, Erie. 

Henry C. Cox, Wellsboro. 

Andrew R. Whitaker, Phcenixville. 

W. A. Leisenring, Mauch Chunk. 



1909.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 97 



Rhode Island. 
Commissioners of Inland Fisheries. 

Charles W. Willard, President, .... Westerly. 

William P. Morton, Secretary, .... Providence. 

Adelbert D. Roberts, Woonsocket. 

William H. Boardman, Central Falls. 

Commissioners of Shellfisheries. 

Philip H. Wilbour, Chairman, Little Compton. 

John H. Northup, Apponaug. 

Edward Atchison, Slatersville. 

Samuel F. Bowden, Barrington. 

John G. Wilcox, Westerly. 

Commissioners of Birds. 

C. H. Remington, Chairman, East Providence. 

W. Gordon Reed, 2d, Cowesset. 

E. R. Lewis, . Westerly. 

William H. Thayer, Bristol. 

A. O'D. Taylor, Newport. 

Tennessee. 
State Warden. 

Joseph H. Acklen, . . . . . . . . Nashville. 

Texas. 
Game, Fish, and Oyster Commission. 

R.H.Wood, Rockport. 

Utah. 

Fred W. Chambers, Salt Lake City. 

Vermont. 

H. G. Thomas, Stowe. 

Virginia. 
Board of Fisheries. 

W. McDonald Lee, Commissioner of Fisheries, . Irvington. 

S. Wilkins Matthews, Secretary, .... Oak Hall. 

George B. Keezell, Keezletown. 

Bland Massie, Tyro. 

J. Murray Hooker, Stuart. 

Edward L. C. Scott, Clerk, Richmond. 



98 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Washington. 
Fish Commissioner and Game Warden Ex Officio. 
John L. Riseland, Bellingham. 

West Virginia. 
Game and Fish Warden. 
James H. Marcum, Huntington. 

Special Deputy. 

F. H. Merrick, Huntington. 

Wisconsin. 
Department for the Protection of Fish and Game. 

G. W. Rickeman, State Warden, .... Madison. 
J. F. Sugden, Chief Deputy, . . . . . Madison. 



Commissioners of Fisheries. 



The Governor, ex officio. 
Calvert Spensley, President, 



ident, 



James J. Hogan, Vice-Pre 

E. A. Birge, Secretary, 

William J. Starr, 

George B. Hudnall, 

Jabe Alford, 

A. A. Dye, . . . 

James Xevin, Superintendent, 



Mineral Point. 

LaCrosse. 

Madison. 

Eau Claire. 

Superior. 

Madison. 

Madison. 

Madison. 



Wyoming. 
State Game Warden. 



D. C. Nowlin, 



Lander. 



1909. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



99 



[B.] 
Distribution op Food Fish. 



Trout Fry. 

Distribution of Trout Fry from the Adams Hatchery during April and May, 

1909. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. 


Number. 


James M. Burns, 


Pittsfield, . 


Shaker, 


5,000 


William N. Jones, 


Lanesborough, . 


Laurel Hill, 




5,000 


William H. Newton, 


Pittsfield, . 


Daniels, 




5,000 


Joseph Ward Lewis, 


Lanesborough, . 


Hollow, 




5,000 


Allen H. Bagg, 


Lanesborough, . 


Wells, 




5,000 


Edwin T. Smith, . 


Lanesborough, . 


Sachem, 




5,000 


Arthur H. Wood, 


Lanesborough, . 


Rice, .... 




5,000 


Dr. A. L. Boudreau, 


- - - 


_ _ _ 




5,000 


John McCormick, 


Windsor, 


McCormick, 




5,000 


Fred Harris, 


Savoy, 


Tanny, 




5,000 


D. E. Burnett, 


Savoy, 


Gulf 




5,000 


George E. SafTord, . 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ , 


5,000 


Robert Groves, 


Savoy, 


Bear, .... 


5,000 


J. E. Morgan, 


Adams, 


Tophet, 


5,000 


Harry J. Sheldon, . 


Cheshire, . 


Bassett, 




5,000 


George F. Sayles, 


Adams, 


Dry, .... 




5.000 


C. J. Fales, 


Cheshire, 


Fales, 




5,000 


George McAuley, 


Adams, 


Mason, 




5,000 


William P. Martin, 


Cheshire, . 


Chapman, . 




10,000 


Humphrey J. Coughlin, . 


Clarksburg, 


North Branch, Sherman, 


} 


20,000 


President Anglers' Club, 


North Adams, . 


Tunnell, Hudson, 


J. M. VanHuyck, 


Lee, .... 


Mud Pond, Barlow, . 




10,000 


Bradley C. Newell, . 


Rowe, 


Newell, 




5,000 


Nelson M. Otis, 


Chester, 


Knox, 




5,000 


C. L. Haughton, 








Robert C. Hollister, 








F. H. Saunders, 




Powder Mill, 




Leon H. Bowers, 




Munn's, 






Edward G. Clark, . 
James B. Hanks, . f 


Westfield, . 


Timber Swamp, 
Oak Orchard, 


■ 


50,000 


Edward L. Douglass, 




Hundred Acre, . 






Ralph L. Conner, . 




Jack's, 






Charles H. Gehle, . 








George F. Gehle, 














190,000 



Fry distributed from the Hadley Hatchery during April, 1909. 


Fred E. Field, . 
R. L. Clapp, . 
George H. Thompson, 
Greenfield Sportsman's 
Club, .... 
L. W. Pettingill, 
W. S. Gabb, . 
W. G. Bisbee, . 
Fred La Valley, 


Montague, . 
Montague, . 
New Salem, 

Greenfield, 
Cummington, 
Cummington, . 
Williamsburg, 
Williamsburg, 


Coldbrook, .... 

Pond, 

Middle Branch Swift River, 

Green River, .... 

Mitchell, 

Nipping, ..... 

Hill, 

Bullard, 


10,000 
10,000 
10,000 

25,000 
10,000 
10,000 
5,000 
5,000 



100 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Fry distributed from the Hadley Hatchery, etc. — Concluded. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. 


Number. 


F. E. Hawks, . 
M. W. Smith, . 
W. A. Smith, . 
John Doherty, 
A. D. Prouty, . 
P. M. Taylor, . 
H. A. Buzzell, . 
Charles S. Ballard, 






Goshen , 

Goshen, 

Goshen, 

Goshen, 

Springfield, 

Longmeadow, 

Longmeadow, 






Packard, . 
Rogers, 
Hampshire, 
Highland, . 
Bliss, . 

Entry Dingle, 
Entry Dingle, 
Scantic, 








5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
20,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 






















155,000 



Fry distributed from the Sutton Hatchery during April and May, 1909. 



T. B. Stevenson, 






5,000 


C. A. Reynolds, 


_ 


_ 


5,000 


Norton Company, . 


Worcester, . 


Barber, 


5,000 


Henry E. Dean, 


Worcester, . 


Beaver, 


5,000 


Henry E. Dean, 


Worcester, . 


Lincoln, 


5,000 


Elmer A. Macker, 


North Grafton, . 


Bummit, 


5,000 


Gus S. Dickinson, . ) 








E. A. Ludden, . . [ 


North Brookfield, 


Webb, Harrington, . 


15,000 


A. P. Morin, . . J 








James Nolan, . 


Milford, 


Louisa Lake, .... 


5,000 


C. S. Robinson, 


Mendon, 


Thompson, . 


5,000 


John Day, 


Sturbridge, 


Clay, 


5,000 


J. S. Hubbard, 


Sturbridge, 


Hinman, 


5,000 


W. F. Durgin, . 


Upton, 


Taft, 


5,000 


W. R. Dean, . 


Oakham, . 


5-mile River, .... 


5,000 


Henry H. Hallock, . 


Hubbardston, . 


Natty, 


5,000 


Herbert G. Howard, 


Ashburnham, 


Willow 


5,000 


F. A. Gravlin, . 


Ashburnham, 


Brown Meadow, 


5,000 


Albert H. Sherman, 


Shirley and Lunen- 








burg, 


Mulpus, Tophet, Houghton, 


5,000 


Arthur G. Chickering, 


Lancaster, . 


Shoeshank, .... 


5,000 


Patrick Murphy, 


Muschopauge, . 


Wheeler, 


5,000 


Arthur Snow, . 


Clinton and Sterling, 


Sheehan, 


5,000 


Joseph E. Johnston, 


Lancaster, . 


Spec. Pond, .... 


5,000 


William M. Lee, 


Bolton and Berlin, . 


Berlin, 


5,000 


W. J. Tedford, . 


Harvard, . 


Harvard, 


5,000 


Foster A. Caples, 


Athol, 


Newton, 


5,000 


E. B. Newton, . 


Phillipston, 


Popple Camp 


5,000 


A. B. Shaw, 


Athol, 


Newton, 


5,000 


H. A. Bancroft, 


Athol, 


Ellinwood, .... 


5,000 


Arthur B. Perkins, . 


Athol, 


Ellinwood, .... 


5,000 


Joseph Hamel, 


Athol, 


Newton 


5,000 


James W. Boutell, . 


Athol, 


Riceville 


5,000 


Myron R. Goddard, 


Gardner, . 


Hubbardston, .... 


5,000 


W. S. Richardson, . 


Gardner, . 


Poor Farm, .... 


5,000 


W. A. Streeter, 


Westminster, 


Marrow Meadow, 


5,000 


A. W. Pratt, . 


Gardner, 


Bailey, 


5,000 


H. L. Curtis, . 


Gardner, 


Bailey, 


5,000 


Harry J. Paige, 


Gardner, 


Wilder, ..... 


5,000 


Elmer F. Senior, 


Gardner, . 


Kneeland, 


5,000 


A. W. Littlefield, . 


Holliston, . 


Chicken, 


5,000 


George G. Leathe, . 


Gardner, 


Foster 


5,000 


A. D. Norcross, 


Monson, 


Bumstead, Conant, . 


10,000 


A. D. Norcross, 


Wales, 


Cider Mill 


5,000 


A. G. Moody, . 








Charles H. Stearns, [ 


Northfield, 


Warwick, Hart 


15,000 


John Phelps, . . J 








Greenfield Sportsman's 








Club 


Northfield, 


Louisiana, Panchaug, 


15,000 


C. P. Abbott, . 


Groveland, 


Morrill's 


3,000 


A. B. Robinson, 


Georgetown, 


Wheeler, 


3,000 


A. W. Flye, 


Gloucester, 


Alewife 


3,000 


Cooney, 


Rockport, . 


Wine, 


3,000 


Edmond H. Smith, . 


Feeding Hills, . 


Filo 


3,000 


James E. Bemis, 


North Sudbury, 


Pantry 


3,000 




268,000 



1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



101 



Fry distributed from the Winchester Hatchery during April, 1909. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. | Number. 


Phillip P. Conners, . 


Lowell, . ... 


Meadow, 


5,000 


Willis S. Holt, . 


Andover, . 


Hardy's, 






5,000 


Henri E. Richardson, 


Westford, . 


Snake Meadow, 






5,000 


Melvin G. Gooch, . 


Tewksbury, 


Trull, 






5,000 


Harry L. Shedd, 


Tewksbury, 


Felker, 






5,000 


Fred E. Jones, . 


Tyngsborough, . 


Flint's, . t . 






5,000 


T. H. Varnum, 


Chelmsford, 


Crooked Spring, 






5,000 


George W. Alcott, 


Chelmsford, 


Black, 






5,000 


Caleb L. Smith, 


Chelmsford, 


Golden Cove, 






5,000 


S. J. Bigelow, . 


Chelmsford, 


Swain's, 






5,000 


Charles E. Blaisdell, 


Dracut, 


Richardson, 






5,000 


Herbert E. Tyler, . 


Weston, 


Hobbs, 






5.000 


Henry H. Watson, . 


Waltham, . 


Beaver, 






5,000 


Thomas H. Bruce, . 


Waver ley, . 


Clematis, . 






5,000 


C. A. 0. Grip, . 


Waverley, . 


Clematis, . 






5,000 


Richard L. Everit, . 


Wellesley, . 


Indian Spring, . 






5,000 


Fred W. Bean, . 


West Peabody, . 


Twist, 






5,000 


J. J. Kennedy, 


Stoughton, 


Dead Meadow, 






5,000 


George B. Treen, 


Mansfield, . 


Atwood, 






5,000 


Henry W. Cobb, . 


Mansfield, . 


Atwood, 






5,000 


Charles P. Sprague, 


Taunton, . 


Flax Mill, . 






5,000 


Leominster Sportsmen's 








Association, 


Leominster, 


Moonoosnock, Lunenburg, 








Houghton, .... 


20,000 


f 


Ashby, 


Willard, Lock, Trap Falls, 




Fitchburg Sportsman's j 


Ashburnham, 


Laws, [ 


24,000 


Club, ... 


Fitchburg, . 


Falulah, Shattuck, 






[ 


Shirley, 


Catacoonamuc, . 








E. Frank Blake, 


Ashland, 


Cold Spring, 






5,000 


Charles E. Boyd, . 


Mansfield, . 


Canoe River, 






5,000 


C. Minton Taylor, . 


_ 


_ _ _ _ 


5,000 


E. H. Ives, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


5,000 


Heman A. MacDonald, . 


Beverly Farms, 


Bennett's, 


5,000 


Leslie K. Morse, 


Haverhill, . 


Hoyt 


5,000 


R. M. Keith, . 


Bridgewater, 


Spiny, 


5,000 


Charles W. Davol, . 


Dighton, 


Segregansett 


5.000 










189,000 



Fingerling Trout Plants during Fall of 1909. 




W. L. Taft, 


Northbridge, 


Northbridge, .... 


1,000 


C. V. Dudley, . 




Whitinsville, 


Burt, Purgatory, Prentice, 
Bathrick, .... 


1,000 


Basil E. Aldrich, 




Milford, . 


Bungy, 




500 


W. F. Durgin, . 




Upton, 


Taft, 




: : } 


500 


W. F. Durgin, . 




Mendon, 


Muddy, 




E. H. Kinnicutt, 




Blackstone, 


Fox, . 






500 


James B. Hodder, 




Blackstone, 


Fox, . 






500 


Elmer A. Macker, 




North Grafton, . 


Bummit, 






500 


Edward C. Traver, 




Upton, 


Braddish, 






500 


J. F. Despeaux, 




Upton, 


Banard's, 






500 


C. A. Barber, . 




Upton, 


Warren, 






500 


E. A. Ludden, . 










Geo. S. Dickinson, 


. 


North Brookfield, 


Five-mile River, 


1,500 


A. P. Morin, 










R. E. Haskins, 




r 


Tanny, .... 




C. H. Clark, . 
C. E. Bill, 




West Brookfield, I 


Barrett, 
Budish, 


• • 


2,000 


J. G. Shackley, 




[ 


Tyler, 


J 




Frank F. Bullard, 




East Brookfield, 


Great, 




500 


J. Frank Stone, 




East Brookfield, 


Bond, Walker, 




500 


J. W. Barney, . 




West Brimfield, 


Quaboag River, 




1,000 


E. D. Atkins, . 




Uxbridge, . 


Cold Spring, 




1,000 


George N. Gelley, 




Sterling, . 


Taffs, 




500 


H. H. Hosley, . 




East Princeton, 


Osgood's, . 




500 


Henry A. Ross, 




West Medway, . 


Black Swamp, 




500 


Adelbert D. Thayer, 


Franklin, . 


Woodward, Uncas, 


500 


Henry U. Plympton, 


Millbury, . 


Sawmill Stream, 


500 


T. B. Stevenson, 


- - — 


_ 


500 



102 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Fingerling Trout Plants during Fall of 1909 — Continued. 




Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. 


Number. 


P. S. Callahan, 


Fiskdale, . 


Hyland, 


500 


J. L. Houde, 




Sturbridge, 


Hobo, .... 




500 


Dom Pocai, 




Southbridge, 


Brickyard, 




500 


Earl W. Ide, . 




Southbridge, 


Brickyard, 




500 


Rufus B. Dodge, . 




Worcester, . 


Tatnuck, .... 




500 


C. L. Allen, . 




Worcester, . 


Barber, .... 




500 


Henry E. Dean, 




Worcester, . 


Lincoln, Beaver, 




1,000 


C. C. Dodge, . 




Shrewsbury, 


Wyman, 




500 


John F. Cummings, 




Shrewsbury, 


Rawson Hill, 




500 


Irving J. Johnson, . 




Shrewsbury, 


Wyman, .... 




500 


Roy R. Stimpson, . 




Jefferson, . 


Mill, 




500 


L. G. McKnight, 




Westminster, 


Mare Meadow, . 




1,000 


George F. Gehle, 










Joseph D. Cadle, 










George W. Searle, . 










Charles H. Gehle, . 










Howard G. Noble, . 
Arthur Foley, 
Edward G. Clark, . 




Westfield, . . { 


Timber Swamp, . . \ 
Sandy Mill, J 


5,000 


Orin E. Parks, 










F. F. Shepard, 










Michael F. Sullivan, 










Charles N. Oakes, . 










Michael Sullivan, 




Chicopee : . 


Cooley, Poor, .... 


1,000 


W. H. Roberts, 




Chicopee Falls, . 


Poor, 


500 


Ira J. Humes, 




Holyoke, . 


Tannery, 


500 


Fred Laduke, . 




Holyoke. . 


Broad, 


500 


P. M. Taylor, . 
Harry A. Buzzell, 


} 


Longmeadow, 


Pecowsie 


1,000 


Edmond H. Smith, 


Agawam, . 


Filo 


500 


Charles S. Ballard, . 




_ 


_ 


500 


A. D. Norcross, 




Monson, 


Sutcliffe, Peck's, Conant, 








Tupper Hill, .... 


1,000 




Leominster, 


Moonoosnock, ] 
Massapoag, . . . \ 
Heywood, Chocksett, . J 




Leominster Sportsmen's ■ 


Lunenburg, 


2,500 


Association, . 


Sterling, 




Arthur Snow, . 


' 








J. R. Eustace, . 
Clinton Gun Club, 




Bolton, 


Collins, Sheehan, 


2,000 


W. J. Tedford, . 










G. C. Wheelock, 




Lancaster, . 


Lewis, 


500 


A. G. Chickering, 




Lancaster, . 


Shoeshank, 




500 


Michael J. Powers, 




_ _ _ 


- - - - 




500 


Fred R. Marsh, 




Sterling, 


Waushacum, 




500 


Robert A. Mason, 




_ _ _ 


_ _ _ 




500 


Walter P. Bowers, 




West Berlin, 


Clamshell, . 




500 


Gardiner L. Tarr, 




Framingham, 


Clay, .... 




500 


Frank D. Blake, 




Ashland, 


Butcher, 




500 


F. D. Phillips, . 




Hopkinton, 


Indian, 




500 


Edward M. Prescott, 


Ashland, 


Waushakum, 




500 


L. E. Eames, 


Hopkinton, 


Cold Spring, 




500 


Charles N. Har graves, 


South Framingham, . 


Angelica, . 




500 


Fitchburg Sportsman's 










Club, 


Lunenburg, 


Mulpus, 




2,500 


James W. Boutell, 




Athol, 


Riceville, . 




400 


E. B. Newton, . 




Phillipston, 


Popple Camp, . 




400 


Everett King, . 




Phillipston, 


Ellinwood, 




400 


Joseph Hamel, 




Phillipston, 


Sawyer, 




400 


H. L. Curtis, . 




Gardner, 


Bailey, 




250 


W. A. Streeter, 




Westminster, 


Marrow Meadow, 




250 


G. E. Goddard, 




Westminster, 


Perley, 




250 


Myron R. Goddard, 




Westminster, 


Cook, 




250 


A. K. Learned, 




Westminster, 


Reed, 




250 


D. H. Gates, . 




Westminster, 


Perley, 




250 


G. Stanley Lovell, 




Westminster, 


Foster, 




250 


William H. Doody, 




Westminster, 


Ramsdell, . 




250 


W. P. O'Donnell, 




Templeton, 


Bourn and Hadley, . 




250 


Carmi H. Baker, 




South Gardner, 


Nigger, 




250 


S. W. Rogers,^. 




Phillipston, 


Brigham, . 




250 


Leo B. Hartwell, 




Phillipston, 


Gardner, Templeton, 




250 


Albert J.^Ray, 




Westminster, 


Moore's, 




250 


A. L. Stratton, 




Phillipston, 


Phillipston Meadow, 




250 


Frank A. Gravlin, 




Ashburnham, 


Black, 




400 


H. G. Howard, 




Ashburnham, 


Cooper, 


400 



1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



103 



Fingerling Trout Plants during Fall of 1909 — Continued. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Name of Brook. 


Number. 


F. W. Lombard, 


Ashburnham, 


Blodgett 


400 


F. L. Hager, . 


WinchendoD, 






Carter's, 


400 


Charles A. Merrill, . 


Winchendon, 






Stockard, 


400 


M. C. Needham, 


Oakham, . 






Coldbrook, 


400 


W. R. Dean, . 


Oakham, . 






Tributary of Five-mile River, . 


400 


Gardner M. Dean, . 


Oakham, . 






Pratt, 


400 


John H. Neff, 


Ware, 






- — - — 


400 


Harold W. Robinson, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


400 


Fred Sharpe, . 


_ 


_ 


400 


C. B. Wetherby, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


400 


J. H. Sehoonmaker, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


400 


E. W. Lawton, 


_ _ _ 


_ _ _ _ 


400 


Henry H. Hallock, . 


Hubbardston, . 


Natty 


400 


Charles E. Gee, 


North Dana, 






Blackmer, ..... 


400 


Greenfield Sportsman's 












Club, .... 


Greenfield, 






Green River, Punch and others, 


2,400 


John S. Coates, 


Greenfield, 






Wright's Mountain, . 


400 


F. N. Wilson, . 


Shelburne, 






Taylor, .... 




400 


J. S. Outhouse, 


Charlemont, 






Deerfield River, 




400 


A. G. Moody, . 


Northfield, 






Louisiana, Pauchaug, 




400 


John Phelps, . 


Northfield, 






Warwick, Hart, 




800 


Fred E. Field, . 


Montague, . 






Coldbrook, 




400 


R. L. Clapp, 


- - 






_ _ _ _ 




400 


C. L. Crafts, . 


Whately, . 






Roaring, .... 




400 


Bradley C. Newell, . 


Rowe, 






Hunt, Newell Farm, 




800 


A. A. Shippee, 


- - 






_____ 




400 


Homer Sherman, 


Rowe, 






Pelham Lake, . 




400 


Lawson Ramage, 


Monroe, 






Dunbar, 






400 


John N. Moore, 


Orange, 






Jones, 






400 


H. H. Ramsey, 


New Salem, 






Middle Branch Swift 


River, 




400 


Rufus T. Shumway, 


New Salem, 






Moosehorn, 






400 


C. H. Sawyer, . 


Hatfield, . 






Running Gutter, 






400 


Walter L. Stevens, . 


Whately, . 






West, . 






400 


George L. Harris, 


Sunderland, 






Welch, 






400 


George W. Gilbert, . 


Sunderland, 






Meadow, 






400 


John A. Crosier, 


Sunderland, 






Mohawk, . 






400 


F. A. Shumway, 


Williamsburg, 






Bradford, . 






400 


John N. Lyman, 


Easthampton, 






North, Bassett's, 






800 


Wilfred Laro, . 


Easthampton, 






Broad, Hammond, 






400 


W. A. Smith, . 


Goshen, 






Highland, . 






400 


John Doherty, 


Goshen, 






Hampshire, 








400 


F. E. Hawks, . 


Goshen, . ' 






Packard, 








400 


M. W. Smith, . 


Goshen, 






Rogers, 








400 


L. W. Pettingill, 


Cummington, 






Mitchell, . 








400 


W. S. Gabb, . 


Cummington, 






Nipping, . 








400 


Burt F. Fellows, 


Belchertown, 






Fuller's, . 








400 


Fred D. Walker, 


Belchertown, 






Jabish, Thomas, 








400 


George M. Fisher, . 


Belchertown, 






Jabish, Sodom, 








400 


J. R. Anderson, 


Pelham, 






Cook's, 








400 


Royal W. Aldrich, . 


Pel ham, 






Amethyst, . 








400 


A. T. Mitten, . 


Amherst, . 






Swift River, 








400 


William Turtle, 


Pittsfield, . 






Schoolhouse, 








400 


James M. Burns, 


Pittsfield, . 






Sackett, 








400 


Harold C. Leonard, 


West Pittsfield, 






Shaker, 








400 


R. H. Gamwell, 


Pittsfield, . 






Schoolhouse, 








400 


H. J. Coughlin, 


- - 






_ _ _ _ 




400 


F. L. Hargreaves, 


North Adams, 






South Branch Hoosic, 




400 


A. B. Millard, . 


North Adams, 






Hudson, .... 




400 


B. R. Millard, . 


Florida, 






Cole River, 






400 


Thomas H. Hughes, 


Adams, 






Tophet, 






400 


H. 0. Hicks, . 


Adams, 






Dean, 






400 


Walter B. Sanford, . 


Great Barrington, 




Seekonk, Alford, 






800 


Homer E. Foote, 


Great Barrington, 




Seekonk, 






400 


O. C. Bidwell, . 


Monterey, . 




Old Center, Harmon, 






800 


H. A. Barton, 


Dalton, 




Barton, 






400 


P. H. Clarisey, 


Dalton, 




Cleveland, 






400 


M. T. Quinlan, 


Dalton, 




Egypt, 






400 


A. Silvernail, . 


West Stockbridge, 




McGinty, . 






400 


E. F. Brennan, 


Russell, 




Blacks, 






400 


W. J. Cross, 


Becket, 




Depot, Norcett, 






400 


F. H. Martin, . 


Reading, . 




Willow, 






1,200 


C. A. O. Grip, . 


Weston, 




Severance, 






400 


T. H. Bruce, . 


Weston 




Severance, Cherry, 






800 


Henry H. Watson, . 


Weston, 




Cherry, 






400 



104 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Fingerling Trout Plants during Fall of 1909 — Concluded. 



Applicant. 



Town. 



Name of Brook. 



Number. 



Frank J. Knight, 
J. H. Whitcomb, 
J. Hart well Whitcomb, 
George M. Fitch, 
Louis Pleiffer, . 
George E. Wilkins, . 
Walter Burkes, 
Harrv E. Hersam, . 
E. C. Cheney, . 
Henry P. Andrews, . 
J. Walter Smith, 
Pierre Gregoire, 
Harry L. Shedd, 
Willis S. Holt, . 
Charles F. McCarthy, 

E. Frank Blake, 
Herbert Tyler, 
Ralph H. Hosmer, . 

F. H. Hilton, . 
Albert W. Littlefield, 
Edward H. Yeaton, 
Amos B. Robinson, 
Martin Carr, 
Stephen H. Sinclair, 
David G. Wheeler, 
Charles H. Preston, 

D. H. O'Brien, 
Everett T. Guilford, 
H. A. MacDonald, . 

G. R. Groesbeck, 

E. L. Freeman, 
Clyde C. Hunt, 
Arthur LeB. Treen, . 
Harry D. Phillips, . 
Stephen D. Phillips, 

F. D. Searles, . 
Bradley M. Rockwood, 
Dr. R. M. Miller, . 
George B. Ames, 

C. F. McMahon, 
J. J. Kennedy, . 

G. B. Treen, . 
C. S. Cobb, . 
Zebulon L. Canedy, 
Truscott W. Tisdale, 
James Burke, . 
Stanley A. Aldrich, 
Thomas Taylor, 
Thomas L. Lewis, . 
Frank M. Chace, 
Arnold D. Gardner, 
G. W. Fiske, . 
Franklin S. Simmons, 
William H. Smith, . 
Frank Stockwell, 
Manuel S. Corayer, . 
Roland M. Keith, . 
Leslie K. Morse, 
Henry B. Davis, 
Thomas H. Hughes, 
S. G. Tenney, . 
George B. Clark, 
Moses Gross, 
Robert F. Brown, . 
William Turtle, 
Homer E. Foote, 
Hiram L. Reynolds, 
Charles T. McMahon, 
Charles B. Jerome, 
C. M. Jacot, 
Norman Barstow, 
Arthur L. Nason, 
A. D. Putnam, 
Henry S. Davis, 



Townsend, 

Littleton, . 

Bedford, . 
Carlisle, 

Stoneham, 
North Acton, 
Hudson, 

Tyngsborough, 
Tewksbury, 
West Andover, 
Marlborough, 
Ashland, 

Sudbury, . 
Holliston, 

Georgetown, 
Georgetown, 
Middleton, 
Middleton, 
West Peabody, 
Topsfield, 
Rowley, 
Rowley, . . 
Beverly Farms, 
Saugus, 
Medway, . 
Medway, 
West Medway, 
West Medway, 
West Medway, 
South Franklin, 
Franklin, . 
Sharon, 
Dover, 
Randolph, 
Stoughton, 
Mansfield, . 
Mansfield, . 
Lakeville, . 
Lakeville, . 
Westport, . 
Rochester, . 
Westport, . 
Westport, . 
Assonet, 
Swansea, 
Swansea, . 
Somerset, . 
South Hadley, 
Auburn, 
Brockton, . 
Bridgewater, 
Haverhill, . 
Harwich, . 
Adams, 
Williamstown, 
Carver, 
Worcester, . 
Sutton, 
Cheshire, . 
Great Barringto 
Grafton, 
Randolph, 
Stockbridge, 
Stockbridge, 
New Bedford, 
Haverhill, . 
Spencer, 
Ware, 



Wallace, 

Beaver, 

Shawsheen, 
Hill's, 

Sweetwater, 
Cold, . 
Hog, . 



Gregoire's, 

Felker, 

Hardv's, 

Bartlett, Millham, 

Sudbury River, Johnson, 



Clark Pasture, 
Overbound, 



Wheeler, 

Jackman, . 

Pine, . 

Poor's, 

Norris, 

Elliott, 

Batchelder, 

Dows, 

Sawmill, 

Little River, Cold Spring 

Lone Star, . 

Gurney's, . 

Hopping, . 

Chicken, . 

Black Swamp, . 

Woodards, . 

Country Club, Woodards 

Beaver, 

Noanet, 

Sand Hill, . 

Dead Meadow, . 

Spring, 

Spring, 

Mullen Hill, 

Holloway, . 

Cornell, 

Doggett, . 

Bread and Cheese, 

Noquochoke, 

Ledge, 

Millford, Gardner, 

Swan Lake, 

Hathaway's, 

Elmer, Bachelor, 

Stone's, 

Montello, Beaver, 

State Farm, 

Whittier, Bryant's 

Doane River, 



Hemlock, . 

White Spring, 

Beaver, 

Smith, 

McDonald, 

Seekonk, 

Newton, 

Milltown, Spring, 

Muddy, 

Muddy, 

Paskamansett, . 

Brown's, 

Howe, 

Boyle, Flat, 



128,900 



1909. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



105 



Ponds stocked and closed in Accordance with Chapter 91, Section 
19, Revised Laws, as amended by Chapter 274, Acts of 1903, 
and further amended by chapter 306, acts of 1907. 



Name op Pond. 


Town. 


Rainbow 
Trout 
Finger- 


Brown 
Trout 
Finger- 


Adult 
White 
Perch. 






lings. 


lings. 


Moore's, 


Warwick, .... 


900 


_ 


_ 


Gravel, 








Hamilton, . 






- 


800 


- 


Pratt's, . 








Upton, 






- 


1,000 


- 


Nabnasset, 








Westford, 






900 


- 


- 


Harris, 








Methuen, 






1,000 


- 


- 


Stetson, . 








Pembroke, . 






- 


900 


500 


Kelley's, . 








Dennis, 






- 


900 


- 


North, 
Martin, 
Walden, . 








Orange, 

North Reading, 

Concord, 






900 


1,000 
800 


200 
500 


Prospect Lake, 






Egremont, . 






- 


1,000 


- 
















3,700 


6,400 


1,200 



Ponds restocked during the Year 1909. 



Name of Pond. 


Town. 


Brook 
Trout 
Finger- 
lings. 


Brook 
Trout 
Adults. 


Rainbow 
Trout 
Finger- 
lings. 


Brown 

Trout 
Finger- 
lings. 


Land- 
locked 

Smelt 
Eggs. 


Lake Nagog, 
Lake Massapoag, 
Lake Scargo, 
Lake Quinsigamond, . 
North Pond, 
Wales Pond, 
Reservoir Pond, 
Lake Singletary, 


Acton, . 

Sharon, 

Dennis, 

Worcester, 

Worcester, 

Wales, . 

Holyoke, 

Sutton, 






1,000 


250 
343 


800 


1,000 
900 

1,000 


500,000 
500,000 










1,000 


593 


800 


2,900 


1,000,000 



Rivers stocked without further Action. 



Name op River. 


Town. 


Brook 
Trout 
Adults. 


Brown 
Trout 
Finger- 
lings. 


Brown 
Trout 
Adults. 


White 
Perch. 


Quinsigamond, 
Charles River, 
Charles River Basin, 


Worcester, . 
Dedham, . 
Riverside, . 


225 
255 


4,000 
3,500 


75 


475 




480 


7,500 


75 


475 



106 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



[C] 
Distribution of Pheasants. 



Applicant. 



Town. 



George Brinscombe, 
M. A. Witham, . 
F. E. Wallace, . 
F. F. Billiard, . 
P.S.Callahan, . 
George B. Treen, 
Bradley M. Rockwood, 
W. F.Durgin, . 
Harry F. Pierce, 
Clyde C. Hunt, . 
Harry D. Phillips, 
Harry L. Alexander, 

C. J. Kelly, 
Ralph B. Dodge, 
Leander F. Herrick, 
Bernard W. Stanley, 
James H. Grimes, 
James A. Baxter, 
I. Pfeiffer, Jr., . 
J. A. Williams, . 
Lawson A. Seagrave, 
John Parkinson, 
Thomas S. Lockwood, 
F. P. Smith, 
Richard H. Bond, 
Richard W. Hale, 
George E. Patterson, 
S. H. Sinclair, 
H. T. Drew, 
William F. Scholz, 
E. K. Dyer, 
John Bradbury, 
Leslie K. Morse, 
H. A. Smart, 
O. B. Tarbox, 
E. R. Sandford, 
T. C. Wilson, 

D. H. O'Brien, 
Fred D. Butler, 
Homer E. Foote, 



North Grafton, 
North Grafton, 
Westborough, . 
East Brookfield, 
Fiskdale, . 
Mansfield, 
Franklin, . 
Hopedale, . 
Hopedale, . 
Medway, . 
West Medway, 
Taunton, . 
Taunton, . 
Worcester, 
Worcester, 
Waltham, . 
West Acton, 
Reading, . 
Bedford, . 
Northbridge, 
Uxbridge, . 
Boston, 

Dedham, . 

Needham, . 

Dover, 

Salem, 

Salem, 

South Lawrence, 

Lawrence, . 

Lawrence, . 

Lawrence, . 

Haverhill, . 

Haverhill, . 

Byfield, . 

South Byfield, 

Ipswich, 

Rowley, 

Pittsfield, . 

Great Barrington, 



1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



107 



Distribution of Pheasants — Concluded. 



Applicant. 



Town. 



Number. 



Fred M. Truesdell, 
Samuel Newell, . 
S. G. Tenney, . 
Dr. Upton, 
A. B. Rose, 
E. W. Strecker, . 
John H. Neff, . 
Edward J. Brannigan 
Stephen D. Phillips, 
E. L. Freeman, . 
William P. Pierce, 
Albert W. Lewis, 
William H. Seaman, 
William H. Gifford, 
Franklin S. Simmons 
Lewis I. Tucker, 
Herbert E. Guy, 
Manuel S. Corayer, 
Charles S. Baker, 
Jonathan H. Jones, 
Harry W. Plympton, 
T. B. Stevenson, 
Henry E. Dean, 
Charles H. Goodell, 
Frank Stockwell, 
H.E.Garfield, . 
Francis B. Greene, 
A. T. Mitten, . 
Bernard W. Stanley, 
A.M.Allen, 
Frank J. Knight, 
Basil E. Aldrich, 

E. H. Kinnicutt, 

F. A. Moulton, . 
Norman Shannon, 
Clarence C. Puffer, 



Great Barrington, 
Great Barrington, 
Williamstown, . 
Shelburne Falls, 
Miller's Falls, . 
Greenfield, 
Ware, 
Ware, 

West Medway, 
West Medway, 
New Bedford, 
North Dartmouth, 
Fall River, 
Westport Point, 
Somerset, . 
Taunton, . 
Brockton, . 
Brockton, . 
Falmouth, 
Waquoit, . 
Sutton, 
Manchaug, 
Worcester, 
Worcester, 
Auburn, 
West Dennis, 
New Bedford, 
Amherst, . 
Waltham, . 
Reading, . 
Townsend, 
Milford, . 
Blackstone, 
Chester, 
Chester, 
Brockton, . 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



668 



108 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



[D-] 

Distribution of Belgian Hares. 



The distributing of Belgian hares has been discontinued. 
We hope next year to report the distribution of native game 
and insectivorous birds. 



1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



109 



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FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



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1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



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[Dec. 



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1909. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



113 



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Harry Howes, 
Edward Holway, . 
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Gilbert E. Ellis, . 
Fred Young, 

A. S. Hall, . 
David A. Newcomb, 
George W. Crowell, 
Samuel Dill, 

Fred W. Baker, 

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S. W. Gould & Co., 

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fc 


o 


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OH 


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— . 


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1909. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



123 



o o c c o 



s § 



o oo o 
o o o o 



C<| lO f4 —I 



o 

5 m 2 



o ^d 

55 






ill II g | 







124 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Number of Pounds of Fish taken 



Town. 


1 

< 


o 
d 

3 


m 

d 

d 

O 


a 


d 

J 
d 


a 

o 

*o 
p4 


d 

o 
J 


d 

o 


Allerton, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Annisquam, 




208,875 


- 


- 


5,376 


- 


382,900 


- 


- 


Barnstable, 




- 


- 


515 


80,358 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Bay View, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Beachmont, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Beverly, 




- 


- 


450 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Boston, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Bournedale, 




- 


- 


- 


1,037 


- 


1,743 


- 


- 


Brant Rock, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Brewster, . 




62,550 


675 


27,150 


3,538 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Cataumet, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Chatham, . 




2,307 


1,909 


68,525 


4,335 


1,000 


20,000 


- 


1.339 


Chilmark, . 




- 


- 


14,341 


11,660 


- 


1,730 


- 


20,874 


Chiltonville, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Cohasset, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Cuttyhunk, 




- 


- 


- 


6,000 


- 


10,000 


- 


25,000 


Dennis, 




22,650 


667 


2,106 


16,110 


900 


- 


- 


- 


Dighton, 




180,823 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Duxbury, . 




- 


- 


- 


2,120 


- 


8,000 


- 


- 


Edgartown, 




- 


- 


1,000 


1,575 


- 


- 


- 


265 


Essex, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Gay Head, . 




45,400 


- 


5,680 


11,800 


2,200 


5,000 


- 


8,225 


Gloucester, 




105,300 


600 


175 


17,623 


790 


192,395 


- 


- 


Green Harbor, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hull, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hyannis, 




- 


4,925 


90,100 


6,483 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Ipswich, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Kingston, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lanesville, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Magnolia, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Manchester, 




8,800 


- 


- 


2,605 


- 


40,890 


- 


8,147 


Manomet, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Marblehead, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Mattapoisett, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Minot, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Nahant, 




- 


- 


- 


65 


7,450 


3,320 


- 


- 



1909.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



125 



in Nets, Pounds, Traps, etc. 



i 

« 


bfl 

.9 
"3 

h 

o 


J 
02 


. 9 

bJD 

08 

a 1 
m 


i 

03 

pq 

<s 

.& 
"G 


12 
'3 
c 


i 


O 03 

£ '8 

-3 a 

§•1 

o 


S 

m 

O 


6 
> 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


"- 


l,f37 


$165 00 


~ 


72,500 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


294,615 


2,862 


5,393 13 


~ 


- 


100 


- 


- 


11,000 


100 


27,500 


1,379 


7,988 65 


~ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6,314 


763 58 


~ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7,838 


939 35 


~ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,800 


39,902 


3,902 15 


~ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


141,915 


17,499 42 


~ 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


106,421 


2,659 


2,765 


18,932 


2,535 07 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


21,453 


1,553 80 


" 


177,525 


225 


- 


14 


75,525 


360 


9,676 


- 


3,544 02 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


30 


2 50 


143 


53,610 


415 


34,393 


600 


169,655 


1,717 


123,861 


31,478 


16,828 24 


17,505 


- 


25 


26,163 


1,000 


2,000 


- 


26,968 


40,131 


8,298 49 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


27,779 


2,247 40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


147,144 


17,707 67 


20,000 


- 


- 


2,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


197,711 


19,407 16 


- 


24,000 


1,500 


10,535 


- 


316,800 


1,950 


38,820 


3,068 


5,555 52 


- 


- 


4,440 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4,725 


- 


2,365 28 


- 


515,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


40,731 


8,403 


7,290 55 


100 


- 


25 


4,630 


- 


25,000 


- 


6,650 


120 


1,043 45 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,566 


159 15 


29,725 


- 


- 


12,970 


- 


500 


1,000 


5,600 


16,560 


6,537 14 


- 


188,520 


655 


200 


- 


26,885 


203 


155,559 


116,403 


17,979 40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


127,407 


13,691 97 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


36,927 


4,991 07 


- 


- 


- 


700 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,253 


4,188 40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


870 


174 00 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5,049 


650 64 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


17,931 


1,777 49 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,590 


156 60 


- 


46,200 


240 


- 


- 


3,582 


- 


47,600 


9,675 


2,583 93 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


126,744 


10,384 40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


136,847 


16,238 88 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4,469 


387 41 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


21,842 


2,380 54 


9,600 


712,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


522,608 


27,594 


13,328 34 



126 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Number of Pounds of Fish taken 



Town. 


m 

CD 

< 


s 


73 

a 
o 


"a3 


(3 

a 


o 
"o 

P4 


a 
o 
B 

"e3 

W 


ft 

3 
o 
02 


Nantasket, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Nantucket, 




450 


34,353 


4,970 


147,883 


- 


34,460 


- 


19,080 


New Bedford, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Newbury port, 




- 


- 


- 


7,800 


- 


51,225 


~ 


- 


North Tisbury, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


- 


North Truro, 




- 


3,340 


25,799 


21,079 


2,000 


30,188 


- 


- 


Oak Bluffs, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Onset, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Orleans, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Pasque Island, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Plymouth, . 




- 


- 


- 


8,050 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Privincetown, 




- 


176 


903,473 


210,642 


- 


3,300 


- 


- 


Robinson Hole, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Rockport, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Raynham, . 




241,600 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Sagamore, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Salem, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Sandwich, . 




- 


- 


- 


7,362 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Scituate, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Segregansett, 




275,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Somerset, . 




26,000 


- 


- 


- 


4,000 


- 


- 


- 


Spring Hill, 




200 


- 


2,000 


25 


- 


- 


" 


- 


pSouth Dartmouth, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


South Duxbury, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Swampscott, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Tisbury, 


2,500 


3,622 


25,500 


16,690 


- 


9,130 


- 


8,600 


Vineyard Haven, 


3,250 


500 


5,056 


2,347 


- 


500 


- 


7,760 


West Falmouth, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Westport Point, . 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


West Tisbury, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Weymouth, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Whitman, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Winthrop, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Woods Hole, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


Yarmouth, . 




21,800 


- 


4,400 


700 


- 


2,500 


- 


- 


Totals for St 


ite, . 


1,207,505 


50,767 


1,181,240 


593,263 


18,340 


797,281 


- 


99,290 



1909.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



127 



in Nets, Pounds, Traps, etc. — Concluded. 



38 



2,851 



200 



108,600 



875,200 



781 



827 
,000 



156,200 



200 



15,000 



2,800 



7,415 



49,703 



360 



-fi 



6,060 
400 



200 



100 



44,828 
52,867 



143 



16,120 



1,731, 



9,200 
326,005 



35,200 



200 



7,050 
16,000 



2,500 
3,800 



175 



250 



3,972 
400 



115,009 



208,996 



604,286 
400 



12,300 
757,158 



10,785 



2,056 



26,850 
5,320 



560 



62,607 
12,090 
14,141 

1,073 

7,017 
4,806 
12,317 
68,102 
3,918 
6,923 
164,552 

2,421 
44,694 

4,818 
40,695 



956 
13,862 
20,642 

3,453 

4,391 

939 

35,340 

32,187 

19,296 

3,258 
24,251 
28,157 

2,097 



$7,654 89 

30,740 11 

1,519 21 

3,993 48 

85 80 

22,576 74 

60 00 

714 75 

1,486 00 

1,210 94 

7,588 43 

40,036 29 

1,173 00 

14,710 26 

3,157 50 

315 25 

5,640 50 

1,677 97 

3,854 71 

1,638 00 

1,190 00 

29 50 

101 36 

1,410 35 

2,412 24 

8,291 01 

5,610 35 

142 00 

3,432 37 

2,839 31 

3,081 18 

365 52 

3,233 48 

2,440 16 

962 35 



81,751 



2,944,755 



25,350 



240,058 



1,788 



2,885,433 



12,786 



3,053,198 1,989,326 



$406,014 



128 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Number 
of Egg- 
bearing 

Lobsters. 


! 




m 




^ 




o 


































■* 










CO 


CM 




























t^ 
















































O 


CO 


lO 




CO 




lO 


iO 








































»o 




CO 


1—1 




























-* 


3 


KS 


CO 


r^ 




CO 




Ci 


lO 
































■**< 










CO 
































c3 
> 


6© 














CO 






























8 B 


00 


00 


— 




OS 




iO 


^ 




























o 


















CO 
CM 






























!>• 


5s 


OS 




CM 




cm 




























of 














































1 












































g 




o 


s 


3 




o 




o 


iC 






























»o 


s 


C 




-*l 




00 


_ 




























t^ 




CM 


CM 




CM 






CO 












































































> 












































CM 


u . 


cm 


- 


O 




|s> 




o 


CO 




























^ 


^ 






CO 




CM 




~ 


c© 




























8 

cm" 


£ o 
















































g g g 




O 

o 




o 
o 


o 
o 




























o 
o 


3 


lO 


lO 


*o 




o 




m 


o 




























lO 




r^ 










































i* 


a» 


■«* 


CM 








■*< 
































> 
















CM 




























CM 


ssi 




lO 


cm 




iO 




CO 


CM 




























o 


.a « 
















•^ 






























in 














































fc-s 














































Is 






CM 




iO 


































r^ 
















1—1 






























ss 














































p«~ 














































fl 














































£ 














































O 














































H 


a 
o 

< 


s 

a 

c 
.2 

'5 

a 


d 
PQ 




is 



> 




d 
o 
| 

§ 
pq 


>> 




























I 

3 

CQ 






























































'i: 


' >> 


























































































3 


TO 












































. . O 














































<! 


d 












































• ' d 


• • ^ 






























K 














jij 


c3 

• .F 

-3 

d 

. . 03 

>, u 

*m 

■ d o 
£0 






























O 
H 

H 

« 
ft 
O 

« 
Ah 


as 
bo 

a 
a 

K 

<5 


« . « <U 3^-Q 

r •OF! ^PQ 1 - 1 ° 

|x< O oj^ op-j 

StSgccf 

i3-~_3 2 03 03 O 


d . d 

c3 03 

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!3 ."3 03 

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a.' o 
>s,fl 

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6-S 

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P g 


V 

Ph 
P 

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3 


5 

53 O 

H P 


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ft 

1 


• ^ „ • • • w u • ef 

5 5 p p a Q S s °-3 



1909.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



129 



-H lO 



to 

... a; ® 

2 

g 
. . . .O ^ - '. . 

— a 6 

§ « s 

. . . . fl ^ ^ 

;S ' ii-i :lVtl -| ■ •! • :|l 'I I, J -J, jfci III •„- 

! i|| % f*s4 ni« i«o |«! iiiiiz ii* in i tin |||| 1 1 



130 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 






Number 
of Egg- 
bearing 
Lobsters. 


CO 

o 

CNI 


CM 


00 

1* 






o 


t>- 




t^ 


■* 


co 


a 


CO 




(^ 




>* 


o 


J 3 


*~i 






> 


ec 


CN1 












fe £ 




05 


CO 


go. 


o" 


«3 

oo" 


02 

o 

00" 


£ 3 


















© 


O 





g 


ua 












f^ 


c3 

> 








e^ 




CO 


(h . 




ua 


"* 


•go 


r^ 


<M 






CO 








(M 










£o 









-2 c3 
Pffl 






■••:■•• •%' ■■■; ; *"41*«T " ' 

• • --a a> .x i •£"■ ' - ajg o « ■ • • .a a -r aa 55-9 <S S a 6« ' 

b^Ml1^|g|j|^1|liJ|^li||ISl||g3 



1909. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



131 



t-h m 



CO i-i iO 

CO -H 



o o o 
io co at 



oo 
mm 



5. *° w 

Q WW 



> 

^ ^fl . ■ -° 

j=lljjl 1 1! 1 1 si |l s|ll = 111*111 i-l-il iIIb 



132 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Itfli 

|HS.g 



gel 



= 



&s 



05 



Zo 



3-H 



— » 



d S g • • • • 

a* a 

■•••-••• -^ • ■ . -fc a O * * ' * 

g C ^ -g -3 ~ „ _ - 



1909. 1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



133 

















00 




<M •<# -H 






00 






00 




cni 


CO 














cm 




ii5 CO i—i 






I>- 
















































^ 














t- 




iiS o^ 

csi so 






a 






o 




00 


C5 






















— 










■* 


^ 














,_| 
















CO 




































ITS 




lO 


so 














C2 










t~ 










CM 


CO 














^f. 










,— 1 










_ i 




























































































ro oc O 






lO 






CO 






oa 


















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James F. Luce, . 
J. A. Mayhew & C 
George W. Manter 
A. L. Adams, 
Charles C. Chase, 
Edward W. Clevel 
L. W. Cleveland, 
H. W. McLellan, 
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Francis J. Cain, 
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N. G. Hatch, . 
J. S. McCallum, 
D. H. Fullerton, 
Hartley L. Wells, 
Fred H. Baker, . 
Lester D. Mayhew 
Lindley W. Mayhe 
F. H. Reed & Co., 
David T. Butler, 
George A. Rogers, 



140 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 1909. 






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Public Document No. 25 



REPORT 



COMMISSIONERS 



Fisheries and Game 



Year, ending December 31, 1910. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1911. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



COMMISSIONERS ON FISHERIES AND GAME. 



GEORGE W. FIELD, Sharon, Chairman. 
JOHN W. DELANO, Marion. 
GEORGE H. GARFIELD, Brockton. 

Chief Deputy Commissioner. 

WILLIAM W. NIXON, Cambridge. ' 

Clerk. 

W. RAYMOND COLLINS, Boston. 

DAVID L. BELDING, Chatham, Biologist. 
FERDINAND C. LANE, Wellfleet, Assistant Biologist. 
ARTHUR MERRILL, Sutton, Superintendent. 

Office: Room 158, State House, Boston. 

Telephone: Haymarket 2700. 



CONTENTS 



Report. 
General considerations, . 
Mollusk fisheries, 
State ponds, .... 
Stocking public waters with, food fish, 
Quail, ..... 
Pheasants, .... 
National control of migratory birds and fishes, 
Deer, ..... 
Expenditures, .... 
Marine fisheries, .... 
Sea and shore fisheries, 
Breeding places for fish, 
National control of migratory fish, 
Lobster, ..... 
The life history and growth of the quahaug (Venus mercenaria) , 
Introductory, .... 
Anatomy, .... 

Early life history, 

Spawning, 

Hatching, 

Embryology, 

Attachment stage, 
Habits, ..... 

Attachment, 

Set, .... 

Spat collecting, . 

Locomotion, 

Recovery from injury, 

Feeding habits, . 

Enemies, .... 
Quahaug culture, 

Decline, .... 

Remedy, . 

Quahaug farming, 

Methods of operating a quahaug farm, 
The industry, .... 

Fishing grounds, 

Industrial practices, . 

Laws, .... 

Food value, 
Rate of growth, 

Methods of work, 

Results, .... 

Natural conditions, 
Tables 



CONTENTS. 



Observations on the set of the oyster spat in Wellfleet Bay, 
Natural history, 
Spat collecting, 
Conditions in Wellfleet Bay, 
Plankton net, . 
Spat-collecting experiments, 
Survey, .... 
Conclusions, 
Inland fisheries, 

Tisbury Great Pond, 
Report of superintendent of the 
Game birds, . . . 

Report of superintendent of the 
Enforcement of law, 

Deer, .... 
Report of chief deputy, 
Bag limit, 
Herring, . 

Assaults on deputies, . 
Deer, 

Lobsters, . 
Arrests, 
Forest fires, 
Recommendations for legislation, 
Courtesies, permits, etc., 



Sutton hatchery 
Sutton hatchery. 



PAGE 

129 
129 
131 
132 
134 
137 
140 
142 
143 
143 
151 
156 
158 
175 
176 
177 
179 
179 
180 
181 
188 
189 
191 
192 
194 



Appendices. 

A. List of deputy fish and game commissioners, with districts, residences and 

telephone numbers, 

B. List of commissioners in the United States 

C. Distribution of food fish, 

Ponds stocked, . 

D. Distribution of pheasants, 

E. Distribution of quail, 

F. Arrests and convictions, 

G. Returns from the shore, pound and net fisheries, 

Returns from the lobster fisheries, 



202 
212 
221 
227 
228 
230 
231 
241 
248 



<£t)e Ccmmotuoectlit) of iflasectctnisettsu 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully sub- 
mit this their forty-fifth annual report. 

Ge^eeal Cojn x sideeatiots t s. 

The conditions connected with the maintenance of the natural 
and normal number of animals which are of very great biologi- 
cal value for the health and wealth of mankind are peculiarly 
complicated in Massachusetts, apart even from the political and 
legislative steps which annually depart from pristine conditions. 
Among the most notable of the peculiar conditions is the very 
high theoretical density of population, when figured in terms 
of total population and total area, but, as a matter of fact, a 
rather sparse population over wide areas, and excessive conges- 
tion in numerous cities, particularly in the eastern section of 
the State. This has resulted in — 

(1) A large permanent, though floating, cosmopolitan popu- 
lation, including most prominently Greeks, Italians, Portu- 
guese and Poles, which is relatively unassimilated and which 
to a considerable extent from its urban bases makes quasi- 
piratical forays upon the wild birds and animals, and upon 
fish, food and bait mollusks. To these people the problems of 
" conservation of natural resources " have never come. The 
rights of " free fishing, fowling and boating " appeal to such 
with peculiar force, but mean little beyond a stimulus to appro- 
priate as much as possible of such public property. To these 
conditions are attributable much uneconomic destruction, e.g., 
quantities of fish beyond the market supply (smelt, herring, 
etc.) ; small mackerel, bluefish, lobster and other species which 
are most valuable when full grown, and which resort to our 
shores to breed; small birds, which are of little value as food 
but absolutely essential to checking insect pests. 



8 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

(2) An exceedingly active market demand, e.g., Boston is 
the trading center of at least 5,000,000 people within a radius 
of 150 miles, as well as a shipping point for all directions. 

(3) A shore line practically completely taken up by cities, 
towns and summer residents. One of the prime attractions to 
the summer residents is the possibility of securing a fresh sup- 
ply of sea food under sanitary conditions. This demand is 
supplemented by the great number of transients swarming to 
the seashores during the warm season. 

These conditions are especially disastrous to wild birds of all 
species (excepting English sparrows), to all the useful mammals 
(excepting the cat and dog), to all edible species of fish, mol- 
lusks and crustaceans. We are convinced that the destruction 
of the nests and young of our game and insectivorous birds by 
cats, foxes and self -hunting dogs far exceeds the annual kill by 
sportsmen. 

Against the general slaughter are the sportsmen as a class. 
Although the sportsmen include about 5 per cent, of the popu- 
lation, and the food-consuming public outnumbers the sportsmen 
20 to 1, yet game must be given special consideration as an 
efficient and satisfactory source of one of the best types of sport ; 
best in the sense that it clears the brain for better work, pro- 
motes sturdy health by driving the blood more rapidly, trains 
the eye, develops the motor nerve centers and makes the man. 
Game must be maintained, therefore, as a means of developing 
physical manhood, clear vision, honest respect for the rights of 
others and a truer outlook upon life, both in the abstract and 
in the concrete. For these reasons, among others, it is essential 
that dead wild game be kept as far from the market places as 
possible, since market demands have been and doubtless always 
will be the stimulus to undue and unwise depletion. 

The problem, then, in one aspect, is the personal relation of 
the individual to public rights and public property. Massa- 
chusetts chances to be located geographically at the confluence 
of two important tracts of bird migration, with a territory 
almost uniquely accessible, through good roads, trolleys and 
railroads, with its relatively large acreage of great ponds, and 
perhaps an equal territory of artificially flowed areas, many 
broad and sluggish streams in the eastern section, with numer- 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 9 

ous bays, sounds and harbors where wild ducks naturally are 
wont to bed, with many points and islands favorable for shoot- 
ing. It is, therefore, especially important that the relation of 
the people to the birds and to the shooting privileges should 
be worked out with the utmost care and a high degree of intelli- 
gence, in order that the natural assets of Massachusetts be not 
destroyed or even seriously impaired as a result of unwise de- 
mands, practices or laws. 

To maintain the birds special attention must be given to ex- 
tensive and intensive propagation work in all sections of the 
State upon species best adapted to each section. Most attention 
should be given to the native species — quail, ruffed grouse, 
heath hen — in special locations ; the wild turkey, black, wood 
and mallard ducks, teal and Canada geese could be naturalized 
in suitable localities, and by their presence would attract mi- 
gratory wild individuals to nest in the neighborhood, where bird 
reservations may be provided. 

The 1,100 and more large lakes and ponds of the State, so 
long abused, can be so handled as to furnish a greatly increased 
annual crop of fish. In our recommendations for legislation we 
strongly urge increased facilities for propagating useful birds 
and fish, and wider provision for securing safe and attractive 
breeding places for wild birds within the State, both on land 
owned or leased by the State and on that of private owners. 

The State has now been districted, and all the streams, ponds 
and posted lands specially favorable for bird covers and breed- 
ing places are being descriptively catalogued, so that intelligent 
and systematic attention may be given. This work, begun some 
years ago, is being extended as rapidly as our facilities permit. 
A systematic consideration of the sources of pollution of public 
waters is now under way. 

We again direct your attention to the important fact that pro- 
vision should be made for securing from the clam fiats an an- 
nual crop as certain as that from the strawberry field. The 
strawberry has become one of the most satisfactory and profita- 
ble garden crops. We could not nowadays be satisfied either 
to depend upon the crop of wild strawberries for our market 
supply, or to pick the first few large berries and destroy all 
the others. Yet such is precisely the method pursued by the 



10 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

clammers. Planting is not encouraged. No one can be offered 
any degree of likelihood that he may be able to reap where he 
has sown. Indiscriminate digging destroys thousands of clams 
for every one marketed. Massachusetts is the only State where 
similar public assets have been placed, in the control of the 
towns, thereby diverting from the State treasury a very con- 
siderable sum. (The Rhode Island State treasury received last 
year $117,555.72 from the leases of the oyster grounds alone.) 
Shore property adapted for rearing moliusks is very carefully 
gardened in France, Italy, Holland, Japan and other countries. 
In this connection we quote the statement from our annual 
report of 1909, pages 10 and 11 : — 

MollusJc Fisheries. — In 1905 the Legislature ordered a biological 
survey of the coastal areas below high-water mark, in order to as- 
certain : — 

(1) The present and past conditions of the mollusk fisheries. 

(2) The possibilities of increasing the annual production by (a) in- 
creasing the annual yield per acre; (b) suitable methods of securing 
an annual yield from areas at present unproductive. 

(3) Ascertaining definite methods of increasing production by study 
of: — 

(a) Life histories of the economic moliusks, particularly the oyster, 
clam, quahaug and scallop. 

('6) Methods of feeding and rate of growth. 

(c) Effects of unfavorable conditions; e.g., pollution. 

(d) Methods of checking ravages of enemies; e.g., starfish, "drills," 
" winkles," etc. 

A report to the Legislature upon this work states, in general, that of 
upwards of 60,000 acres of shellfish ground only about 3,552 acres are 
to-day yielding anything approximating the natural yield, i.e., from 
$100 to $800 profit per annum; while upwards of 40,000 acres are 
producing at least 90 per cent, less than normal production; and about 
15,000 acres at present unsuitable could at an expense of $50 to $300 
per acre be made to yield from $100 to $500 profit annually. Under 
such development- and utilization employment would be furnished to 
about 20,000 skilled and unskilled laborers, as compared with 2,184 in 
1907; and a total production valued in the hands of the producers at 
$6,000,000 annually, instead of $752,000 as in 1907. 

The results from more than 300 experimental plots prove conclusively 
that clams (My a arenaria) and quahaugs (Venus mercenaria) can by 
appropriate methods be as successfully cultivated as are oysters to-day, 
or as any farm crop; that the value of a quahaug crop upon arrival 
at a marketable size often exceeds $1,800 per acre ; and that the annual 
profit should average not less than $200 per acre. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 11 

These fisheries are prosecuted upon what is now in the east the last 
remnant of the public domain, viz., between high and low tide marks. 
The titles to the uplands have been acquired by individuals, and are 
subject to individual control and responsibility; and the title of the 
riparian owner extends to mean low-water mark, or to 100 rods beyond 
the mean high-water mark in cases where more than 100 rods of tidal 
flats are exposed by the average tide, but the riparian owoer does not 
have an exclusive control of the fishing, fowling and boating. He may 
participate in these only on equal terms with the public, and subject 
to the disposing right of the General Court. Similarly, State laws 
have been enacted by which areas below high-water mark may be leased 
for oyster cultivation, but the lease holder can claim as his property 
only the oysters grown thereon. Curiously enough, present laws permit 
the cultivation of oysters in the waters below low-tide mark, but not 
clams, or scallops, either below or above low-water mark. It would 
be quite as logical for the State to permit the farmer to grow only 
corn. 

The fisheries (which include the mollusk fisheries) are still public, 
and subject to the disposing action of the Legislature. If the Legis- 
lature should by appropriate laws make possible intensive cultivation 
of shellfish, e.g., the oyster, clam, quahaug, scallop and lobster, in the 
area below high-water mark, under proper safeguards devised to secure 
public and private rights, there would follow : — 

(1) Increased opportunities for skilled and unskilled labor. 

(2) Increased yield per acre above the natural productiveness. 

(3) Increased daily profits in proportion to the time and labor of 
the fishermen. 

(4) Increased definiteness of supply, thus permitting the fishermen 
to take advantage of market conditions. 

(5) Increased income to town from taxable property on the shell- 
fish beds. 

(6) Increased subsidiary industries. 

(7) Increased revenue to citizens, communities and State, from leases 
of public domain. 

An extended discussion is to be found in a special report to the 
General Court upon the mollusk fisheries of Massachusetts. 

State Ponds. — During the past year commercial interests 
have sought to acquire control of one of the State ponds. Cer- 
tain evidence was adduced at the hearings which seemed to 
indicate a systematic attempt to minimize the value of this 
pond as a State asset, where the public might exercise the 
" rights of free fishing, fowling and boating." Without in any 
degree passing an opinion as to the value of the testimony given, 
we urge the Legislature to consider carefully the precedent 



12 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

which would be established by the alienation of the public rights 
in even such an undeveloped asset as Benson's Pond. 

Stocking Public Waters with Food Fish. — • The most notable 
advance this year has been to secure from the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries, for stocking the Charles Biver basin, 
specimens of the Potomac catfish (Ameiurus catus), which 
grows to a much greater size than our common horned pout. 
Whether this fish will thrive here is, of course, problematical, 
but the experiment is well worth the attempt. One of the most 
notable successes of the National Bureau of Fisheries has been 
the naturalization of the king or quinnat salmon of the Pacific 
coast in the waters of Lake Sunapee, ~N. H., where in three 
years the fry have grown to 6 and even to 14 pounds, many 
specimens having been taken on rod and reel last summer. Ar- 
rangements have been made for introducing this noble fish into 
Lake Quinsigamond, near Worcester, where the conditions ap- 
pear promising, and where the abundance of landlocked smelts 
should furnish abundant food, and the cold, deep water meet the 
requirements necessary. The addition of another species to 
those which have already become landlocked, e.g., the herring, 
white perch, smelt, Sebago salmon, is of very great economic 
importance. 

Quail. — It may be of interest to know that Massachusetts 
is the first State to rear quail in captivity, and to liberate the 
artificially propagated birds for restocking the covers. This 
year 182 were liberated, chiefly upon State reservations. We 
believe that the methods used can be successfully duplicated 
elsewhere, and that persons who are sufficiently careful, per- 
sistent and methodical can rear quail as readily as chickens, 
and in larger numbers at less expense for feed. A normal 
population of quail upon our farm and wood lands would do 
much to control injurious insects, which now levy enormous 
taxes upon us all. Our annual output will be much greater if 
we are enabled to " put out " the quail, as soon as they are 
a month or six weeks old, in favorable localities, where they 
will be cared for by providing for them unharvested grain 
fields and protection, particularly from cats, dogs and foxes. 

Pheasants. — We continue to propagate and liberate in 
larger numbers ringnecked pheasants, in the belief that their 



1910. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



13 



value as game birds and as insect destroyers far exceeds the 
occasional damage to early peas, corn. etc. 

National Control of Migratory Birds and Fishes. — This 
highly desirable federal law is now before Congress. Prompt 
action should be urged by every citizen of Massachusetts. 

Deer. — For the first time since 1898 the Legislature per- 
mitted deer to be hunted in the five western counties. While 
the natural increase of deer may be estimated at 75 per cent, 
a year, our observations indicated that in Massachusetts the 
annual increase has been about 40 per cent., the prominent 
checks upon the natural increase being deaths due to illegal 
hunting, wire fences, trolley and steam cars, dogs, and injury 
to crops. It was estimated that at the beginning of the open 
season there were about 8,000 deer in the State. They had 
become so numerous and tame that they no longer confined 
themselves to the wild lands, but did extensive damage to crops. 
To compensate these damages even partially the State has an- 
nually paid a substantial sum, as the following table shows : — 



A Comparative Statement of Money paid by the State Treasurer for Damages 
by Wild Deer, from 1903 to 1910 inclusive {Chapter 407, Acts of 1903). 

(From Reports of State Auditor.) 



Counties. 


1903. 


1904. 


1995. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


1909. 


1910. 


Berkshire, 


- 


- 


- 


$143 00 


$324 50 


$278 00 


$512 00 


$452 40 


Bristol, . 






- 


- 


- 


- 


20 00 


35 00 


85 00 


124 75 


Dukes, . 






- 


- 


- 


15 00 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Essex, . 






- 


- 


- 


469 18 


683 50 


453 82 


345 50 


286 00 


Franklin, 






- 


- 


- 


477 00 


793 25 


1,415 78 


3,793 05 


3,363 10 


Hampden, 






- 


- 


- 


214 30 


156 00 


199 00 


410 50 


779 00 


Hampshire, 






- 


- 


- 


295 25 


263 90 


326 00 


746 75 


585 90 


Middlesex, 






- 


- 


- 


- 


445 63 


1,016 83 


615 42 


879 73 


Norfolk, 






- 


- 


- 


- 


15 00 


- 


20 00 


9 80 


Plymouth, 






- 


- 


- 


39 00 


- 


- 


20 00 


- 


Worcester, 






- 


- 


- 


370 00 


211 00 


645 60 


1,374 87 


871 16 


Total, 


S237 30 


$392 25 


§1,117 05 


$2,022 73 


$2,912 78 


$4,370 03 


$7,923 09 


$7,351 84 



1909. 1910. 

Total number of claimants, 524 411 

Average cost per claimant, $15 12 $17 89 

Smallest claimant, amount received 50 1 00 

Largest claimant, amount received, 175 00 140 00 



14 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

During the year, from usual and various causes, 598 deer 
were killed. To this the record of the six days' open season 
added 1,413, or a total of 2,011 deer killed during 1910. Most 
of these were used as food, at an average market value of at 
least $25, or a total food value of $50,275. Against this the 
State has paid out a total of $26,327.07, and received at least 
$10,000 from hunting licenses from deer hunters. Looked at 
alone from one point of view the public received from this 
source during 1910 at least $50,000 worth of food, at a net 
cost to the State of $16,000. 

It is true that many persons who suffered substantial damage 
did not seek reimbursement, and others received only partial 
recompense. On the other hand, many people found real 
pleasure in seeing the deer as a feature in the landscape. To 
a country where summer visitors resort, the esthetic is a most 
valuable asset, and to this the wild deer are an important con- 
tribution. But however valuable in this way, the fact that the 
undue increase in numbers is certain to bring corresponding 
burdens upon land owners by destruction of crops renders im- 
perative some efficient method of utilizing the surplus. The 
present method of wholesale, irresponsible slaughter is open to 
serious criticism. Thus far attempts to reconcile the wishes of 
(1) those who would exterminate the deer; (2) those who would 
permit none to be killed; (3) those who desire rational hunt- 
ing by competent and responsible persons, have been futile. 
The most rational suggestion, viz., a special license for deer 
hunters, has thus far not prevailed against the argument of 
" special privilege," notwithstanding the fact that such a plan 
proves satisfactory in other States. 

On account of the relatively large amount of traffic on our 
highways, trolleys and steam roads, the use of rifles would be 
extremely hazardous. The compactness of the territory hunted 
and the great number of hunters, while rendering the sole use 
of shot guns imperative, at the same time reduce the chance 
of escape of wounded deer to less than 2 per cent. In no other 
State, so far as we know, were 1,413 deer shot in six days with- 
out loss of human life or limb. 

Expenditures. — The details of all expenditures are pub- 
lished in the annual report of the Auditor of the Common- 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

wealth. In general, $4,024.19 was expended for the benefit 
of the sea and shore fisheries; $7,348.01 for maintenance of 
inland resources, by the purchase and propagation of trout, 
quail, grouse and pheasants; $35,757.99 for the enforcement cf 
the fish, game and bird laws on land and sea; $2,958.22 for 
the protection of adult female lobsters, by purchase of those 
caught when carrying eggs; $11,818.05 for the salaries of the 
commissioners, printing, postage, traveling expenses of the com- 
missioners and for clerical and office expenses. The total 
amount of fines was $2,976 ; and all other additional moneys 
received and turned into the treasury of the Commonwealth, 
from the activities of this commission, amounted to $35,530.54. 

Marine Fisheries. 

The most important feature of the commercial marine fish- 
eries is the development of comprehensive plans for improved 
facilities for handling the fresh fish brought to the Boston 
market. T wharf has long been inadequate and unsuitable for 
effective methods. Only the fact that the business is under the 
management of exceedingly keen, efficient and public-spirited 
business men has prevented unsanitary and other conditions 
which would seriously reflect upon the good name of the largest 
fresh fish market, with a single exception, in the world. 

Now, fortunately, the present location on Atlantic Avenue 
is likely to be abandoned, and the place given up to other busi- 
ness for which it is more suitable. The location at South Bos- 
ton is so far superior that the public are to be congratulated 
upon the wisdom of the Legislature and of the men who have 
carried the project to a successful termination. The early 
future thus promises not alone better trading facilities for the 
fishermen and dealers, but sanitary conditions superior to any 
in the world. From these the public will gain most largely 
through an increased supply of fish, put upon the market in 
better condition as a result of improved methods of handling 
and distribution. Further, assurances have been received that 
through the co-operation of the associated dealers with the na- 
tional, State and city fisheries authorities, aided directly or 
indirectly by the departments of biology, chemistry and physics 
in the various colleges and technical schools, a beginning is to 



16 FISH AND GAME. [Dec- 

be made in what should develop into an adequate fisheries in- 
stitute, the purpose of which would be to furnish the necessary 
information and facilities for training men, and for original 
researches for economically exploiting and conserving the nat- 
ural advantages of Massachusetts as a fish market for the 
world. The work done by the Imperial Fisheries Institute 
of Japan well illustrates the great value of intelligent and con- 
certed effort for improving methods of catching and preparation 
of fish for the market, and for providing markets for the 
products. 

Sea and Shore Fisheries. — While the general catch of sea 
fish was rather unsatisfactory, the unusual market demands, 
resulting from abnormal conditions in the beef supply, coupled 
with constantly increasing endeavors to get the fish to market 
in the best possible condition, resulted in higher prices to the 
fishermen. The mackerel season was the poorest on record, 
while the catch of herring and cod was below normal. 

As usual, the high liner of the entire Massachusetts fleet was 
the schooner " Mary C. Santos," Capt, Manuel C. Santos, with 
a gross stock of $50,000, and the high liner of the Gloucester 
shack-haddocking fleet was the schooner " Thos. S. Gorton," 
Capt. William H. Thermos, stocking $45,000. The share of 
each of the crew of 23 men was $960, and the cook's share was 
$1,300. The " Matchless," Capt. Frank Gaspe, the " Josie and 
Phebe," Capt. Lawrence Norris, the " Gladys and Xellie," 
Capt. Frank Watts, all exceeded $40,000 gross stock. 

The salt trawl-codfishermen had an average year. The knock- 
about schooner " Arethusa," Capt. Clayton Morrissey, with 
826,327 pounds of codfish, stocking $27,362.79, establishes a 
new record. 

The handliners had a poor year. Of the dory handliners, 
schooner " Elsie " weighed off 286,800 pounds, stocking 
$10,4-00, the average share being $250, while the high-line 
share was $281. 

The seining fleet met a poor year. Schooner " Oriole," Capt. 
Chas. Maguire, was high line, with a stock of $9,000. 

The halibut fleet had a fair year ; the schooners " John Hays 
Hammond," " Catharine Burke," " Juno," " Dictator " are 
said to have stocked about $30,000 each. The schooner " Juno," 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

Capt. John Streams, stocking $5,000, with a crew share of 
$165.86 each, established the record for a single halibut trip. 
He landed 39,000 pounds of halibut and 25,000 pounds of other 
fish. 

Of the halibut flitches, the schooner " Essex/'' Capt. Michael 
Wyse, weighed off 150,300 pounds and 75 barrels of fins, stock- 
ing $13,700, the crew share being $338 each; schooner " Gray- 
ling " weighed off 144,750 pounds and 66 barrels of fins, 
stocking $13,200, the crew share being $333 each. 

Of the dory handliners, schooner " J. J. Flaherty," Capt. 
Fred LeBlanc, was high liner, stocking $17,067, shares being 
$400 each. 

The swordfishing fleet met with poor success, ascribed to 
" scarcity of feed " and wildness of the fish. Schooner " La- 
fayette,' 7 Capt. Geo. Peeples, was high line ; as a result of three 
trips, 191 swordfish were landed, stocking $5,000, the crew 
share being $365. 

In general, the catch of herring, squeteague, bluefish, butter- 
fish, bass, scup, salmon, shad, squid, menhaden and other species 
was light. There are many indications that the trap fishing 
is overdone, that fewer traps would meet the market require- 
ments, with less cost and greater profit. 

Breeding Places for Fish. — There is increasing evidence 
that specific areas of water which are the natural breeding 
ground of useful fishes must be set aside as reservations, where 
the taking of fish must be carefully regulated. 

National Control of Migratory Fish. — The migratory fish 
which annually resort to particular bays, estuaries and rivers 
for purposes of spawning cannot be regarded as the peculiar 
property of the States through whose waters they may chance 
to pass on the way to their breeding grounds, nor yet of that 
State in which they may breed. They are a national asset, 
useful as food for inland as well as seacoast communities, and 
should not be exposed to undue perils when approaching their 
spawning places. The relatively small size of the States on 
the Atlantic coast results in much legal, though unwise, de- 
struction of such fish in one State when approaching the natural 
special spawning grounds, just over the line of an adjacent 
State. Many flagrant abuses can be adjusted only by national 



18 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

control of migratory fish, with the establishment of suitable 
laws adapted for meeting special conditions existing in adjacent 
States. Every person interested in maintaining unimpaired 
our great national fisheries should actively support such a 
measure in Congress. 

Lobster. — The lobster conditions are set forth in our report, 
recently published, which may be had on application to the 
commission. The Massachusetts lobster fishery is in a dis- 
tinctly bad way, and the conditions demand immediate con- 
sideration by the public, who, after all, is most concerned. 

Mollusk Fisheries. — Since 1905 we have carried on com- 
prehensive studies upon the economic and bait mollusks, for 
the general purpose of ascertaining how best to utilize the 
coastal waters and the land below high-water mark. In 1909 
was issued the general report upon " The Mollusk Fisheries of 
Massachusetts." In 1910 special reports, directed by chapter 
74, Eesolves of 1906, upon " The Scallop Fishery " and " The 
Lobster Fishery " were printed. A report upon " The Life 
History and Growth of the Quahaug " follows : — 

THE LIFE HISTORY AND GROWTH OF THE QUAHAUG 

(Venus mercenaria). 

Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Massachusetts Department of Fish- 
eries and Game, State House, Boston, Mass. 
Sir: — I herewith submit the following report upon the life history 
and growth of the quahaug or hard clam (Venus mercenaria). All in- 
vestigations herein are supplementary to those made in accordance with 
the provisions of chapter 78, Resolves of 1905. The work was con- 
ducted by D. L. Belding, assisted by W. H. Gates and C. L. Savery in 
1906, W. G. Vinal in 1907, 1908 and 1909, F. C. Lane and A. A. 
Perkins in 1908 and 1909. 

Respectfully submitted, 

David L. Belding, 

Biologist. 

The report on the mollusk fisheries for 1909 presented a preliminary 
survey of the prevailing conditions in the natural quahaug beds of the 
Commonwealth, showing by maps and descriptions their extent, con- 
dition, present production, and possibility of development under cul- 
tural methods. The aim of the present paper is to complete the 
investigation by a final report upon the best methods of increasing the 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

natural supply, as determined by a study of the life history, habits and 
artificial propagation of this mollusk. 

Object. — The investigation was conducted with four main objects 
in view : — 

(1) To determine, if possible, a method of successfully raising seed 
quahaugs on a commercial basis. 

(2) To find the rate of growth under various natural conditions and 
the length of time necessary to raise marketable quahaugs. 

(3) To demonstrate the value of thousands of acres of unproductive 
flats along our coast. 

(4) To discover methods of culture which would increase the supply 
and check the decline of areas now productive. 

In order to satisfactorily determine these points it was found neces- 
sary to obtain information upon : — 

(1) The distribution and range of the quahaug. 

(2) The anatomy and its relation to the habits of the animal. 

(3) The spawning, early life history, reproduction and propagation. 

(4) The habits of both young and adult. 

(5) The rate of growth. 

(6) The quahaug fishery, — its present extent and possibilities. 

(7) The cultivation of quahaugs. 

As it is the purpose of this paper to present a complete account of 
the quahaug, it has been frequently necessary to reprint previous works 
as well as to present new material. No claim for originality is made 
for the portion on anatomy, which is largely a popular revision of 
Kellogg (1), (2), 1 and of a laboratory manual by Prof. Gilman A. 
Drew at the Marine Biological Laboratories, Woods Hole. 

Courtesies. — The writer is deeply indebted to Dr. George W. Field 
for his general supervision and helpful advice in the investigation and 
in the preparation of the report; to Prof. James L. Kellogg of Wil- 
liams College for preliminary instructions and kindly encouragement; 
to the quahaug fishermen of Massachusetts for their ready co-operation ; 
and to Mr. L. D. Baker of Wellfleet for laboratory facilities. Specially 
does he wish to commend the work of his assistants, F. C. Lane and 
W. G. Vinal. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

More general knowledge concerning the quahaug should be spread 
abroad among the consumers and the fishermen, as the future of the 
quahaug industry of Massachusetts lies in the hands of her voters, and 
only by public sentiment can suitable laws be obtained for the preserva- 
tion of the mollusk fisheries. At the present time relatively few people 
in the Commonwealth know anything about the quahaug, except that 
it lives in the mud and can be gathered with rakes. But three papers 
have been written upon the quahaug from a scientific or commercial 

1 The numbers after the author's name refer to the bibliography preceding the index. 



20 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

standpoint. Ingersoll (8) gives an account of the fishery in 1880; 
Krause (5) made a preliminary outline report for the Rhode Island 
Commission of Inland Fisheries; and Kellogg (2) published in 1903, 
under the auspices of the Museum of the State of New York, the first 
report on the feeding habits and growth of the quahaug. Unfor- 
tunately, this important paper, in which the practical importance of 
quahaug culture was pointed out for the first time, is little known 
to the fishermen of Massachusetts. With the consent of Professor 
Kellogg his report was taken four years ago as a basis for this in- 
vestigation, and the results here given are a continuation and an 
expansion of the work originally outlined by him in 1903. 

Commercial Experiments. — Our aim has been to make the work 
thoroughly practical, and it has been undertaken scientifically because 
science offers the best means of approaching any practical problem. 
The essential aim has been to develop scientific methods for the ex- 
tension of the commercial quahaug fishery. 

General Results. — ■ Four years of experiments have demonstrated 
with convincing force that the only method of permanently increasing 
the natural supply, which can be applied on a large scale, is artificial 
culture or quahaug farming. The quahaug grows with sufficient 
rapidity to warrant large returns from small capital. Many acres of 
unproductive flats can be turned into valuable quahaug gardens, and 
many men given employment by the institution, under proper legal 
regulations, of a system of individual leases for the planting of qua- 
haugs. Aside from its remunerative possibilities such a system is the 
only means so far devised for permanently checking the decline of the 
natural beds. 

The Quahaug Family. — The quahaug belongs to the class of mol- 
lusks called the Lamellibranchia, or, to use an older nomenclature, the 
Pelecypoda. According to the classification given by Pelseneer (6), 
in which lamellibranchs are classified by their gill structure, the qua- 
haug is placed with the soft clam (My a) and the 'sea clam (Mactra) 
in the class of the Eulamellibranchia, one of the four great orders of 
the lamellibranchs, which is characterized by the edges of the mantle 
being generally united by one or more sutures, the presence, as a 
rule, of two adductor muscles and the union of the gill filaments at 
regular intervals by vascular junctions. In addition to the many living 
species the subfamily to which the quahaug belongs is represented, 
according to Zittel (10), by many fossil forms, extending from the 
Jurassic to Recent. 

On the New England coast, according to Gould (11), two species, 
V. mercenaria and V. notata, with possibly a third, V. prceparca, more 
generally considered a variation of V. notata, are found. Of these 
forms, V. mercenaria is the most abundant, and the other two are 
often considered as local variations of this species. 

Names. — The scientific name of Venus mercenaria is supposed to 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

have arisen from the use of the shell as " black wampum " by the In- 
dians, as the beautiful purple tinge on the inner side of the shell made 
it an object of exchange among that primitive people. The common 
name in the New England States is " quahaug," sometimes spelled 
" quohog " or " cohog," while in New York and the south, where the 
soft clam (My a arenaria) is not abundant, it is known by the name 
of " clam," " hard clam " or " hard-shelled clam." The small quahaug 
goes by the commercial name of " little neck," probably to distinguish 
it from the long-necked clam, Mya, although the claim is put forward 
that it was originally a local name similar to the " Blue Point " with 
the oyster. Ingersoll (8) states that in New Jersey they call small 
quahaugs, only an inch or so in breadth, " tea " clams. The present 
names are probably derivations of the old Indian names, such as 
" Poquahock," as given by Roger Williams in " A Key to the Lan- 
guage of America." Occasionally the monosyllable " quog " is used. 
The pronunciation of the word quahaug varies with the localities. 

Distribution. — The quahaug, while essentially a southern and warm- 
water form, is found along the Atlantic coast from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, where it was reported by Kellogg 
(3) in the vicinity of the Chandeleur Islands in 1904. Attempts are 
now being made to develop the fishery in Louisiana, but there is small 
demand for this shellfish in the local market. Venus mercenaria is 
truly an American form, its natural habitat being the Atlantic sea- 
coast, although a few are reported to have been found in the last few 
years on the Pacific coast, as the result of accidental transplanting with 
eastern oysters. 

In Massachusetts the quahaug is confined to the region of Cape Cod 
and the southern waters of the Commonwealth, practically no speci- 
mens being found north of the Plymouth section. As can be seen 
from the distribution map (Fig. 30), few quahaugs are found in Mas- 
sachusetts Bay except on the north side of Cape Cod. The same state 
of affairs exists along the Maine coast, except in a few sheltered bays, 
such as Quahaug Bay, where the warm water and favorable natural 
conditions are such as to preserve the remnant of a once great quahaug 
supply. There is also evidence that a few were formerly taken near 
Salem, Mass. Passing northward, the quahaug again becomes abundant, 
and is found, according to Gould (11), at Halifax, Sable Island, Prince 
Edward Island, on the fishing banks and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
At the present time a considerable number of small quahaugs of pe- 
culiar color, shape and flavor are shipped from Prince Edward Island. 
The present distribution, the geological changes along the coast and 
the evidences of former abundance, such as Indian shell heaps, are 
evidence, submitted by Ingersoll (8), that years ago the quahaug was 
more widely distributed, and that possibly on account of a decrease 
in the temperature along the shore of Massachusetts Bay there occurred 
a corresponding decrease in the supply and distribution of this mollusk. 



22 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Thus we find that the quahaug has retreated southward, Cape Cod at 
the present time marking, with the exceptions above noted, the northern 
limit of its range. In the warm waters of coast States in the south, 
where the quahaug develops more rapidly, there are large areas which 
as yet have not suffered from the effects of overfishing, as has been the 
case with the northern beds in New England and New York, but it will 
be only a short time before the history of ruthless spoliation will be 
repeated, as already quahaugs from the south are being shipped to the 
New England markets. Commercially in Massachusetts the hard clam 
is found both on the north and south side of Cape Cod and in Buz- 
zard's Bay, the principal fisheries being at Wellfleet, Eastham, Orleans, 
Edgartown, Nantucket and in the Buzzard's Bay villages. 

The same natural conditions which suit so well the shallow-water 
scallop (Pecten irradians) are also adapted to the growth of the qua- 
haug, which is found on the sandy and muddy flats just below low-water 
mark, although occasionally occurring between the tide lines, particu- 
larly on the north side of Cape Cod where the great fall of the tide 
exposes a large area of flats. On the southern coast of the State it is 
mostly confined to the sheltered bays and inlets, in contrast to its more 
exposed conditions on the north side of Cape Cod. Owing to its nat- 
ural adaptability for existing on nearly every kind of bottom, and its 
extensive range from high-tide line to a depth of over 50 feet, nature 
has provided the quahaug with a vast territory, of which the com- 
mercial fishery possesses only a small part. Scattering quahaugs are 
found over the rest of the area, but in paying quantities only in 
limited places. The possibilities of developing this great natural tract 
of quahaug ground are especially alluring — far more so than any 
of the other shellfisheries. The quahaug has a greater area, greater 
possible expansion and a more profitable market. Nature has equipped 
the numerous bays of southern Massachusetts with remarkable facili- 
ties for the production of quahaugs; it only remains for man to make 
the most of these advantages. 

Methods of Work. — The work was conducted along three main 
lines: (1) a microscopical study of the early life history, including 
spawning, reproduction and hatching, mostly carried on by laboratory 
methods; (2) observations as to habits and distribution, both by labora- 
tory experiments and by a biological survey of the quahaug territory; 
(3) growth and cultural experiments by means of about 187 small 
beds planted under a variety of conditions in the different waters of the 
Commonwealth. The methods of work are later described in full under 
each section. 

Experiments have been conducted from 1905 to 1909 chiefly at two 
localities, (1) Monomoy Point on the south side and (2) Wellfleet 
harbor on the north side of Cape Cod, which represent the two classes 
of quahaug territory in Massachusetts. The Monomoy experiments, 
particularly growth, have been continued for the entire period, while 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

the Wellfleet investigations have been conducted only for the two years 
of 1908 and 1909. Owing to the necessity of concentrating the work, 
and from the variety of natural conditions obtainable in these two 
localities, particularly in Wellfleet harbor, the greater part of the work 
was confined to these sections. The work in other parts of the coast 
during this period comprised growth and cultural experiments at Plym- 
outh, Monument Beach, Nantucket, Essex and Ipswich; determinations 
of the food value of the waters in the different quahauging localities; 
and a biological survey of the natural quahaug beds in the Common- 
wealth. 

Excellent opportunity for the study of the life history and growth 
of the quahaug was afforded at Monomoy Point by the Powder Hole, 
formerly a harbor capable of sheltering many fishing vessels, but now 
little more than a small enclosed body of water connected at high tide 
with the ocean by a shifting channel. This natural aquarium of several 
acres, teeming with shellfish life, was leased for experimental purposes 
by the Commonwealth, and proved, by its protection and variety of 
natural conditions in a limited area, a most satisfactory location for 
the quahaug investigation. In 1906 a small shanty was fitted up as a 
laboratory, and a raft 20 by 10 feet was anchored in the deeper water 
of the Powder Hole. Growth experiments for a period of four years 
were conducted by suspending boxes of sand from the raft at various 
depths, while several methods of spat collecting were tried. In the 
flats and waters of the Powder Hole, under different conditions as re- 
gards current, soil and depth of water, a number of cultural experi- 
ments were established. 

The conditions at Wellfleet were quite different. The harbor, some 
5 miles long and nearly 2 miles wide, containing nearly 2,500 acres 
of quahaug ground, presented a wider and more diversified field than 
the limited area at Monomoy. Owing to its great rise and fall, aver- 
aging 10% feet, the tide sweeps in and out of the harbor with great 
swiftness, giving to the shellfish beds, particularly in the lower part 
of the bay, an excellent circulation of water, and laying bare at low 
water a vast area of flats. Quahaugs were found over most of this area 
both between the tide lines and beyond, in water ranging from a few 
feet to 50 feet at low tide, particularly in the channel. This section 
of the coast may be considered the home of the quahaug, as a large 
share of the total production of the Commonwealth comes from these 
waters. Consequently, it seemed particularly fitting that, after the 
preliminary experiments at Monomoy Point, this locality should be 
selected as the best field for the more extensive cultural experiments 
of 1908 and 1909. Through the kindness of Mr. L. D. Baker of Well- 
fleet a building was furnished for a laboratory, which served as a 
central headquarters for the shellfish work, and from its situation on 
a wharf over the water offered excellent opportunities for hatching and 
rearing experiments. 



24 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



ANATOMY. 

A description of the anatomy necessarily should be included in a 
report on the quahaug, as a knowledge of the general structure of the 
animal is essential for the proper understanding of its development 
and habits. Just as certain words not in everyday use by most people 
are found convenient to sailors, printers, mechanics and men in any 
occupation, so a biologist must make use of certain technical terms 
in his descriptions. Those used in this report, however, are not numer- 
ous and not hard to remember. They are as follows : anterior, posterior, 
dorsal and ventral. The two former correspond to the terms " fore " 
and " aft " as used by sailors. In a quahaug the anterior is the end 
in the direction of which he burrows, the end from which the foot 
protrudes. The posterior or rear end is that at which the siphon or 
" neck " is located. This seems a little odd, but is easily understood 
when we recall that the prefix " ante " means before and " post " means 
after. In a quahaug the dorsal side corresponds to the hinge, the ven- 
tral to the side on which the shell opens. 

It is the belief of biologists of the present time that all animals of 
a similar kind are descended from common ancestors. Thus, the clam, 
oyster, quahaug, scallop, mussel, etc., are believed to have a common 
descent as their early development is strikingly similar. Of these 
forms there is reason to believe that the quahaug most closely resembles 
the common ancestor. The study of this typical shellfish is, therefore, 
especially interesting. 

The Shell. — The quahaug shell is formed of two heavy valves, equal 
in size and curvature, which enclose the soft parts and may be drawn 
tightly together for protection. The two valves are joined together 
on the upper or dorsal side, the hinge line, by a dark elastic ligament 
surmounting on each side a row of teeth, which fit into corresponding 
depressions in the opposite valve. This ligament gives the shell a 
natural tendency to gape, which is offset by the action of the two 
adductor muscles in bringing the edges in close apposition. The shell 
of the adult quahaug measures slightly more in length than in width, 
the average dimensions being: length, 3 inches; width, 2% inches; 
thickness, 1% inches. All sizes, weights and forms can be found, de- 
pending upon age and environment. Owing to the thickness of the 
shell distortion is not as common as with the scallop and clam, and few 
deformed specimens are found. The largest quahaug known to the 
writer was taken in a scallop dredge off Harwichport, and measured 
5% inches in length. 

The most prominent features of the external surface are two swell- 
ing, the umbones, one on each valve, which are directed anteriorly and 
toward the hinge, forming the so-called beak. Many specimens show 
imperfect umbones, due to the wearing away of the lime. Just beneath 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

the beak is a depression, the part on each valve having the shape of 
a half moon, called the lunule, which is characteristic of the quahaug. 
The surface of the shell is covered with numerous concentric lines of 
more or less prominence, forming thin, closely packed ridges at the 
anterior and posterior margins, and leaving the lateral portion of the 
shell smooth. These ridges are more prominent in the young and 
rapidly growing quahaugs than in the large specimens, but they appear 
too irregularly and too frequently (75 to 100 on an average specimen) 
to be of any value in determining the age of the quahaug. In old age 
these growth lines pile up, showing retrogressive development, so well 
illustrated in the case of "blunts," where growth consists merely in 
a thickening of the edges. The shell is naturally free from foreign 
growth, although old specimens are sometimes found with shells honey- 
combed by the boring sponge, and quahaugs which are out of the sand 
are often covered with Serpula, barnacles, silver shells, grasses, etc. 

On examining the interior of a valve, one sees a rough, white surface 
dotted with small granules between two large oval impressions, which 
mark the attachment of the adductor muscles. The ventral borders of 
the adductor muscle scars are connected by a distinct line, the pallial 
line, which is formed by the attachment to the shell of the mantle, a 
large flap forming the outer part of the body of the quahaug, and 
separates the white granular portion from a narrow, smooth, shiny 
surface, sometimes of a purple color. The posterior end of this line 
is indented to form the pallial sinus in which lies the siphon or neck. 
Just above the attachment of the adductor muscles can be seen smaller 
impressions, to which the muscles for moving the foot are attached. 
Along the hinge line are two kinds of prominent teeth, — the anterior 
or cardinal, consisting of short elevations; and the posterior or lateral, 
which extend for some distance along the dorsal margin. These teeth 
fit into corresponding depressions in the opposite valve, interlocking 
to form a compact joint. On the margin of the valve are faint vertical 
elevations which give the inner side a milled effect, as on a coin. 

The shell is made almost entirely of lime, in some specimens crum- 
bling on pressure in the hand. When dry quahaugs are handled in num- 
bers, as in the shipping houses, considerable dust arises from the fine 
particles of lime which are rubbed off the shells, and if these quahaugs 
are again placed in water a white color is imparted to the fluid. Qua- 
haugs from different localities vary in the hardness, compactness and 
thickness of shell, evidently due to the different amount of lime in the 
water. There are three layers, a rough outer, a fine middle and a thin, 
smooth inner, the outer being formed by the edge of the mantle, the two 
inner by secretions from its sides. In external appearance the shell 
varies from a white to a blue gray, according to the soil in which the 
animal is found. The heavy shell, so. well adapted for the protection 
of the animal from enemies, makes it an almost stationary form, 
although it undoubtedly has the power of locomotion. 



26 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The Mantle. — The inside of both valves is closely lined by thin, 
semitransparent mantle lobes, which enclose the body in a fleshy case 
when the shell is shut. The enclosed space is called the mantle chamber. 
These folds are united on the hinge line, and are attached to the upper 
part of the visceral mass, the gills and the adductor muscles. The free 
border of each lobe is thickened, of white or yellow color according 
to the age of the quahaug, and folded into a double row of delicate 
frills. It contains slender muscle fibers which are attached along the 
pallial line of the shell. The edge of the mantle possesses sensory or 
tactile organs, as is shown by the withdrawal of the mantle when 
touched by a foreign body. The consumer can determine whether he 
is partaking of live or dead shellfish, as only the living form will re- 
spond in this way. 

The function of the mantle is sensory, protective, respiratory, and 
assists in feeding. It forms a reservoir for the blood, and secretes, 
by numerous gland cells on the outer side and edge, a sticky substance 
which becomes impregnated with lime to form the new shell layers. 
Other cells at the edge secrete the horny cuticle, which can sometimes be 
seen reflected over the outer edge of the shell. 

The Siphons. — On the posterior border the lobes are joined together 
in the form of two tubes, which are known as the siphons, or more 
commonly as the neck. The siphon is longer and more prominent in 
the soft clam {My a), and the smaller fleshy extension of the quahaug 
is not so noticeable. Water passes in at the larger or lower opening 
and leaves by the smaller or upper, in this way establishing a con- 
tinual circulation of microscopic food. The muscles of the siphon are 
heavier than those of the other part of the mantle, and form a V-shaped 
attachment to the shell, the pallial sinus. The siphons are yellow in 
color, often tinged with pigment, and bear very minute tentacles upon 
the outer edge, especially on the incurrent. The waste products are 
extruded into the stream of water passing out the excurrent siphon. 

The Foot. — The quahaug has a large muscular foot resembling a 
plowshare, or a boat's keel, which can be thrust outward between the 
folds of the mantle. Its action is controlled by retractor muscles, 
anterior and posterior, which are attached to the shell above the ad- 
ductors, and by the distension of the foot with blood. Although the 
shape of the foot is suggestive of a crawling existence, the quahaug 
makes but little use of this habit. Occasionally a groove can be seen 
in the sand where the quahaug has traveled a short distance. For the 
most part the foot is used as a burrowing organ, possibly because the 
heavy shell renders traveling difficult. 

The Gills. — The foot merges into the abdominal portion or visceral 
mass, on each side of which are two conspicuous folds, the inner and 
outer gills, which hang free in the mantle chamber as delicate curtains 
between the visceral mass and mantle. The outer gills are attached 
at their base to the inner, which in turn are attached to a part of the 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 27 

visceral mass and to the inner gills of the opposite side, dividing the 
mantle chamber into a larger ventral and a smaller dorsal portion, 
the branchial and cloacal chambers respectively. Through the gills 
water is passed into the cloaca, and is forced out of the upper or ex- 
current siphon, which is in direct connection with this chamber, while 
the incurrent siphon leads only into the lower apartment. The gills 
may be roughly compared to sieves, by which the solid particles, in- 
cluding the minute plants, on which the quahaug feeds, are strained 
from the water. 

The general structure of a gill is excellently described by Kellogg 
(2):- 

The gills are the most complicated organs in the bodies of lamellibranchs, 
and must be described here as briefly and as simply as possible, without 
mentioning their wonderful histological structure. Outer and inner gills 
are practically the same. Suppose that one of these is carefully removed 
from its line of attachment to the body, and studied by means of the 
microscope from the surface and in section; such an examination shows 
the gill to be not a solid flap or fold, but an exquisite minute, basket-like 
structure with an outer and inner wall inclosing a space, between. These 
walls are made of extremely fine rods placed side by side. In order that 
these rods may retain their position, they are in many forms irregularly 
fused with each other by secondary lateral growths of tissue. The outer 
and inner walls of the gills are also held together by partitions which extend 
across the inner space between them. The gill is thus seen to be basket-like, 
the walls being made of rods between which are spaces, which put the in- 
terior chamber in communication with the mantle space in which the gills 
hang. These rods, or filaments, of which the gill is made, contain an in- 
terior space into which the blood flows. They were probably primarily 
developed in order that the blood of the body might be brought in close 
contact with the water, that, by diffusion, the carbon dioxide of the blood 
might pass outward through the thin walls, while, by the same process, 
oxygen, carried by the water, might pass into the blood. But, in addition 
to performing the function of breathing, the gills have taken on that of 
collecting minute organisms used for food. 

The Digestive System. — Just behind the anterior adductor muscle 
on the anterior part of the body is a funnel-shaped opening leading into 
a more constricted tube, the oesophagus. The mouth is guarded by two 
pairs of delicate ciliated flaps, triangular in shape, tapering backward 
toward the anterior part of the gills. These organs are the labial palps, 
which perhaps may be likened to the lips of higher animals, the two 
outer uniting to form the upper lip, the two inner the under lip, and 
have the power of conducting the microscopic food to the mouth. The 
oesophagus leads back into a stomach situated close to the dorsal wall 
of the visceral mass and surrounded by the liver, a paired dark-brown 
gland, which secretes the digestive juices. The intestine leads from the 
stomach in the form of a narrow tube, which, after making several 



28 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

convolutions in the visceral mass, passes backward through the heart 
to end just over the posterior adductor muscle. 

The Circulatory System. — The blood of the quahaug is a colorless 
liquid passing in definite channels over the whole body, bringing oxy- 
gen and nourishment to all the tissues, and removing the waste ma- 
terials. The chief organ of circulation, the heart, is situated on the 
dorsal part of the body, posterior to the stomach, in a large triangular 
pericardial space. It consists of an anterior ventricle and two auricles, 
which have a filmy appearance. The intestine passes through the ven- 
tricle. Blood is pumped from the ventricle through two aortas, anterior 
and posterior, to the various parts of the body, whence it is returned 
to the gills, and thence to the auricles, which open into the sides of 
the ventricle. 

The Nervous System. — The principal nervous mechanism of the 
quahaug consists of three pairs of ganglia. The first pair, the cerebral, 
are little white round organs about the size of a pin head, situated on 
both sides of the mouth, just posterior to the anterior adductor muscle, 
and are connected by a thin commissure which passes anterior to the 
oesophagus. Two other commissures pass from each cerebral ganglion, 
one to join the visceral ganglion of the corresponding side, the other 
to the pedal ganglion. The visceral ganglia, pear-shaped bodies, lying 
just beneath the posterior adductor, are also connected by a short com- 
missure, and supply nerves to the mantle, gill and adductor muscle. 
The pedal ganglia, also connected with each other and with the visceral 
and cerebral, are situated just dorsal to the muscular part of the foot. 

The Excretory System. — The excretory organs, the nephriclia, con- 
sist of dark colored tubes of glandular nature lying beneath the peri- 
cardial chamber, one on each side of the body. By one end these tubes 
open into the pericardium, by the other, outside the body at the base 
of the gills. Their function is essentially the same as the kidneys in 
higher animals, — the extraction of waste material from the body 
through the blood. 

The Genital Organs. — In both sexes the light colored reproductive 
organs are situated in the visceral mass, just dorsal to the tough foot, 
where they surround the folds of the intestine, extending upward to 
cover part of the liver and downward into the cavities of the foot. 
Kellogg (1) says: "In Venus the generative gland penetrates into 
spaces between the uppermost bundles of the foot, as is usual in forms 
with a locomotor foot. The posterior part of the visceral mass has 
many scattered muscle bundles, generally transverse, running from one 
side to the other. The sexual gland pushes down among these muscles 
for a considerable distance." These organs open by small ducts, one on 
each side, which terminate close to the opening of the excretory system, 
beneath the free border of the inner gill. The ovaries and testes are 
usually white, but in older quahaugs, particularly " blunts," they have 
a somewhat reddish or yellow appearance. 



1910.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 



THE EARLY LIFE HISTORY. 

Ripening of the Reproductive Organs. — During the spring the 
ovaries or testes of the quahaug enlarge in preparation for spawning, 
and the visceral mass assumes a plump appearance, due to the accumu- 
lation of numerous eggs and spermatozoa. Just when the first for- 
mation of the sexual products takes place is not known, but presumably 
they are in process of development for several months previous to the 
time of spawning. 

Method of determining the Sex of a Quahaug. — As described under 
anatomy, the sexes are separate, each quahaug probably remaining 
either male or female, such as it may be, all its life. During the 
spawning season the male can be distinguished from the female by an 
examination of the spawn without the microscope. As this process may 
be of interest to the fishermen, since it applies to all shellfish, it is 
here described. The quahaug is opened, the sexual organs sliced with 
a knife, and the spawn, after diluting with water, is spread in a thin 
layer on a piece of glass. If the animal is a female, this white fluid 
will be made up of a great number of minute specks, individually 
visible to the naked eye, — the eggs : if a male, the fluid' will be of a 
uniform consistency, and will have a milky vibrant appearance, due 
to the invisible spermatozoa. 

The Egg. — The mature egg (Fig. 1), when extruded into the water, 
is spherical in shape and surrounded, for protection, by a gelatinous 
membrane three times its diameter. The shape and size of the eggs 
vary somewhat, even in the same quahaug. Normally they are spheri- 
cal, though occasionally one axis is slightly longer than the other; 
but when extruded in masses they possess irregular shapes, owing to 
the pressure within the ovary. This is especially noticeable in eggs 
cut from the ovary, and is exceptional in the natural course of spawn- 
ing. Such eggs soon assume their normal shape in the water. The 
diameter of the average egg is M.2.8 of a millimeter (%25 of an 
inch*). The color of the egg as seen by the naked eye, in mass or 
separately, is white. Under the microscope it has an opaque appear- 
ance, due to the yolk granules, which are packed closely in the cyto- 
plasm. The egg is surrounded by a definite thin membrane, especially 
noticeable when the polar bodies are formed, differentiating it from 
the scallop egg. 

The large gelatinous covering constitutes a distinguishing feature in 
differentiating the quahaug egg from other forms, as it forms a trans- 
parent film around the egg. Evidently it is formed of a substance 
which swells when coming in contact with water until it attains about 
the size of %02 of an inch, or 3.2 times the diameter of the egg. In 
observing through a microscope eggs which have been artificially fer- 
tilized by mixing with spermatozoa, a few eggs will be found free 



30 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

from the covering, the majority surrounded by it, and sometimes 
empty cases. Usually a single egg is found in a case, but occasionally 
two eggs may be found in the same covering. In such instances the 
eggs are separate and of unequal sizes. The spermatozoa can be seen 
in great numbers clinging to and wiggling about the transparent film. 
It is interesting to note that apparently no distinction is made between 
the gelatinous coverings containing eggs and those without, indicating 
that possibly the covering and not the egg proper has the power of 
attracting and retaining the spermatozoa. The only noticeable differ- 
ence is the absence of an inner or more dense covering, which is dif- 
ferentiated from the outer, when the egg is contained, by the number 
of spermatozoa which work their way to this second barricade. The 
cases without the eggs do not have this second layer. 

The capsular covering is also of use to the quahaug as a means of 
protecting the minute egg and of preventing its sinking to the bottom. 
Only when the eggs are discharged " en masse " do they sink. These 
floating bits of protoplasm, although more easily washed ashore in 
rough weather, are carried farther, and do not stand as great a chance 
of an early death by falling on poor soil, as, for instance, the scallop 
eggs. 

The Spermatozoon. — The spermatozoon, or male cell (Fig. 2), is 
composed roughly of two parts, a wedge-shaped head, the longest diam- 
eter of which, the length, is about Y12 that of the egg, and a long, 
whiplike tail, the motile part. Nature has so arranged in all life that 
the egg contains the yolk or nutriment, and is therefore the large 
stationary form, while the spermatozoon, as a specialized organ of 
locomotion for finding the egg, has thrown off all useless cell contents. 
The average size of the spermatozoon is: body, Mso of a millimeter 
by %oo of a millimeter (%,800 by Ms,2oo of an inch) ; tail, %o of a mil- 
limeter (Yooo of an inch) in length. Often, variations, such as the 
reversed shape of the head, described by Kellogg (1), are found. 

Spawning. 
Spawning can best be defined as the discharge of eggs from the fe- 
male or of spermatozoa from the male into the water, where fecunda- 
tion takes place by their union. The sexual cells are extruded into the 
mantle chamber and are carried out the excurrent siphon in a fine 
stream, passing into the water by successive puffs. A female quahaug 
was observed to shoot a fine stream, not more than a millimeter in 
diameter, with such force as to carry it at least 2 inches from the end 
of the siphon before the eggs separated into a fine spray, like a jet 
of smoke, which held together for a time and then spread out in a 
cloud. This stream ended with the expulsion of stringy chunks of eggs 
and yellow tissue. Another quahaug shot a continuous jet of spawn 
for forty-four seconds. The amount of spawn extruded at any one 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 31 

time was variable. The quahaugs under observation in the laboratory 
showed a tendency to throw their spawn little by little, although there 
is reason to believe that in nature it may be possible to discharge 
all the season's spawn at once. In the laboratory the same lots 
spawned three different times during the season, indicating that the 
quahaug is similar in this respect to the scallop. 

Methods of Work. — The spawning was followed during 1909 and 
1910 by keeping various sizes in tanks freely supplied with running 
salt water, where they could be under continual observation. For this 
purpose different grades of quahaugs, as " sharps," " blunts," 
" mediums " and " little necks," were placed in small lots in different 
compartments, some in sand, their natural environment, others merely 
in the water. (A complete description is given under " Methods of 
Work in Hatching.") 

The Spawning Season. — The usual methods of microscopical exam- 
ination, larval counts by means of the plankton net and records of the 
appearance of the set were used to determine the spawning season. 
Results also were obtained from the spawning under artificial conditions 
in the laboratory aquaria in 1909 and 1910. 

From observation of the set, and from the size of the small quahaugs 
in the fall, it at first appeared that the spawning season was later than 
with the scallop and oyster. Investigation proved that the spawning 
season practically corresponds in Massachusetts waters with that of 
the scallop, i.e., from the middle of June to the middle of August, the 
small size of the young quahaugs being due to slower growth. This 
is natural, as the quahaug, like the scallop, is essentially a southern 
or warm-water form, and its habits are directly influenced by tem- 
perature. Quahaugs in the Wellfleet laboratory extruded spawn in 
1909 between June 23 and July 13; in 1910 as late as July 29, which 
further narrows the spawning limits. In the 1909 case it must be 
remembered that this occurred in one year, in one locality, with certain 
quahaugs and under possibly unnatural conditions; all of which are 
variable factors in the determination of the spawning season. One 
fact was definitely settled. The season lasts but twenty days, or less 
than a month, for any special batch of quahaugs ; but for Massachusetts 
waters in general nearly two months are consumed, the greater part 
of the spawning, however, taking place during the last of June and 
the first part of July. 

Temperature and Spawning. — Temperature has great influence over 
the distribution of all marine animals. It affects mollusks in three 
important ways; (1) their growth, by regTilating the food supply; (2) 
their distribution, according to the environment; and (3) their devel- 
opment, as determined by spawning, early life history, etc. The time 
of spawning is so regulated by nature that it takes place when condi- 
tions, chiefly temperature, are favorable for the development of the 
unprotected embryo, which is extremely susceptible to all adversities. 



32 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Thus, spawning does not take place until the water has attained a 
warmth suitable for the development of the offspring. For this reason, 
the spawning of the quahaug in the southern waters takes place earlier 
than on our coast, as the requisite temperature has been reached sooner. 
Whether or not northern quahaugs, by the process of selection, require 
as warm water for the development of their offspring, and consequently 
spawn at a lower temperature than the southern forms, is unknown, 
and can be determined only by a series of observations along the 
Atlantic coast. 

During the spawning experiments at the Wellfleet laboratory, in 
1909, the following notes were made : " The first lot of spawn was given 
off June 23 to 26, during a sudden rise in temperature following a 
period of extremely cold weather for that season. The temperature 
of the air in the laboratory between June 23 and 26 during the day 
averaged from 78° to 80° F., while the water in the aquaria remained 
at a uniform temperature of 76° F., corresponding with the tempera- 
ture of the water at the part of the harbor where the laboratory was 
located. On July 13 spawning again took place, the water attaining 
a temperature of 77° F., during a warm spell in which the laboratory 
temperature was 80° F. Between June 26 and July 13 no spawning 
was observed. It is interesting to note that the water between these 
dates was only moderately warm, averaging 71° F., and that spawn- 
ing occurred simultaneously with a rise in temperature of the water, 
in each case reaching about 76°, which appears to be the 'spawning 
temperature ' for Wellfleet, although in other localities it may be 
different." 

In the light of these experiments the act of spawning during the 
summer may be likened to the operation of an automatic thermostat, 
which, when a certain temperature is reached, allows the escape of the 
contents held under pressure in the distended sexual organs. All the 
writer's observations tend to prove that temperature is the controlling 
factor in the spawning of the quahaug, and that the variations, either 
for different years or in different localities, whether on the north or 
south side of Cape Cod, in Buzzard's Bay or in the States south of 
Massachusetts, are primarily due to differences in temperature. 

Age and Spawning. — The average quahaug is capable of spawning 
when two years old, its third summer, as sexual products can be found 
at that age. The size of the average two-year-old quahaug is between 
l 1 /^ and IV2 inches. It is well to realize that size, not age, is of im- 
portance in considering sexual maturity, and that a rapidly growing 
mollusk reaches reproductive activity sooner than a slowly growing 
specimen. Observations at Wellfleet in 1909 indicate that the quahaug 
is of little value as a " spawner " until it has attained a size of 2V2 
inches. In the spawning tanks the quahaugs were separated into s*mall 
lots, according to size. Practically uniform conditions existed as re- 
gards flow of water, temperature, etc. The large (3 to 3% inches) and 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

the small " sharps " (2% to 3 inches) were the only quahangs to spawn. 
The "little necks" (under 2V 2 inches) and the "blunts" (old qua- 
haugs) did not throw any eggs or spermatozoa. This fact, if univer- 
sally true, has an important commercial bearing on the capture of 
"blunts," as it would tend to show the fallacy of reserving the old 
" blunts " for " spawners." Before definite conclusions can be drawn 
frequent tests should be made to verify this observation. Under the 
conditions in the Wellfleet laboratory the distinction in size, class and 
age was sharply marked at three different intervals, quahaugs of the 
same sizes being the only ones to spawn. If the above observations 
hold generally true, it means that the quahaug has a period of sexual 
maturity only during middle life. On the other hand, it is a fact that 
sexual products are found in varying abundance in both " little necks " 
and " blunts," when the sexual organs are opened, but no proof that 
they are discharged can be given. 

Two peculiarities which may be mere chance were shown by the 
spawning in the laboratory tanks. 

(1) The spawning occurred at night on June 23, 24, 26 and July 13, 

1909. No spawning during the daytime was observed until July 29, 

1910, when the quahaugs spawned at 5 p.m. The spawning on June 
23 and 24 occurred toward morning, while on June 26 and July 13 
it took place in the first part of the night; on July 13 beginning at 
8 p.m. Although it is probably the result of coincidence that most all 
the spawning took place at night, it is barely possible that the qua- 
haug, buried under the sand in the deep water, is not influenced, as 
the scallop, by sunlight, and that darkness is a factor in natural 
spawning. 

(2) The quahaugs in the spawning tanks were divided into two 
classes: (a) those buried naturally in sand; (b) those lying on the 
bottom of the tank without sand. The second class alone furnished 
the spawn. Possibly their unusual position and environment made 
them more susceptible to changes in temperature, and therefore more 
responsive. 

Natural Fecundation. — By the act of spawning the parent qua- 
haug completes its duty to its offspring. But a new individual does 
not begin even to exist, and no development can take place until a 
union of the egg and spermatozoon takes place. The reason for the 
vast number of eggs is now disclosed. The chances of union are ren- 
dered more and more uncertain as the swift tides bear away the eggs 
and spermatozoa. No one can answer definitely what per cent, of the 
eggs are fertilized in nature, as conditions are constantly Varying and 
fecundation depends almost wholly on chance. It is no wonder that 
the quahaug needs many millions of eggs, unprotected as they are, 
since they have to pass through a series of adverse conditions, the first 
of which is the element of chance in the union of egg and spermatozoon. 

Between the egg and the spermatozoon is an attraction which scien- 



34 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

tists tell us is of a chemical nature, and the minute spermatozoon is 
drawn irresistibly toward the egg, its final goal. How far this attrac- 
tion zone extends through the water is not known, but under the micro- 
scope eggs can be observed fairly covered by a circle of spermatozoa, 
as if held there by some centripetal force. But one of these can gain 
an entrance, as after the body of the spermatozoa has entered the egg 
to fuse with its nucleus (germinative part) an impenetrable membrane 
is formed around the egg, shutting out the others. This fusion of the 
male and female pronucleus gives life to the young quahaug, which 
now starts through the series of changes described under the heading 
" Embryology." 

All through its early existence, until it is large enough to settle into 
the sand, the young embryo is subject to continual danger on all sides. 
Under natural conditions, if but one out of the millions of eggs laid 
by a single quahaug reaches maturity, it is sufficient to perpetuate the 
species. The young embryo is thus forced to lead a continual struggle 
for existence, with but meager chance of survival. If, favored by 
chance, the union of the egg and spermatozoon takes place, the new 
individual is from six to twelve days at the mercy of the natural ele- 
ments. Sudden changes in temperature or in the salinity of the water, 
such as cold rains, diminish the number of larvae; the waves and tides 
wash many ashore; polluted waters may destroy; all manner of sea 
animals devour them as food; and, finally, the greater part of the 
remainder fall on poor ground, where they soon perish. The few that 
fall on good ground are still subject to the attacks of predaceous ani- 
mals until they attain a sufficient size to resist those enemies. 

Hatching. 

Although the young quahaugs, from the time of byssal attachment, 
had been studied since 1906 in the laboratory, successful fertilization 
was not achieved until 1909, when several lots of embryos were devel- 
oped in the spawning tanks. This occasion furnished an opportunity 
to study the embryology and complete the work on the early life 
history. 

The essential object in this work was to find, if possible, a method 
of artificial hatching which would make possible the raising of seed 
quahaugs on a commercial scale. The question of seed is of the greatest 
importance to the quahaug culturist, as the natural beds cannot, as 
in the case of the clam, furnish a sufficient quantity for an extensive 
industry. The results of the experimental work in this direction so 
far have been somewhat discouraging. Two methods of obtaining seed 
seem possible: (1) the catching of the set in spat boxes in a manner 
parallel to the catching of oyster seed; the work on this point will be 
discussed under the subject of " Spat Collecting," which has met with 
more or less success; (2) the artificial rearing of the quahaug from the 
egg through the larval stages to a size suitable for planting. By pro- 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 35 

tecting the helpless larva from its enemies during the most critical 
period of its life, it may be possible to reduce the great infant mor- 
tality, and raise thousands artificially to nature's one. So far we have 
been able to raise only a few quahaugs to the veliger (shell) stage, 
the majority perishing for various reasons, chief among which seems 
to be the lack of food and space. Our experiments have been so de- 
signed that if successful on a small scale they could readily be enlarged 
to meet the requirements of a business enterprise. The work is dis- 
couraging from a commercial standpoint from the fact that the chief 
cause of failure is due to the crowding of the larvae, whereas to give 
the young quahaugs a sufficient amount of space would so materially 
increase the expense of production as to prohibit hatching. However, 
there are many things to encourage continuation of experiments along 
this line with the hope of ultimate success. 

At the present time it would seem that the liberation in large num- 
bers of larvae one day old would undoubtedly be of benefit. This could 
easily be done, as the embryos do not die rapidly, when confined, until 
the second day. Our experiments have shown that a small number can 
be raised in the laboratory, enough for the study of the early life 
history, but that when large numbers are tried the result is unsatis- 
factory. 

Methods of Work in Hatching. — ■ Attempts were first made to fer- 
tilize the eggs by abstracting the spawn from male and female quahaugs 
by artificial cutting, and mixing these in the water. No satisfactory 
results were obtained by this method, as the eggs would not develop 
normally. It was finally decided to keep adult quahaugs in tanks sup- 
plied by running salt water, and to remove the spawn to special rearing 
tanks as soon as it appeared. 

No facilities for such work were available until the summer of 1909, 
when a small one-horse power gasoline engine and pump were installed 
at the Wellfleet laboratory, which is situated on a wharf over the 
water. At high tide water could be pumped to a large wooden tank 
at the top of the building, which served as a reservoir. From this 
tank water was conducted by a large pipe to different parts of the 
laboratory, where it was supplied to the hatching tanks by rubber 
hose. 

For hatching purposes we used wooden tubs, made of large hogs- 
heads cut in two in the middle, through which passed a continuous 
stream of water. In order that the flow of water might be main- 
tained without loss of larvae, the water was drained off .through sand 
filters, fitted so that they could be readily cleaned. This arrangement 
was accomplished by fitting into the bottom of the tub several short 
pieces of 3-inch galvanized iron piping in a vertical position. Sand 
was held in the pipes by wire netting on the bottom and could be 
removed when desired. For the purpose of aeration the salt water 
was forced in fine streams into the tanks, keeping the young larvae 



36 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

under uniform conditions as regarded temperature, food supply and 
flow of water. 

At the beginning of the spawning season the quahaugs were kept 
in ordinary tanks. When spawn was discharged into the water it 
was transferred to the special tubs previously described, and efforts 
were made to rear the embryos under what seemed to all purposes 
natural conditions. Large glass aquaria and glass hatching jars were 
also utilized, the eggs in the latter being constantly kept in slow 
motion by means of a double inflow of water, one on the bottom 
furnishing the circulation, the other on the top aerating the water. 
All sorts of combinations, such as varying the amount of spawn, the 
rate of flow, the kind of jars, and selecting the more active larvae by 
siphoning, were tried in vain, as the quahaug embryos perished in 
great numbers, only a few reaching the veliger stage. 

Embryology. 

The embryology of practically all the Lamellibranchiata is strik- 
ingly similar, the eggs passing through identically the same stages 
and differing but little in appearance. This similarity holds true until 
after the formation of the embryonic shell. During the first part of 
the veliger (embryonic shell) stage the predominating type of a 
straight-hinged veliger holds true; and it is only in the last part of 
this period that differentiation in structure and form between species 
can be noticed. In the report on the scallop the embryology has been 
described in detail, and in the following pages, owing to the great 
similarity of the quahaug and scallop larvae, only a brief description 
of the general features will be given, emphasis being placed on the 
points of difference. For a more complete description the reader 
is referred to the life history of the scallop, published in a previous 
report. 

The first distinction has been already mentioned, the gelatinous case 
which surrounds the quahaug egg, whereas the scallop egg is naked. 
The majority of eggs remain within this covering until they become 
ciliated embryos, when by the rotary action of the cilia they break 
from its folds. It was a frequent occurrence to observe through the 
microscope embryos rapidly revolving within the cases. 

Polar Cells. — About twenty-five minutes after the egg is laid, two 
clear transparent bodies, apparently containing no yolk granules, are 
given off at the flattened animal pole (Fig. 3). The first body by its 
appearance clearly demonstrates the presence of a membrane about 
the egg, as it is formed beneath the membrane, which forms part of 
the adhering strands for the polar cells. 

Yolk Lobe. — The appearance of the polar bodies is followed by the 
formation of a poorly developed yolk lobe (Fig. 3), by no means as con- 
spicuous as in the case of the scallop. No constriction, such as is 
found with the scallop, is observed with the quahaug egg; but the 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 37 

nutritive material is confined to one end, which later becomes the large 
yolk cell (Fig. 4). Just previous to the first segmentation the egg 
elongates into a pear-like body, the yolk lobe constituting the broad 
end. The elongation takes place in a direction horizontal to the polar 
cells and not vertical, as with the scallop. 

Cleavage. — The quahaug egg develops by the same process of un- 
equal cell division as the scallop, although the time and form of the 
divisions are different. The difference in time is probably unimpor- 
tant, as the warmth of the water has a great deal to do with the 
rapidity of development in mollusk larvae. The first cleavage (Fig. 5) 
is noticed thirty-five minutes after fertilization, and at the end of 
fifty minutes the majority of the eggs are in the 2-cell stage. The 
actual time from the beginning to the completion of the first cleavage 
for individual eggs is about three minutes. The average time for the 
completion of each cleavage after fertilization for the majority of the 
eggs was as follows: 4 cells (Fig. 10), one hundred and ten minutes; 
8 cells (Fig. 11), one hundred and forty-five minutes; 16 cells (Fig. 13), 
one hundred and eighty-five minutes; 32 cells (Fig. 14), two hundred 
minutes. 

The principal difference between the cleavage of the quahaug and 
the scallop egg is found during the first segmentation, and is chiefly 
due to the elongation in opposite directions. In both cases the first 
division gives 2 cells, a large and a small; with the scallop the larger 
cell has an elongated form, due to the construction of the yolk lobe, 
while with the quahaug both cells are spherical. 

The egg passes through the 16, 32, 64, etc., celled stages, until the 
primitive ovum has become a compact mass of small cells (Fig. 12) 
surrounding a group of large cells, containing the nutritive yolk. This 
is the blastula stage of the embryo, which soon becomes a true gastrula 
by an invagination which forms the primitive digestive tract. About 
the age of ten hours the surface cells acquire minute hair-like processes 
(Fig. 15) called cilia, which enable the animal to move. Up to this 
period the egg has developed inside the transparent case, but the lash- 
ing of the cilia soon tears apart the protective covering, and the animal 
escapes, as a swimming embryo, into the water. 

Trochosphere Larvce. — By the time the embryo is able to break forth 
from its case the random revolutions of its early ciliated stage have 
changed, and a new larva, more elongated in form, swims through the 
water with a definite spiral movement, rotating voluntarily around 
its longitudinal axis in either direction. The new type of embryo is 
called a trochosphere (Fig. 16), and reaches that stage at the age of 
twelve to fourteen hours. It is differentiated from the ciliated gastrula 
by having an elongated or top-like body; by having the cilia confined 
to the blunt anterior end; the formation of a primitive mouth; and 
the appearance of a shell gland opposite the mouth. The trochosphere 
stage of the quahaug and the scallop are identical in regard to (1) 



38 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

form of animal; (2) mouth; (3) shell gland; (4) methods of swimming. 
The only difference lies in the flagellum, or whip-like feeler, formed 
in the scallop larvee by the elongation of certain cilia on the anterior 
end, but probably absent in the quahaug. 

In the course of the next twenty-four hours a thin transparent shell 
(Fig. 17) creeps slowly over the animal, until it completely envelops 
the soft parts. During this period the animal can be observed swim- 
ming through the water with its organs partly covered by two thin 
valves. The shell is formed by the secretion from the shell gland, 
which becomes calcined at two points, forming the two valves. With 
the spreading of the shell various changes of more or less importance, 
both in the anatomy and habits of the young quahaug, have taken 
place, giving rise to a period in its development known as the veliger 
stage, perhaps the most critical and important period of its existence. 

The Veliger. — The early veliger (Fig. 18), formed about thirty-six 
hours after fertilization, is a different appearing animal than the swim- 
ming larva of the early stages. When first formed it has a transparent 
shell with a straight hinge line, which is nearly always held open at 
an angle of 45°, whether the quahaug is resting on the bottom or in 
the act of swimming. The animal at this time is but little larger than 
the trochosphere larva, the empty space between the soft body of the 
animal and the shell constituting the only gain in size. The ciliated 
velum has no flagellum, the stomach is prominent, two adductor muscles 
are present, and teeth are apparently present on the hinge line. The 
animal swims by means of a velum which is not extruded from the 
shell. This is the description of an undeveloped quahaug veliger, 
which has not as yet attained full size, and has not become proficient 
in the art of swimming with its velum. In the course of a few hours 
it will have reached the normal size, and will have taken on the attri- 
butes of a true veliger. 

The straight-hinged quahaug veliger, except for the absence of a 
flagellum, is similar in every way to the young scallop of this stage. 
In fact, the majority of lamellibranchs, except Anomia and a few 
others, pass through the period of the early veliger practically identical 
in form and habits, so much so that it is impossible to differentiate 
between species. The first traces of individuality are found in the 
late veliger, in which each species develops a shell peculiar to itself. 
For this reason the reader is referred, for a detailed description of the 
early veliger stage, to the report on the scallop (Pecten irradians), as 
only a summarized account is here given. 

The veliger stage may aptly be compared to childhood, placed as it 
is between embryonic development and the attachment stage or youth. 
Not until this point in its life does any important increase in size occur. 
This period is divided into two parts, which are styled, for want of a 
better title, (1) the early and (2) the late veliger, as several anatomical 
changes differentiate the two. The veliger derives its name from the 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 

peculiar swimming organ or velum, which during the first part of this 
period is one of the most important organs of the animal. With the 
development of the foot, which takes place toward the last part of the 
veliger stage, the velum gradually disappears, while the foot, for a brief 
period, performs its work. The duration of the veliger period depends 
largely on the temperature of the water, ranging from six to twelve 
days, during which the veligers can be taken in numbers in the water 
by means of the plankton net. When swimming in the aquarium they 
are sensitive to a sudden jar which causes them to pull in the ex- 
tended velum and settle to the bottom. This circumstance makes it 
possible to separate the veligers from other plankton forms. The act 
of swimming is accomplished by the extension of the velum or ciliated 
pad, the lashing of the cilia propelling the animal in any direction. 
The entire veliger stage is passed as a swimming larva in the water, 
occasionally settling to the bottom, where it runs the risk of destruc- 
tion. It is only brought to an end by the increasing size of the animal, 
the loss of the swimming function of the foot, and the acquirement of 
alternate powers of attachment and crawling. 

The chief characteristics of the early veliger are: (1) an equivalvular 
shell with a straight hinge line; (2) a velum or ciliated swimming 
organ; (3) a primitive mouth lined with cilia, leading into a cavity 
in the center of the body, the stomach, and an abbreviated intestine with 
posterior anal opening; (4) an inconspicuous mantle; (5) two ad- 
ductor muscles. The late veliger is characterized by (1) a shell marked 
by prominent umbones, directed posteriorly; (2) a well-developed foot, 
with byssal gland, which has taken the place of a degenerate velum; 

(3) a more complex digestive tract, with palps and coiled intestine; 

(4) a conspicuous mantle; (5) two adductor muscles and several primi- 
tive gill bars. 

The change in the transition between these two forms is quite pro- 
nounced as regards : — 

(1) Shell. — The straight hinge line of the common ancestral form 
gives way to one of slight curvature by the bulging of the valves to 
form the umbones. Both valves are of equal curvature, and the em- 
bryonic shell has a homogeneous texture which differentiates it from 
the succeeding growths. 

(2) The Velum. — The swimming organ, situated within the anterior 
part of the shell, consists of an elliptical pad, with a border of lashing 
cilia, capable of extension and contraction, whereby it can be thrust 
out of the shell or withdrawn quickly by means of muscle fibers at- 
tached near the hinge. When contracted the ciliated edges fold inward. 
The velum is a modification of the anterior ciliated portion of the 
trochosphere larva. During the middle and last part of the veliger 
period a degeneration of the velum, with a simultaneous development 
of the foot, takes place. The growth of a muscular foot seems grad- 
ually to obliterate the velum, which can be seen in different stages of 



40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

degeneration, the foot with ciliated tip finally assuming the swimming 
function of the velum. 

(3) Gills. — Several ciliated V-shaped filaments, capable of extension 
and contraction, arise on each side of the foot, and eventually become 
the complicated gills of the quahaug. A thin mantle, closely lining 
the sides of the shell, similar to the mantle of the adult, is noticeable, 
while the digestive tract has enlarged in size and length, the straight 
intestine becoming coiled. 

At the beginning of the veliger period we find an animal anatomi- 
cally equipped to lead a free-swimming life in the water, as is evi- 
denced by its size, shape, lightness of shell and large swimming organ. 
At the end of this state we find the animal on the verge of another 
great change. Its free-swimming days are over, and anatomical changes 
have taken place which fit it to enter upon a new existence, that of 
youth. The ciliated swimming organ has been replaced by a long 
muscular foot, which at first enables the animal to swim through the 
water, but soon loses that power. The shell has changed in size, form 
and weight, while the soft parts have enlarged to such an extent that 
further shell growth of a more substantial nature is required. In brief, 
its free-swimming existence is ended, and, following the invisible law 
of nature, the structure of the animal has become altered, in prepara- 
tion for a change of life. 

The Attachment Stage. 

The attachment of the quahaug marks the end of its embryology and 
the beginning of its real life under practically the same conditions 
which surround the adult. The change is accomplished by the develop- 
ment in the foot of a byssal gland which secretes a fine, tough thread, 
anchoring the animal to any object, particularly sand grains. The 
method of attachment is described in detail under " The Habits." There 
is some reason to believe that a crawling stage intervenes between the 
free-swimming and the attachment periods. If so, it is of slight dura- 
tion, as the functions of crawling and attachment are supplementary, 
the welfare of the young quahaug depending both on its resting and 
its migratory powers. At all events, the time of attachment marks the 
appearance of a new growth, comparable to the dissoconch shell of 
the scallop as opposed to the prodissoconch (embryonic shell), which 
forms the true shell of the adult. 

From this time on the changes in anatomy and habits are very simi- 
lar in the quahaug and the soft clam (Mya arenaria), as the environ- 
ment of both is the same. The habits of the young quahaug are de- 
scribed later, and only the changes in structure will be given here. 
Specimens for study were obtained from spat collectors, in the form 
of boxes, which were lowered from a raft in the Powder Hole, Chat- 
ham, Mass. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

The Shell. — The new growth is sharply separated from the em- 
bryonic shell by a definite growth line, and is distinguished by different 
shell formation, as regards texture, color and lines of growth. The 
embryonic shell has a smooth homogeneous structure, with fine concen- 
tric lines of growth, whereas the new growth is coarser, whiter and char- 
acterized by concentric ridges occurring at definite intervals. The color 
is evidently due to the greater amount of lime salts. The ridges (Fig. 
28) are especially prominent in rapidly growing quahaugs less than 1 
inch in size, and can be observed on well-preserved adult specimens, 
where the umbones have not worn away. They reach their maximum 
size when the quahaug is about % of an inch in length, varying greatly 
in prominence on the same and different specimens. In quahaugs 1 
millimeter in size as many as twelve distinct ridges could be found. 
No explanation for these prominent lines can be given. In quahaugs 
% of an inch in size they appear at the rate of two to three a month 
during the summer, apparently at regular intervals, as the amount 
of space between ridges seems to depend upon the rapidity of growth. 
These ridges differentiate the very early stages from Mya arenaria, 
which at first has a round form, different from the elongated adult. 
Both valves are equal and have prominent umbones, back of which 
appear faint lunules, the heart-shaped structure so well marked on the 
adult quahaug. Unlike the young scallop, no byssal notch is present. 

The Soft Parts. — At the beginning of the attachment stage the ani- 
mal has all the organs characteristic of the adult in miniature form. 
The visceral mass and sexual organs are not conspicuous, the foot is 
more mobile and relatively larger than the plow-shaped structure in 
the adult, the byssal gland, absent in the adult, is a conspicuous ap- 
pendage of the foot, and the other organs, differing in size, position 
and development, are but rudimentary. As the quahaug increases in 
size these organs take on adult characteristics, and by the end of the 
attachment period (size, 9 millimeters), they conform in practically 
every detail with the adult, 

(1) The Mantle. — The mantle appears larger than that of Mya 
(soft clam), and is pressed into a series of folds at the free margin, 
which gives the appearance of a number of large knobs or tufts. In 
the young the margin is ciliated and sensitive to touch, but in form 
it differs little from the adult, which apparently has maintained the 
primitive lamellibranch mantle. 

(2) The Siphon. — The mantle edges at the posterior end of the 
young quahaug. almost at the beginning of the attachment stage, are 
modified to form the excurrent and incurrent siphons, which constitute 
the " neck." The siphon is very similar to the same structure in the 
clam. The excurrent part has the same filmy telescopic attachment 
(Fig. 29) which draws in and out with a folding motion. When a 
stream of water is shot out, the transparent tube is cautiously un- 
folded and held as a hose to direct the flow. The average time of 



42 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

expansion was found to be four seconds, the time of contraction vary- 
ing from two to eleven seconds. In crawling, there appears to be a 
certain degree of unison between the outflow of water and action of 
the foot which may assist the progress. This excurrent attachment 
gradually disappears as the quahaug grows older, although in one- 
half or three-quarter inch quahaugs a remnant can be observed on the 
edge of the excurrent siphon. The edges of the siphons are lined 
with tentacles, as this is a most important sensory part of the mantle, 
the incurrent siphon having about three times as many as the ex- 
current. In a 1-millimeter quahaug twelve tentacles were counted on 
the incurrent and four on the excurrent siphon, a greater number than 
on a clam of the same size. These large tentacles are probably of 
greater use as sense organs to the young quahaug than to the old. 
Very little color is found on the mantle and siphon, except on the 
tentacles, which sometimes are strongly pigmented. 

(3) The Foot. — The early foot is a muscular body, capable of an 
extension equal to two-thirds the length of the shell. At the tip the 
cilia are somewhat longer, possibly aiding in the strong grip which 
is exerted at this point, enabling the quahaug to crawl along a surface. 
On each side of the foot is a circular otocyst or balancing organ. On 
the ventral side of the foot projects a papilla with a deep cleft, the 
byssal gland. It is more prominent than the byssal gland of the 
scallop. 

(4) The Gills. — The few simple filaments of the veliger stage in- 
crease in number, forming the inner gill, while new buds repeat the 
same process to form the outer. As the gills enlarge they become more 
complicated, taking on adult characteristics. 

(5) The Muscles. — The two adductor muscles remain in the same 
position, enlarging in proportion to the amount of increased work. 

(6) The Reproductive Organs. — The visceral mass is formed above 
the foot, and is not visible until toward the last of the attachment 
stage, when the foot becomes relatively smaller and less motile. In 
this body are the ovaries or testes, according to the sex of the quahaug. 

(7) The Digestive Tract. — The liver, arising by two ducts from 
the side of the stomach, enlarges rapidly and takes on a dark brown 
color. The intestine increases in length by forming tortuous coils in 
the visceral mass, and after piercing the ventricle of the heart, termi- 
nates behind the anterior adductor muscle. 

THE HABITS. 

A study of the habits of any animal frequently leads to the discovery 
of facts which can be utilized for practical purposes. In the case of 
the quahaug at least three habits are directly related to artificial cul- 
tivation : (1) the method of attachment, which furnishes possibilities 
for spat collecting; (2) the non-migratory life, which makes planting 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 

possible without enclosures; (3) the method of feeding, which suggests 
the probability of increasing the rate of growth, fattening and even 
producing special flavors. In addition, notes upon other topics are 
presented, such as enemies and environment, which do not properly 
come under the definition of habits, but to a greater or less extent 
influence the life of the quahaug. As far as possible these subjects 
have been arranged in accordance with the development of the animal. 

Attachment. 

Attachment takes place at the end of the veliger or free-swimming 
stage, when the young quahaug fixes itself to various objects by means 
of a horny thread called the byssus (Fig. 28), secreted from a gland 
in the foot. The objects of attachment are sand grains, shells, boxes, 
eelgrass, sea lettuce, etc. The period of fixation marks the change from 
an active swimming existence to a more sedentary mode of life. The 
gland which secretes the byssus in most lamellibranchs is situated in 
the ventral side of the foot, and varies in size and appearance. Lining 
the sides of this gland, which has the appearance of a pore, are a num- 
ber of little cells which furnish a mucus-like secretion which, when 
coming in contact with water, immediately hardens, forming tough 
threads of conchiolin, a complex chemical substance of horny nature. 

The byssus in the different lamellibranchs has a variety of forms. In 
some it consists of a number of soft glossy threads bundled together, 
as in the young of Pecten, the scallop; in the mussel (Mytilus), where 
it is an important organ of the adult, there is a thick bundle of hair- 
like threads with disks at the ends which are attached to the object of 
support; Anomia, the silver or jingle shell, has a calcareous byssus 
which projects through the lower shell and strongly attaches to the 
animal; and in the young of the soft clam {My a arenaria) it consists 
of a single translucent thread with several branches. In the mussel 
the byssus in the adult has no connection with the foot, but is situated 
behind it, forming an almost permanent attachment for the support 
of that mollusk. Nevertheless, the mussel is reported to be able to move 
along slowly by the formation of new threads and the destruction of 
the old strands (Williamson, 13). Certain lamellibranchs seem to 
have lost the byssus through disuse, some apparently never possessing 
this organ at any stage of their development. Another class retains 
the byssus for certain periods, e.g., the clam, which makes use of the 
power of attachment until it reaches a size capable of burrowing deeply 
in the sand, and the scallop, which throughout its life retains the power 
of byssal fixation, but does not use it to any extent after the first year. 

The adult quahaug possesses no byssus as it has no need for that 
organ. For a long time there has been considerable question as to 
whether the quahaug in its early life possessed such an organ. Ryder 
(12) in 1880 found that the young of the soft clam were attached 
by a single branching thread to seaweed and sea lettuce. This fact was 



44 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

clearly demonstrated by Kellogg (4) in his report on the " Life History 
of the Common Clam," in which he gave some excellent drawings of 
the byssal attachment, and proved that the attachment stage was a 
necessary part of the life of the young Mya. At this time it was sur- 
mised that the quahaug likewise had a byssus during the early part of 
its existence. Proof was first obtained September, 1906, when it was 
the good fortune of this department to record the attachment of young 
quahaugs {Venus mercenaria) in the spat boxes at Monomoy Point. 

The byssus of the quahaug is in appearance so similar to the same 
organ in the soft clam that if it were detached a person could not tell 
the two apart. In use, structure and formation the two threads are 
exactly the same, so that, in describing the attachment of the quahaug, 
use is made of facts recorded for the clam by Kellogg (4). The byssus 
consists of a single thread, normally from Yk to V2 an inch in length, 
but so elastic that it can be stretched to a length of V/2 inches without 
breaking. Several branches, usually not more than two or three, ex- 
tend from the lower part of the thread, and at their distal ends divide 
into strands like the delta of a river, which spread out on the foreign 
object, fastening themselves apparently by little suckers or stickers. 
The thread is of uniform thickness, except at its distal end, where it 
is slightly finer. Under the microscope the thread has a translucent 
glossy appearance, similar to strands of prepared gelatine. 

The quahaug first attaches itself at the close of the veliger or free- 
swimming stage, when a prominent byssal gland is formed on the ventral 
side of the foot. The quahaug retains the power of attachment until 
it has attained a size capable of burrowing firmly in the sand. The 
largest quahaug observed with a byssus measured 9 millimeters, and 
was found in a spat box at Monomoy Point, Oct. 13, 1906. 

Many observations on the byssal attachment of the quahaug were 
made at Monomoy Point, where the quahaugs were obtained in spat 
boxes suspended from a raft. The attached quahaugs were observed 
here during August and September in 1906 and 1907, and in 1908 
as early as July 24. The majority of these quahaugs were buried 
in the sand and attached to the sand grains by the byssal threads. 
Occasionally a quahaug was found attached to the sides of the box 
out of the sand. At Wellileet small quahaugs were found attached 
to the shells put down for the capture of oyster spat, and many times 
quahaugs were raked up adhering to shells and other material. Like- 
wise young quahaugs were frequently observed to attach themselves 
to the glass dishes in which they were kept for study in the laboratory. 
These observations show that, while the majority settle in the sand, the 
quahaug can " set " on objects such as shells, boxes, eelgrass and sea 
lettuce, and in the latter cases can be carried such distances as de- 
scribed for the soft clam by Kellogg (4). Thus, the quahaug is com- 
parable with the clam, which " sets " both out of and in the sand. 
Practically all the quahaugs attached out of the sand were between 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 

2 and 3 millimeters in size, no large ones being observed, which indi- 
cates that the quahaug " sets " but temporarily out of the sand. 

The time of spinning a byssus is comparatively short. No direct 
observations have been made on this point; but it has been known to 
break the old and form a new one within a few hours. It is doubtless 
a much shorter time, as the young scallop has been seen to spin a 
similar byssus in three minutes. 

The process of attachment has not been studied. In general the 
embryo, swimming with its foot, strikes a surface, presumably catches 
hold with its foot, and, after crawling to a suitable place, spins its 
byssus. In other cases it strikes some object, and closing the shell 
drops to the ground, where it passes through the same process, only 
attaching itself to the sand grains. The young quahaug has the power 
to cast off the byssal thread at will and spin another. The thread 
separates from the animal at the byssal gland and remains clinging 
to the object to which it is attached. This is probably of constant 
occurrence, especially with the smaller quahaugs, as they are quite 
active at this stage, and in traveling from one resting place to another 
must repeatedly break the thread and quickly spin another. At this 
period the animal alternately leads a traveling and a sedentary exist- 
ence. 

Unquestionably the byssus is of importance to the young quahaug, 
as otherwise this organ would have degenerated from disuse. Primarily 
the function is protective, as it enables the animal, though of small 
size, to remain in the sand, and prevents its being washed from its 
shallow burrow. Again, in the earlier stages the attachment to various 
objects keeps the young quahaug from being smothered in silt, or from 
being washed ashore to its destruction. Attachment is needed only 
until the quahaug obtains sufficient size to protect itself by burrowing 
more deeply in the sand. The slender thread though small is unusually 
strong, resisting a considerable pull before it parts, and can be con- 
sidered as the anchor cable which moors the quahaug. 

The " Set." 
The time of " set " varies, as it depends upon the spawning sea- 
son. Usually the young quahaugs are noticed slightly later than the 
young scallops. At Monomoy Point, in the raft spat boxes, small 
quahaugs have been observed by the naked eye as early as July 24, in 
1908, while in other years they have not been recorded until the 
second week in August. The "set" is not abundant, as is the case 
with the clam, and no quantities of young quahaugs comparable to 
the heavy " sets " of small clams are found. The fact that the " set " 
is usually below the low-water mark perhaps explains the failure to 
find thickly "set" areas, as many beds escape the attention of the 
quahauger. As it is, but few localities of heavy "set" are known. 
At the present time the Acushnet River furnishes the greater part 



46 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of the small quahaugs, though in some years the Mill Pond in Chat- 
ham; Tuckernuck Island, Nantucket; Katama Bay, Edgartown, have 
also contributed considerably. The Katama Bay region maintains the 
steadiest supply, owing to the protection of the quahaugs under V/2 
inches by the town of Edgartown, while in the case of Chatham and 
Tuckernuck Island the supply is very erratic. The beds have been 
depleted, have remained barren for a time and have again received 
other heavy " sets." 

When the first attachment has been made, either to shells or sea let- 
tuce, there is a later migration to the sand, but usually the " set " 
comes directly on the soil. The nature of the bottom largely deter- 
mines the future welfare of the " set," which will .soon perish if the 
ground is unsuitable. An excess of silt, slimy mud, shifting sand, 
proves unsuitable for the existence of the young animal, showing that 
only portions of the sea bottom are favorable for the existence of the 
young quahaug. 

The same causes which influence the " set " of the soft clam to a 
large extent determine the abundance of young quahaugs in any local- 
ity. Its nature depends largely upon the location in respect to the 
shores and current, and definite combinations are necessary. As with 
the soft clam, it has been noticed that the " set " often occurs in an eddy, 
or on the sides of a swift current. In the Mill Pond at Chatham the 
" set " is found on the bar reaching part way across the entrance to 
the upper part, over which the tide sweeps back and forth. A similar 
case is found at the tip of Jeremy's Point, Wellfleet, and on the gravel 
bar, over which the tide flows with great speed, large numbers of seed 
quahaugs can be obtained. In the latter case the bar is exposed at 
low water during the low running tides. 

The quahaug over % inch in length is comparatively free from the 
enemies which attack other shellfish, as its hard shell renders it immune 
from all except the horse- winkle (Fulgur caniculatus and carica) and 
the common cockle (Lunatia heros and duplicata). Severe winters 
and other climatic changes affect the quahaug but slightly, except on 
the exposed flats between the tide lines. So we find in the quahaug 
an animal which for the greater part of its life is better protected 
from enemies than the other commercial shellfish. On the other hand, 
the female quahaug produces the same quantity of eggs as the other 
shellfish. Therefore, the struggle for existence must be exceptionally 
severe during its early life or free-swimming period, furnishing a pos- 
sible explanation for the frequent failure of the quahaug "set." 

Spat Collecting. 
In the oyster industry the importance of spat collecting became ap- 
parent as soon as the natural beds ceased to yield a sufficient amount 
of seed for planting purposes. In considering quahaug culture the 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 47 

question naturally arises as to whether there are any artificial means 
of raising young quahaugs for planting. The importance of having 
a good supply of seed is apparent. We have previously stated that 
at present there is no practical method of raising the young quahaug 
from the egg, owing to its small size and delicate nature. The other 
possibility is the collection of the quahaug seed from the water by some 
method of spat collecting similar to that used for the oyster. 

When the oyster " sets " at the end of the veliger period it attaches 
itself by a calcareous secretion to shells and rocks. The quahaug, on 
the other hand, attaches itself by a single-threaded byssus to sand grains 
or other clean objects. Attempts were made to catch the quahaug at 
this stage by spat boxes, — small dry goods boxes, partly filled with 
sand, — which were suspended from the raft at Monomoy Point. In 
these boxes quahaugs were obtained at the end of the spawning season 
in more or less abundance, for the study of the early life history and 
for the growth experiments. In all probability the young larvas, when 
ready to " set," strike the sides of the box and settle in the sand, where 
they are held in by the sides of the box. Unfortunately, while these 
boxes proved useful in obtaining quahaugs for experimental purposes, 
the amount collected was insufficient for commercial purposes. The 
largest number ever found in one box was 75 per square foot of sur- 
face, and the majority of boxes yielded less. To make such a method 
commercially important it would be necessary to obtain several hundred 
quahaugs to the square foot of surface. For this reason, unless the 
essential principles of this method can be applied on a large scale with 
better success, it is hardly practical to obtain the seed in this way. 
A better 'solution would be to develop the places which are naturally 
suited for the catching of seed by the building of gravel bars, and by 
artificially directing tidal currents, in other words making nature supply 
the seed. 

Locomotion. 

The organ of locomotion for the adult quahaug is the foot, which is 
described as situated on the ventral surface of the visceral mass in the 
form of a keel-like projection. Its shape enables the foot to readily 
enter the sand in the same manner as a plow, so that the animal can 
turn over, burrow or even crawl through the sand. The foot is com- 
posed of comparatively tough muscle fibers, and its action is aided 
by retractor muscles, anterior and posterior, which are attached to the 
shell above the fixation of the adductors. As with the soft clam (My a 
arenaria), the foot is distended by the influx of blood from other parts 
of the body. The movements of the adult are confined to two forms, 
(1) burrowing and (2) crawling, the former being the more common. 

Burrowing is the act of forcing the shell of the quahaug into the 
sand below the surface, and is accomplished by the action of the foot. 
Usually this act is performed when the quahaug lies under the water, 
but it may be possible for the animal, like the sea clam, to enter the 



48 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

sand when exposed to the air. The soft clam requires to be covered by 
water before it can burrow properly. The quahaug, resting on the 
surface, cautiously extends the muscular foot through the slightly 
opened valves, working it down among the sand grains until a sufficient 
purchase is obtained to raise the shell on edge. The shell by a series 
of jerks is pulled down after the active foot, until the animal is en- 
tirely buried beneath the surface, the external openings of the short 
siphons remaining in view. The length of time depends upon three 
factors, (1) the size of the quahaug, (2) its activity and (3) the soil. 
The large quahaugs take longer to burrow, as they are less active, 
heavier and require more force to enter the sand. The foot is relatively 
larger in the small quahaugs than in the large, and naturally the young 
show greater activity in burrowing. Besides age, the activity of the 
quahaug depends upon the temperature of the water, as below 50° F. 
they burrow slowly, often lying for long periods on the surface. This 
is an important fact for the planter, as there is danger in winter 
planting, owing to the exposure from non-burrowing. The nature 
of the soil, whether compact or loose, hard or soft, determines to some 
extent the rapidity of burrowing. When conditions are favorable, bur- 
rowing is usually accomplished within a few minutes. Out of 1,500 
quahaugs planted at Monomoy Point in sixteen different lots on June 
4, 1906, and Oct. 10, 1905, when the water was about 62° and 55°, 
respectively, 92 per cent, had burrowed within twenty-four hours after 
planting. The quahaugs were small, less than 41 millimeters, and in 
good condition. The June beds gave 94 per cent., the October beds 
85% per cent., showing the effect of temperature. 

The power of bun-owing is necessary for the quahaug in 'the same 
way as for the soft clam. Whenever the animal is forced or torn 
from its burrow by natural or artificial agencies it can again resume 
its natural position in the soil. 

The quahaug also possesses the power of crawling, as it is equipped 
with all the necessary organs for progress through the soil, but does 
not make use of this faculty to any great extent. The act of crawling 
is accomplished in much the same way as the burrowing, which is a 
modification of the original crawling habits of the young. After bur- 
rowing in the soil the animal works the extended foot forward, forming 
a way for the shell, which is pulled after the foot. The movement is 
anterior, i.e., the siphonal end of the animal brings up the rear, the 
end of the shell projecting so that a winding trail is left on the surface 
of the sand, showing the course of the animal. Crawling is effected 
by the same conditions which influence burrowing, such as tempera- 
ture, soil and size of the quahaug, the older animals moving very little, 
while the young forms are more active. In one instance a blunt qua- 
haug between the tide lines was found to have crawled 7 inches in 
twenty-four hours. All movements in this bed were in the direction 
of the retreating tide. While crawling is more often observed between- 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 

the tide fiats, it also takes place in the natural habitat, below low- 
water mark. On wet flats the quahaug can possibly crawl without 
water over it; but most of the crawling is done under the water. 

Various writers have referred to the quahaug as wandering between 
the tide lines, as if the animal were constantly moving from place to 
place. In reality the quahaug moves but little, and usually at a slow 
rate, as by force of habit it is a stationary animal. The writer several 
times has observed its wanderings, as shown by the marks on the 
tidal flats, but has never found evidence of its traveling any great 
distance. On the other hand, from general observations and from 
planted beds which were left for years, he has invariably found that 
the quahaugs remained in the same localities where placed. Even the 
smaller, active quahaugs, % of an inch, which are more prone to crawl- 
ing, have been observed to remain where planted. Kellogg (2) in 
1903 was the first to note that there was practically no migration of 
the quahaugs in his beds, which he found intact several months after 
planting. All our growth experiments substantiate Professor Kel- 
logg's observations, as in no case was there any general migration. 
Therefore, it can be concluded that, while the quahaug has the power 
of moving, possessing as it does the necessary organs for crawling, it 
makes use of this habit but little, and when placed on satisfactory 
bottom will remain within a few feet of its original position. The 
importance of this fact to planters should not be overlooked, as other- 
wise the prospective culturist will be afraid that his planted crop may 
move. Such is not the case, and the culturist need never fear any 
appreciable loss through migration. 

The proofs on which the above conclusion is founded are three: (1) 
observations on many growth experiments; (2) experiment on move- 
ment below low-water mark; (3) experiment on movement between the 
tide lines. 

(1) The facts on this point have already been given. In all the 
growth experiments the quahaugs were found a year or more later in 
the immediate vicinity. In no case had there been any marked migra- 
tion. In several beds, planted between the tide lines at Monomoy 
Point, which were taken up eleven months after planting, nearly all 
the quahaugs were found within 3 feet of the original beds. In one 
bed the quahaugs were of small size, measuring 17 millimeters in 
length, showing that even the young, active animals were not inclined 
to wander. 

(2) A means of roughly determining the migratory powers of the 
quahaug was tried at Monomoy Point in 1906. Short stakes, in width 
and thickness 3 inches by 1 inch, were driven in the coarse sand in the 
Powder Hole in front of the laboratory, where there were 2 feet of 
water at low tide. Six quahaugs were placed in order around the 
stake, 1 at each end, 2 at each side, with the tips of their shells just ' 



50 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

touching the wood, so that any movement could be readily determined. 
Four lots of 6 quahaugs each, measuring 28, 29, 40 and 41 millimeters, 
were placed in position Sept. 14, 1906, and examined three times, at 
intervals of three, fourteen and thirty-eight days, respectively, at each 
examination the quahaugs being left where found, so that the final 
observation recorded the total movement for the entire period. On the 
first examination after three days 5 quahaugs out of the 24 had 
moved from their original position, moving from % to 3 inches, on an 
average of 1 inch. In fourteen days 8 more, 13 in all, had moved, the 
average distance this time being 1.27 inches, the minimum distance 
traveled being % inch and the maximum 3 inches, while 1 quahaug 
was missing. After a period of thirty-eight days 4 were reported 
missing, 5 remained as originally placed and 14 had moved an average 
of 2.15 inches, with a minimum of % inch and a maximum of 6 inches. 
What became of the 4 missing quahaugs was not determined, and it is 
a matter of conjecture whether they crawled away or were washed out 
of their burrows in the sand. The distance covered by the 15 that 
moved is very slight and unimportant. If the quahaug were naturally 
a migratory form, as the sea clam, within thirty-eight days all would 
have traveled away; but considering the fact that 83 per cent, of the 
number remained within a few inches of their original position, it 
can be concluded that the quahaug leads practically a sedentary life. 
No difference was noticed in the movement of the 28-millimeter and 
the 41-millimeter quahaugs, as the number of large and small which 
moved were about the same, although the larger quahaugs covered about 
twice as much distance as the small. A parallel experiment with sea 
clams (Mactra solidissima) was conducted under the same conditions, 
with the result that all disappeared in the course of a few days after 
planting. 

(3) A similar experiment was tried between the tide lines at Mono- 
moy Point, on a sand clam flat. Five stakes were driven in the flat, 
and quahaugs were planted close to these on Sept. 18, 1906. One 
month later all but 1 out of 57 quahaugs were found within 6 inches 
of the posts, showing that, even between the tide lines, the so-called 
wandering zone, the quahaugs showed no tendency to migrate. 

Movement of the Young Quahaugs. 
(1) Swimming. — The swimming period of the quahaug's life lasts 
during its embryonic existence, ending soon after the completion of 
the veliger stage, although the footed larva has for a short period the 
power of swimming with its muscular foot. The embryo acquires 
the power of moving through the water at the age of ten hours, when 
the surface cells are equipped with minute hair-like processes, cilia. 
The early movements consist of random revolutions of a spiral nature. 
Two hours later, definite direction is established by the elongation of 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 

the animal, which now swims with a spiral movement, rotating around 
the longitudinal axis. With the growth of the embryonic shell, about 
thirty-six hours after fertilization, the animal, now called the veliger, 
swims by means of the velum, a muscular pad covered with long cilia. 
The velum has been derived from the anterior ciliated area of the 
ciliated larva. The animal opens its shell, thrusts out the velum, and 
is propelled by the action of the cilia in any direction. During the 
summer spawning months the water is full of these small veligers, 
which can be taken by a plankton net of silk bolting cloth. When 
startled, as by a sudden jar, they cease swimming, pull in the velum, 
close the shell, and settle to the bottom. During the veliger stage 
occurs the loss of the velum and the appearance of the foot, which 
takes its place, at first as a swimming, later as a crawling organ. 
Swimming is accomplished through a kicking movement of the foot, 
which propels the animal through the water. A similar movement 
has been seen in adult razor clams, which have been observed to swim 
through the water for short distances by the kicking with the long foot. 

(2) Crawling. — With the young quahaug crawling is somewhat dif- 
ferent than with the adult, and is similar to the crawling of the young 
clam. Observations were made on quahaugs from 2 to 3 millimeters in 
size. At this age the flexible foot is elongate, and more like the blade 
of a knife than the keel-shaped foot of the adult. Two methods of 
crawling were observed. 

(a) The Forward or Following Movement. — The forward movement 
is the common means of crawling, and is similar to the methods ob- 
served in the young clam and scallop. It consists of extending the foot 
and dragging the body after it, in the same manner as the adult qua- 
haug moves through the sand. Fig. 20 shows .the foot just appear- 
ing from the shell. The mantle and siphon are extended, while the 
angle between the shell and the foot is acute. This is the beginning 
of the movement. Fig. 21 shows the foot extended to its full length. 
It has made a twist so that the bottom part of the ciliated tip can 
get a firm hold. By straightening out this twist the shell is raised 
on edge to its natural position when in the sand. The usefulness of 
this movement is explained by the fact that the quahaug, when ex- 
posed, lies flat on the surface of the sand, and that the shell is thus 
raised on edge, so that it can enter the sand with a cutting edge. The 
next movement (Fig. 22) is what might be styled a " downward tip," 
as this action is likewise of use in entering the sand as a wedge. Then 
quickly follows an upward tip (Fig. 23). By these two tips the qua- 
haug has withdrawn within the shell all but the extremity of the foot, 
and is now ready for another start. The distance covered is three- 
fourths the length of the foot. The two tips are caused by the 
retractor muscles of the foot. In the downward tip the anterior re- 
tractor pulls on the anterior portion of the foot, resulting in the 
downward tip to the anterior portion of the shell, and the second or 



52 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

upward tip is the result of a similar action of the posterior retractor. 
A 3-millimeter quahaug was observed to travel at the rate of an inch, 
over eight times its length, in two minutes, covering about %7 of an 
inch at each movement, the average time of each movement being about 
seven seconds. 

(b) Backward Movement. — The young quahaugs make use of an- 
other method of crawling, though less frequently than the first. This 
movement resembles a kick, and sends the shell backwards or sidewise. 
In Fig. 24 the foot is turned under the shell until the tip finds a rest- 
ing place. Then by a jerky motion the shell is raised from the bottom 
and hurled to the position of Fig. 25 by a direct backward thrust. 
The foot is then drawn in and the same performance repeated. Some- 
times the shell rests on the same valve, sometimes it is turned over 
so that on the completion of the movement it rests on the opposite 
side (Figs. 26 and 27). There is a similarity between the forward and 
the backward movements as they both depend upon the contraction 
and the expansion of the foot, but they differ in the application of 
the force, the first being a pull and the second a thrust. The average 
of 12 cases observed gave six seconds as the time consumed from start 
to finish by this movement, as compared with seven seconds for the 
other. The longest time observed was ten seconds, the shortest, four. 

It is interesting to note that while in the case of the scallop a direct 
relation can be noted between the expulsion of water from the siphonal 
region and locomotion, in the case of the quahaug such cannot be 
definitely established. Possibly there may be a slight aid during the 
forward movement, although the flow of water is not co-ordinated with 
the contraction of the foot, as with the scallop. In the backward 
movement there is no assistance whatever. 

(3) Bate of Crawling. — The following observations were made on 
the distance traveled by small 2 and 3 millimeter quahaugs. Small 
round glass dishes 1% inches in diameter, were partly filled with fine 
white sand. Two quahaugs 2 and 3 millimeters were put in the cen- 
ter of the dish, which was placed in the aquaria. On examination 
fifteen minutes later it was found that the 2-millimeter quahaug had 
traveled 32 millimeters, or sixteen times its own length, i.e., the rate of 
5 inches per hour. The first 23 millimeters were through the sand, the 
last 9 on the surface. On a second examination, one and one-half 
hours later, the quahaug had only traveled 10 millimeters more, this 
time under the sand. The 3-millimeter quahaug had not moved at all, 
remaining in the position originally placed in the sand. 

Three other quahaugs, 2 millimeters, 3 millimeters and 3 millimeters 
in length, respectively, were placed in a dish 3 inches in diameter, 
filled with white sand. Examined six hours later, they had moved 
11 millimeters, 26 millimeters and 100 millimeters, respectively. 



1910.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 53 



Recovery from Injury. 
In several cases the shells of the quahaugs have been broken in 
planting. Unless the break or crack is too large the wound will heal 
by the formation on the inside of a new layer of shell, the old crack 
never joining, but merely being held together by the new growth 
underneath. It is well for the quahaug culturist to know that slight 
breaks are not always fatal to the quahaug, and that, in planting, 
broken ones should not be discarded. 

The Feeding Habits. 

The food of the quahaug, as of all the lamellibranch mollusks, con- 
sists principally of diatoms, — minute plant forms which are found 
in all waters. These little plants vary greatly in size and shape, often 
the species of one family but faintly resembling each other. Their 
chief characteristic is a silicious case, which distinguishes them from 
other plankton forms. The marine diatomacese are somewhat different 
from the fresh-water forms, but maintain the same general family 
characteristics. They are abundant throughout the water, although the 
lighter and smaller forms are most numerous near the surface. These 
surface species are naturally of less food value than the large, deeper 
forms. On the various soils which constitute the bottom, the diatoms 
are constantly reproducing and adding to the supply in the water. 
It has been found that mud furnishes better breeding places than sand, 
and that the color of certain surface soils is often due to the kind of 
diatomaceous growth. An increase in the temperature of the water 
results in more rapid reproduction. Other minute forms of plankton 
life are ingested by the quahaug, unless they are too large, in which 
ease, by a complicated mechanism of the ciliary tracts, they are dis- 
carded with silt and other foreign material. In this way the quahaug 
shows a selective power in feeding. Small crustaceans, larvae of mol- 
lusks and crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers, bacteria, etc., constitute a 
part of the quahaug food, the quantity depending on the location and 
the season. 

The following account is taken from the work of Prof. James L. Kel- 
logg, who has ably described the feeding habits of the quahaug in his 
report upon " The Feeding Habits and Growth of Venus mercenaria." 
The subject-matter is presented in condensed form, as only the impor- 
tant features are given. From the previous description of the anatomy 
the reader will remember that just inside the shell lies the mantle, 
enclosing the body in a fleshy case. Posteriorly the mantle lobes are 
fused to form two tubes, the incurrent and excurrent siphons, through 
which a steady stream of water enters and leaves the mantle chamber. 
Suspended in the mantle chamber, on each side of the visceral mass, 



54 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

are two conspicuous folds, the inner and outer gills, which play an 
important part in the collection of the food. On each side of the 
mouth, which is on the median line behind the anterior adductor 
muscle, are the palps, which are similar in appearance to the gills and 
function in conducting food to the mouth. 

We have seen that a constant stream of water entered the mantle or 
branchial chamber. What becomes of it? And what is it that causes the 
current? All of this water in the mantle chamber streams through the 
minute openings between the filaments of the gill and enters its interior 
space. It now rises to the base of the gill, and flows into a tube, the epi- 
branchial chamber, through which it passes backward, leaving the body by 
the upper or exhalent siphon, which is directly continuous with the epi- 
branehial chambers of the four gills. The currents which we first noticed, 
then, enter the mantle chamber by the lower siphon, pass into the interiors 
of the four gills, flow to their upper or attached edges, and are directed 
backward and out through the upper siphon tubes of the mantle. 

The cause of these rapid currents is revealed by a microscopic examina- 
tion of the rods or filaments of the gills. These are found to be covered 
on their outer surfaces, which face the water on both sides of the gill, with 
innumerable short, hairlike structures which project perpendicularly from 
the surface. These cilia are protrusions of the living protoplasm of the cells 
which form the walls of the filaments. Each possesses the power of move- 
ment, lashing in a definite direction, and recovering the original perpen- 
dicular position more slowly. This movement is so rapid that it cannot be 
seen till nearly stopped by inducing the gradual death of the protoplasm. 
It is very effective in causing strong currents in the surrounding water. 

A microscopic examination, and direct experiment with minute, floating 
particles, will show that other cilia are present on the filaments than those 
which cause the water to enter the gills. The diagrammatic figure of the 
gill does not show why the minute food particles may not be taken into the 
interior of the gill by the entering stream of water, and finally out of the 
body through the broad water channels. This is prevented by long cilia 
arranged in bands, which project out laterally between contiguous filaments 
in such a way as to strain the water which enters the gill, thus preventing 
all floating matter from entering. These highly specialized cilia tracts of 
lamellibranch gills I have called the " straining lines." In some forms 
there is a single line, in others there are two. In some cases the lines are 
formed by a single row of cells; or a section across the line sometimes 
reveals several closely crowded cells bearing the greatly elongated straining 
cilia. 

That foreign matter is really excluded as the current of water enters the 
gill, may be demonstrated by direct experiment on a living gill. Carmine 
may be ground into a fine powder, and suspended in water without becoming 
dissolved. If a small amount of this is allowed to fall on the surface of 
a living gill, it will be seen to lodge there. A wonderful thing now occurs. 
A myriad of separate minute grains, which may represent the food of the 
clam, are almost instantly cemented together with a sticky mucus which is 
secreted by many special gland cells in the filaments, and the whole mass, 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 55 

impelled by the oscillations of the cilia, begins to move with some velocity 
toward the lower or free edge of the gill. On this free margin is a groove 
into which the material collected on the faces of the gill is turned. This 
groove is also lined by ciliated cells, and the whole mass is swept swiftly 
forward in it toward the palps. The natural food of the clam, of course, 
is carried forward in the same way. It is evident that a large proportion of 
the organisms floating in the water which enters the mantle chamber must 
come in contact with the sides of the gills, and be carried forward to the 
mouth folds, to which they may be transferred. . . . 

If we now examine the palps with a hand lens, we may notice that their 
inner surfaces — those nearest to the mouth — are covered by a set of very 
fine parallel ridges. They are capable of many movements. They may be 
bent and spirally twisted, lengthened or shortened, and, if their inner faces 
touch the edges of the gills, any material which is being brought to this 
region is transferred onto the ridges of the palp. This is accomplished by 
strong cilia which are developed on the ridges. These same cilia carry the 
foreign matter on across the ridges, and finally force it into the mouth. 

Enemies. 

The adult quahaug is well protected from enemies by its hard shell, 
while the young larva is at the mercy of both the natural enemies and 
adverse physical conditions, which make its existence most precarious. 
We can divide the enemies of the quahaug into two classes: (1) the 
enemies of the young; (2) the enemies of the adult. 

Enemies of the Young. — Adverse natural conditions, rather than 
active enemies, destroy vast numbers of the quahaug larva?. Up to the 
time of attachment the young quahaug is at the mercy of tide, wind, 
changes in temperature, cold rains, etc., which either wash it ashore or 
kill the delicate embryo by sudden changes. All manner of fish, crus- 
tacean and molluscan life feed on the larvse, even the mother quahaug 
sucking down her own offspring. The young quahaug must " set v on 
good ground or perish. In this way nature has regulated the number 
of eggs in the individual quahaug so that the large number compen- 
sates for the great destruction. Even when the quahaug has " set " 
it is not free from enemies. It becomes the prey of ducks and other 
water fowl if it happens to settle in shallow water. While no actual 
instances have come to the notice of the writer of taking quahaugs 
from the crops of water birds, other small shellfish of a similar 
nature, although adults, have been found. If these mollusks were 
eaten, it is possible that the small quahaugs would also be taken. 
Such mollusks as Lcevicardium mortoni and young razor clams (Ensis 
directris) have been found in the stomachs of flounders, and naturally 
small quahaugs could be taken in the same manner by bottom-feeding 
fish. Instances have been recorded where small quahaugs have per- 
ished by washing ashore in storms, showing that even when protected 
by a shell they are at the mercy of the elements. Starfish, particularly 



56 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the young " star," probably prey upon the young form, and it is 
possible for the oyster drill to attack a small quahaug. 

Enemies of the Adult. — The enemies of the adult can be grouped 
into two classes, — the active and the passive. The active enemies are 
given in order of their importance: (1) man; (2) the winkle or cockle 
(Lunatia duplicata and heros) ; (3) the conch (Fulgur caniculatus and 
carica) ; (4) the starfish. The passive enemies are those which feed on 
the same forms as the quahaug, in certain cases depriving it of its sus- 
tenance, in others hindering its growth. As such may be enumerated 
mussels, other shellfish of no economic value, seaweeds, etc. 

(1) Man. — It is hardly necessary to more than mention man as 
the greatest enemy to the quahaug, because this report has shown in 
numerous ways, especially in the historical review of the fishery and 
the description of the quahaug beds, how man, through excessive dig- 
ging, has gradually reduced the natural supply. It need scarcely be 
stated that, unless some method of culture is inaugurated within the 
next few years, the quahaug industry will become commercially extinct 
through overfishing by man. Man has overthrown the balances of 
nature both by ill-advised methods of overfishing and by changes in 
conditions through the pollution of the streams and waters. Man is 
and will be the greatest enemy of the quahaug unless he repair the 
damage already done and assist nature in renewing the supply. 

(2) The Winkle. — The common bait winkle or cockle (Lunatia 
heros and duplicata) attacks the quahaug by perforating its shell in 
the region of the umbo by means of a rasping tongue armed with sharp 
teeth. The animal drills a clean countersunk hole from 1 to 6 milli- 
meters in diameter, according to the size of the cockle. While the 
chief prey of the winkle is the sea clam, it will frequently attack both 
the quahaug, especially the " little neck," and the soft clam. Owing 
to the thick shell the quahaug is more immune than the sea clam, as it 
takes the winkle much longer to pierce the shell and suck out the 
contents. At Monomoy Point numbers of quahaugs were killed by 
the winkle in the experimental beds. In nearly every case, although 
variations have occurred, the perforation was made directly on the 
projecting umbo or beak of the quahaug. Although the winkle, with 
the exception of man, is considered the greatest active enemy of the 
quahaug, it can be readily prevented from injuring the quahaug beds 
by a little care on the part of the culturist. The cockle never appears 
on the quahaug grounds in such numbers that it is impossible to gather 
them, and owing to the high price of these snails for bait, $3 to $4 
a bushel, it is highly profitable for the quahaug planter to capture 
them for the market, at the same time preventing damage to his 
quahaugs. 

(3) The Horse-winkle. — The extent of the damage caused by this 
large gasteropod mollusk cannot be determined, and possibly may be 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

greater than the destruction by the cockle. The oystermen claim that 
large numbers of oysters and quahaugs are destroyed by the horse- 
winkle. The method of attack, which has not been studied by the 
writer, is aptly described by Colton (14), who states that quahaugs are 
eaten in from seven hours to three days; that the meals are far 
between, and that the winkles spend their time between meals buried 
in the sand. The method of attack is described as follows : — 

The conch (Fulgur perversa or F. carica) grasps the Venus in the hollow 
of its foot, bringing the margin of the Venus shell against its own shell 
margin. By contracting the columellar muscle it forces the margins of the 
shell together, which results in a small fragment being chipped from the 
shell of Venus. This is repeated many times, and finally the crack between 
the valves is enlarged to a width of 3 millimeters or more. 

The proboscis is normally about 5 millimeters to 8 millimeters in diameter. 
There are three ways in which it may get at the animal. First, it may 
flatten out its proboscis so that it will go through the crack; secondly, it 
may pour in a secretion between the valves which kills the clam; and thirdly, 
it may wedge its shell between the valves of the Venus, and by contracting 
the columellar muscle actually wedge the valves apart. 

(4) The Starfish. — The starfish is the least effective of the four 
active enemies of the quahaug, as it is not able to readily attack the 
quahaug in its burrow. A large starfish, which was found in one of 
the experimental boxes at Monomoy Point, had eaten a number of the 
quahaugs which were buried under the sand. The starfish evidently 
was able to get at the animals by working its " arms n in the coarse 
sand until the quahaug was exposed, and then opening it in the same 
manner as the oyster, by the steady pressure of the tube feet on the 
two valves of the quahaug. Quahaugs lying outside the sand are rap- 
idly devoured by the starfish, which, after forcing the valves apart, 
passes its everted stomach into the shell and digests the contents. 
Under natural conditions it is probable that little damage is accom- 
plished by the starfish, owing to the difficulty of getting at the 
quahaugs. 

QUAHAUG CULTURE. 

The Decline. 
For decades the tidal flats and waters of the seacoast have yielded 
valuable harvests of shellfish, and the free-fishing public have continued 
their campaign of spoliation under the impression that these fertile 
territories were inexhaustible. As the thickly bedded areas near the 
beaches were exhausted, the quahaug fishermen ventured into the deeper 
waters, which greatly increased the cost and difficulties of fishing. 
The deep-water beds which opened a new era of prosperity for the 
quahaug industry, are now beginning to show the effects of the severe 



58 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

systematic fishery which has prevailed for the past few years. There 
can be but one logical outcome to the present system, i.e., the commer- 
cial extinction of the quahaug. 

The serious nature of this decline has only recently been brought 
to the attention of the public, although many have noticed the increased 
cost of shellfish and at times have experienced difficulty in procuring 
a sufficient supply. At present there is a widespread awakening 
throughout the Commonwealth in regard to the cost of living, and 
considerable interest has been shown in matters relating to the shell- 
fisheries, with a view toward checking the decline by developing these 
important sources of public wealth. 

The present quahaug industry is of comparatively recent growth. 
Although known as an article of food by the early settlers ever since 
the time of the Pilgrims, the quahaug did not attain universal popu- 
larity until within the last thirty years, when the opening of inland 
markets increased the demand. The resultant high prices naturally 
caused a large number of men to venture into the industry, stimulated 
by the hope of handsome profits. Soon there came a time when the 
natural increase of the fertile quahaug beds failed to equal the annual 
harvest, and a gradual decline set in, which has attained such magni- 
tude as to threaten the extinction of a most important shore industry, 
assuming such serious proportions in many of our coast towns as to 
thoroughly alarm the citizens. In Buzzard's Bay, a natural habitat 
of the quahaug, the industry in at least half the towns has declined 
to the point of commercial extinction, and even in the communities 
where it still retains some foothold, its existence is due to the devel- 
opment of new areas in the deeper waters. Conditions in many locali- 
ties on Cape Cod are scarcely better. Wellfleet, one of the leading 
towns of the Commonwealth in the production of quahaugs, presents 
a typical case of this kind. Practically the entire population, directly 
or indirectly, depends upon this industry for a livelihood. The qua- 
haug fleet, comprising nearly a hundred boats of all sizes, which may 
be seen every fair summer day fishing in various parts of the bay, 
is fast depleting the large natural beds of this region, and already 
the inhabitants are becoming apprehensive of the exhaustion of these 
areas. Similar conditions prevail to a greater or less degree in most 
of the villages of Cape Cod, and serious complications would doubtless 
follow the destruction of the quahaug fishery. 

Indications of Decline. — So universal has this decline become that 
it is hardly necessary to enumerate proofs of its existence. As already 
stated, the industry has been practically exterminated in many of the 
coast towns, while in others the natural supply is but a remnant of 
its former abundance, and there are but few localities where the yield 
of the natural beds has not decreased more or less. No one can ques- 
tion that the decline in the quahaug industry is general, and that its 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 59 

proper adjustment, as one of the great resources of the Commonwealth, 
is an important economic problem. 

Bise in Price. — When the demand for any commodity increases, it 
is a law of economics that a rise in price will follow. We have seen 
how the demand for quahaugs has increased during the past twenty 
years. It was inevitable that there should be a rise in price. The 
development of the " little neck " (small quahaug) trade was the fore- 
runner of the introduction of the larger quahaug. The increase in 
the price, while in part the result of an increasing demand, is also 
a sign of a decreasing supply. When the supply of a desirable com- 
modity diminishes, the price advances, until a new equilibrium is estab- 
lished. Therefore, both supply and demand have combined to place 
the price of the quahaug at its present high figure. 

Cause of the Decline. — In considering the present unsatisfactory 
conditions in the quahaug industry no one cause can be designated as 
having brought about this decline, but rather it has been the result 
of the combination of several important factors. The primary reason 
has undoubtedly been overfishing, a fact generally accepted throughout 
the fishing communities of the State. So long as the natural increase 
of the quahaug equals the amount taken from the flats it is clearly 
evident that the supply will not diminish. As soon, however, as the 
demand of the market necessitates a constantly greater annual produc- 
tion, the balance of nature is upset, and a diminution of the natural 
supply takes place. As we have already seen, the simultaneous de- 
crease in the supply and increase in the demand caused a rise in the 
price, sufficient for a time to lure more men into the industry. This 
time of prosperity has already passed, and many men are leaving the 
fishery to seek a livelihood in other pursuits, as, in spite of the high 
prices, they are unable any longer to make a living. The discovery 
of large quahaug beds in the deep water was the only factor that pre- 
vented the destruction of the quahaug fishery long ago. These beds 
are now being overfished, and when they are depleted the disappear- 
ance of this great industry will be complete. 

While the immediate cause of the decline is undoubtedly, and always 
has been, overfishing, the real cause lies in the conditions which tol- 
erated such a system of spoliation, and allowed it to continue un- 
checked after its destructive features had long been apparent. 

Under the old laws governing the fisheries of the Commonwealth, 
the State originally held possession of and exercised authority over all 
tidal waters as public property for every citizen. Later there arose 
a widespread feeling that the communities whose lands bordered on 
the ocean should have first right over these valuable territories. This 
feeling on account of the conditions of that time, met with little oppo- 
sition, as transportation was slow and the people from the inland 
communities had not the same opportunities for utilizing the fishing 
privileges that the inhabitants of the coast towns possessed. Thus 



60 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the rights of the Commonwealth over the shellfisheries came to be 
vested in the individual seacoast towns. According to the original act 
the selectmen of every coast town were given certain privileges of 
supervision over the shellfish interests within its borders. The Legisla- 
ture, however, was careful to specify that every inhabitant of the 
Commonwealth could still continue to take shellfish for family use or 
three bushels for bait per day in any part of the coast, in this manner 
reserving an important privilege for the public. 

As this privilege has never been exercised to any extent for market 
purposes, the towns have had absolute control of the shellfisheries for 
years. Their authority has been a direct trust from the Common- 
wealth, and if the decline of the shellfisheries has been attributable to 
improper legislation, or lack of legislation, this responsibility rests 
wholly upon the seacoast towns. Let us see in what manner these 
towns have improved the valuable privileges, and how they have 
guarded the sacred trust conferred upon them by the Commonwealth. 
The past record of the majority of the towns fails to show any con- 
sistent effort on their part to safeguard or develop these industries. 
A few communities have made certain short-lived attempts to foster or 
protect their native resources, but in every important instance these 
efforts have proved either wholly inadequate, or, if possessing the quali- 
ties of success, have been abandoned without sufficient trial. The usual 
type of reform attempted by the towns has been restrictive legislation, 
which has aimed in an illogical and ineffectual manner to check the 
exploitation of the natural beds rather than provide methods of in- 
creasing the supply. Legislation of this kind has never proved a suc- 
cess in any important instance. It has been unpopular, difficult to 
enforce and thoroughly unadapted to effect the intended reform. It is 
inherently a false or mistaken policy. The shellfisheries have needed 
laws of a constructive nature, designed to develop the industry. Re- 
strictive legislation unless accompanied by constructive is never truly 
protective, and in the past has proved such an unqualified failure as to 
be abandoned by its former advocates. It is not the purpose of this 
paper to criticise harshly the evidently well-meant efforts of the towns 
to benefit the shellfisheries, but it is universally conceded that they 
have in most cases proved a failure. It is not necessary to go into 
detail in the investigation of the various attempts of the towns in this 
direction, as they have taken in almost all eases the form of a close 
season over some specified areas, and few attempts to build up the 
natural resources have ever been honestly attempted. In the case of 
the quahaug fishing, we find that the efforts of the towns to keep the 
supply from becoming depleted have never been more than the most 
half-hearted attempts, and we are forced to conclude that the towns 
have dealt badly with the trust reposed in them by the Commonwealth, 
and have neglected the great opportunities for improving and preserv- 
ing the natural quahaug beds. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

It is only fair to state that the system of town control is ill calcu- 
lated to produce the best results. It is not reasonable to suppose that 
a number of municipalities, working independently, should be able 
to evolve a unified system. It is, however, just cause for surprise that 
the Commonwealth has so long allowed such mismanagement. It is 
certainly a most pressing need that this old, cumbersome policy should 
give place to a more unified and successful system. 

Under the present system of free fishing no constructive legislation 
can be applied, as there is no incentive for individual effort. The 
fishermen who advocate cultural methods and conservation of the 
natural resources are powerless through the indifference of others, and 
consequently are forced, against their will, to join the campaign of 
spoliation under the argument that they may as well get their share 
as long as the supply lasts. In this way the present system puts 
a premium on personal greed and discourages individual effort. It is 
practically impossible for legislation to check lawless exploitation where 
valuable resources are thrown open to the public. The unreasoning 
element will inevitably abuse the privilege to the utmost limit, and the 
more thoughtful will be swept into tacit consent. Naturally it would 
be for the general welfare for every fisherman to do his best to better 
conditions, but under the present system this rule could not hold, as 
no man, no matter how much a philanthropist, will work hard for the 
betterment of conditions only to see the results of his work appro- 
priated by another. 

The Remedy. 

We have pointed out that the attempts by which the towns endeav- 
ored to stop the decline of the quahaug supply were all of a restrictive 
nature, designed to check the demand rather than to increase the 
supply. The true remedy is to be found in legislation which will per- 
mit the application of cultural methods. There are only two methods 
by which constructive laws can operate: (1) seeding the public waters 
and flats at the expense of the towns or of the State; (2) the intro- 
duction of a system of private grants. 

(1) While there has never been any effort on the part of the towns 
or of the State to seed extensive tracts of quahaug territory, there 
have been attempts in the case of the soft-shelled clam. Such com- 
munal clam culture has generally failed, as the planting was usually 
in the hands of men unaccustomed to such work and ignorant of the 
proper methods. While successful communal culture can be carried 
on, there will always remain the natural drawbacks to any altruistic 
scheme of this sort, such as expense, uncertainty and non-co-operation, 
which tend to make it impractical. 

(2) The proposed remedy for preserving the native quahaug beds 
and developing the industry to its normal status is based upon a sys- 
tem of grants held and operated by individuals. Under this system 
an inhabitant of the Commonwealth would be permitted to lease a grant 



62 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of limited area from the State or town for a term of years, provisional 
upon the efficiency with which he improves his holding, and be guar- 
anteed immunity from outside molestation. For this privilege he 
would pay a reasonable annual rental to the Commonwealth or town in 
addition to the taxes which would be levied by the town upon the value 
of his holdings. A system of this sort, which would allow a part of the 
waters in each town to become rented property, while the remainder, 
at least half the present area, should exist as public property, would 
so benefit the industry that the annual production for the rented part 
alone would doubtless exceed the present output for the whole under 
existing conditions. This proposed remedy has been the outgrowth 
of a long series of experiments on the part of the Massachusetts De- 
partment of Fisheries and Game. These experiments have aimed 
throughout to formulate a practical remedy for the prevailing evils. 
The experiments in question have shown conclusively that quahaug 
seed can be successfully transplanted from one locality to another, and 
that it can be made to grow to a marketable size with a small outlay 
of capital in a sufficient time to yield large returns. Not only have 
these experiments, conducted in varied environments in our coast waters, 
proved that this remedy contains the necessary elements of success, 
but a study of the industry as a whole has shown that it is the only 
remedy which can bring about the desired results. The proposed rem- 
edy is not a theory evolved on the spur of the moment, but is the 
outgrowth of several years of careful study of the prevailing conditions 
along our coast. It is a system based on the results of successful 
experiments, and has been placed on a practical, commercial basis with 
the oyster, both abroad and in the United States. 

Benefits. — (1) It will save the declining industry by lessening the 
drain on the natural beds and by meeting the increasing demands of the 
market. Moreover, the " spawners " on the grants will in all proba- 
bility suffice to abundantly seed all the public ground, at least to 'a 
greater degree than at present. 

(2) It will increase the supply to more adequately meet the demands 
of the market. The quahaug has become a popular article of diet and 
there is no reason why it should not be a far more important item in 
the food supply of the Commonwealth than it is at present. In Massa- 
chusetts, where the population is so dense that it has to depend in 
great measure on other sections of the count ry for its supply of food- 
stuffs, any important article of food native to the Commonwealth 
should be well cared for. 

(3) It would furnish more remunerative and steady work for the 
fishermen. This result would be accomplished in two Avays: it would 
increase the supply of shellfish on the fiats and tidal waters, held in 
common as already explained, thus increasing the catch of the average 
fisherman. But of greater value to the fisherman would be the priv- 
ilege of holding a small piece of territory as his own property, which 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 63 

should, under favorable circumstances, yield him a considerable annual 
income. 

(4) It would be a benefit to the coast communities, where the shell- 
fish industry furnishes the main income of the inhabitants. Under 
present conditions these communities depend for support on an uncer- 
tain industry, the revenue from which is extremely variable. Under 
these discouraging conditions many fishermen live literally from day 
to day, barely tiding over the severe winters with the money earned 
during the summer's fishing. The proposed system would do away 
in a great measure with this unsatisfactory state of affairs, as it would 
practically assure to every industrious quahauger a steady income. 

(5) It would furnish a more abundant sea food for the public. Any 
undertaking which will result in increasing the supply is desirable 
from an economic standpoint. The quahaug as an article of diet has 
had a favorable reputation for some years. Its popularity is steadily 
growing, and anything which would tend to increase the supply must be 
considered a public benefit. 

(6) It would utilize thousands of acres of barren land now lying idle 
and unproductive. It has been a wise policy of this country for many 
years, fostered by men who have the national interests at heart, to 
conserve the natural resources and bring them to their highest degree 
of usefulness. In Massachusetts, not primarily an agricultural State, 
large tracts of territory, which in the fertile western countries would 
never be touched, are nevertheless, by careful tillage, made to yield 
profitable returns. It seems poorly in accord with the prevailing 
methods of thrift that large areas along our shore, which are more 
valuable acre for acre than any upland, should be allowed to remain 
unproductive, when they could, with a comparatively slight expenditure 
of time and money, be made to yield substantial returns. It is incon- 
ceivable that such a misguided policy can much longer control the shell- 
fisheries. Already the matter has attracted popular attention, and will 
soon be dealt with in the same progressive spirit which Massachusetts 
has ever shown in the management of her industries. 

Quahaug Farming. 
Under the proposed system of quahaug culture the available terri- 
tory comprising the tidal flats and shallow waters of our coasts would 
be dotted with small areas under artificial cultivation. There would 
be a striking similarity in this arrangement to a tract of agricultural 
country where fertile gardens are interspersed with stretches of meadow 
and pasture land. There can be no question that the system which 
holds sway over the agricultural districts of our country is equally 
desirable for our extensive shore areas, which now produce but a por- 
tion of their normal yield. If these tracts could be divided, in part 
at least, into small plots of cultivated ground, nature would be greatly 
assisted in her efforts to render these territories productive. 



64 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

That we may see to what degree the installation of such a system 
would affect the industry, let us take one of these proposed cultivated 
plots or grants to serve as a model. The average fisherman, an indus- 
trious family man, would take out one of these little grants. At first 
he would not depend very much on the income derived in this man- 
ner, but would probably continue to fish on the public grounds. Grad- 
ually, as he became accustomed to its management, he would come to 
look more and more to his own leased territory for a livelihood. He 
would be constantly on the outlook in his trips around the bays and 
coves of his home district for little " pocket " beds of small quahaugs, 
where he could procure seed for his grant. He would carry this seed 
carefully home with him, and experiment, with ever-increasing interest, 
in planting so as to insure the least loss and greatest gain. He would 
be ever anxious to see how his novel harvest was maturing, looking 
over his bed from time to time to note the growth of the seed, and 
to remove cockles and other enemies. If his little farm were located 
between tide lines he would be careful to have his seed planted early 
in the spring, and would in most cases harvest the entire crop late 
in the fall or early winter, before it suffered exposure to the ice. If 
his grant were situated just below mean low-water mark, where it 
would never be exposed, he could probably allow his seed to remain 
for two seasons, when it would yield a still better profit. But wherever 
situated, on soil at all suitable, he would possess in his little holding 
of an acre or more property of such value that he would be able, under 
normal conditions, to reap enough to support his family in very com- 
fortable circumstances. He would be able to do this with far less 
expense of time and labor than enterprises of this sort usually require. 
While his grant would in every material respect be a miniature farm, 
and would probably be known as such, it would be entirely free from 
most of the labor involved in the care of the ordinary farm. No time 
would have to be devoted to the work of plowing, harrowing or weed- 
ing, which makes the life of the average farmer such a hard-working 
existence. There would be none of the expense and labor of fertiliz- 
ing, so necessary for the success of upland gardening; there would be 
little or no time required in fighting the natural enemies of the grow- 
ing crop which the upland farmer experiences. The quahaug has 
few enemies, and these do little damage, and are, besides, easy to fight. 
The fisherman-farmer would be free from anxiety on account of the 
weather, over which his more unfortunate neighbor of the upland so 
constantly worries. No drought, beating rain or early frost is likely 
to injure his growing crop. Practically the only labor required is 
that of seeding and harvesting, which are simpler and easier for the 
shellfish culturist than for the farmer. The ordinary farmer is fre- 
quently content to reap from his average acre of cultivated ground from 
$20 to $50. The quahaug planter on an equal territory could raise 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

many times that amount as under favorable circumstances $750 net may 
be realized annually from one acre. 

The comparison is strikingly in favor of the quahaug grant, and the 
benefit of such a system is sure to follow for all coast communities. 
The shellfisherman is raised from an uncertain livelihood to a position 
of secure and comfortable independence, the communities made more 
prosperous and a decadent industry revived. 

History of Quahaug Farming. — Until within recent years few at- 
tempts at quahaug culture have been made in Massachusetts, although 
for some time oystermen in the States directly south have carried on 
successful planting. The demand for small seed has extended even 
to Massachusetts, and many thousand bushels have been shipped out 
of the State for planting purposes. Nantucket, Chatham, and finally 
New Bedford have taken their turn in this traffic, according to the 
abundance of small quahaugs. In 1909 one New York planter is au- 
thentically reported to have purchased nearly 5,000 bushels of seed 
from Massachusetts, paying $3 per bushel. During 1909 the shipment 
of seed from New Bedford and Fairhaven approximated 45,000 bushels. 
These small quahaugs are replanted in Long Island waters, and in one 
year's time, according to the results of growth experiments, probably 
netted the planter at least 4 bushels of marketable little necks for 
every bushel planted. Lately some of the Massachusetts oystermen 
have successfully raised quahaugs on their oyster grants, and are ready 
to engage in a more extensive way. 

The first legislative act permitting the planting of quahaugs was 
passed for the Narragansett Bay section in 1874. This legislation 
permitted the giving of licenses for the planting of shellfish in the 
town bordering on Mount Hope Bay. Nothing was accomplished, 
however, as the law was repealed the following year. The second 
movement took the form of a special law permitting the bedding of 
quahaugs in Eastham, Orleans and Wellfleet in 1904, which in fact 
was a semi-license. Finally, in 1909 a general law was passed, which 
gave local option to the coast towns in the giving of grants. As yet 
these laws appear to be without result. The "bedding" act was uti- 
lized to some extent to hold quahaugs for market, and in a few cases 
for growing purposes. No town has as yet taken advantage of the 
general law. What culture has been carried on has been done secretly 
or on the oyster grants, where protection is given. Under these 
adverse conditions planting has proved remunerative, and there is 
every indication that, when absolute protection is guaranteed the cul- 
turist, a flourishing industry will be inaugurated. 

Possibilities of Quahaug Farming. — While the subject of clam 
farming has received a great deal of attention, people have failed to 
see that the same cultural methods can be employed even to greater 
advantage with the quahaug. A quahaug farm, if properly tended, 



66 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

should yield more revenue, acre for acre, than any clam flat, and prove 
a much safer investment for the planter. If it were not for the sear- 
city of seed at the present time, quahaug culture, although confined to 
the southern waters of the Commonwealth, would become the greatest 
of the shellfish industries of Massachusetts. 

The quahaug has a wide range; it is found in all depths of water, 
from the high-tide line to a depth of more than 50 feet, and in various 
kinds of bottom. This natural adaptability gives the quahaug a wider 
area than any other commercial shellfish, as it will live in almost any 
soil, although the rate of growth depends essentially upon its location 
in respect to current. Vast areas, over 25,000 acres, on the southern 
shores of Massachusetts, at present unproductive except for here and 
there small scattering beds, can be utilized for shellfish farms, which, 
when placed under cultural methods, should yield many times the pres- 
ent production and furnish a livelihood for thousands of men. Qua- 
haugs will grow on such areas as the Common Flats of Chatham, if they 
are planted and properly cared for. Instance after instance can be 
cited where the territory is so extensive that if every inhabitant of 
that particular locality were allotted a grant of two or three acres, the 
leased portion would be but a small part of the whole area. It is 
conservation of our natural resources in the truest sense to make use 
of the great undeveloped possibilities of our shore waters. 

Methods of operating a Quahaug Farm. 

Selecting the Ground. — The planter should have two main ideas in 
mind in choosing the location of his grant: (1) facilities for work and 
marketing; (2) productive capacity. The ideal grant combines the two, 
where the work is easy and the growth rapid, while a near-by market 
furnishes high prices. Unfortunately, such delightful combinations are 
few, and the eulturist will have to choose a grant with such qualifica- 
tions as he thinks best suited to his needs. For this reason it is desira- 
ble to consider these points more in detail. 

(1) Facilities for work comprise three things: (a) The accessibility 
of the grant to the home of the eulturist, where he can get to it with- 
out loss of time and where he can have a protective oversight. The 
term " home " is used here in the sense of landing place, boat mooring 
or shellfish shanty, where the eulturist keeps his equipment, (b) The 
depth of water over the bed, and the nature of the bottom, as raking 
in shallow water is much easier and less expensive as to time and im- 
plements than the deep-water quahauging, while the firmness of the 
bottom increases the work of raking. If, perchance, the grant is be- 
tween the tide lines the labor of harvesting the quahaugs is less than 
if they were continually covered by water, but in such a case the work- 
ing period is limited, and the quahaug eulturist risks the destruction 
of his crop during the winter, (c) The ease of marketing is another 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 67 

factor, as distance and poor transportation facilities add to the expense. 
The planter must consider the question of bringing his produce as 
cheaply as possible to the railroad. 

(2) The most important factor in the selection of the ground is its 
productive capacity. The prime requisite of a grant is a rapid rate 
of growth, which, for a grant situated below mean low-water mark, 
depends upon two conditions, — the current or circulation of water 
and the nature of the soil. In the case of the few grants existing either 
permanently or temporarily between the tide lines, a third condition, 
exposure, demands attention, as the time of exposure at low tide re- 
duces the feeding period of the quahaug. As the majority of the 
grants will be below low-water mark the other two conditions are 
more important. 

(a) Soil. — The nature of the soil affects the quahaug in two ways: 
(1) if too shifting it buries the quahaug or washes it beyond the border 
of the grant; (2) soils in which organic acids, caused by the decay of 
plant life, are present, prove unsatisfactory for any catching of seed, 
interfere to a slight extent with the growth by destroying the shell, 
and worst of all, give the quahaug a poor, black appearance, unfavor- 
able for immediate marketing. While the effect of soils on shell for- 
mation has never been worked out, and although the quahaug derives 
its material for its shell from the water, nevertheless, the nature of the 
soil in some indirect way determines the appearance, the composition 
and the weight of the shell, as observations on quahaugs from various 
soils in near-by localities indicate. 

(b) Current. — The growth of the quahaug depends upon the circu- 
lation of water, as the current is the " food carrier," and therefore, 
within limits, the more current, the more food. Current also keeps the 
ground clean, and prevents contamination or disease from spreading. 
The most important point in choosing the ground is to locate the grant 
where there is a good current, as growth is directly proportional to the 
circulation of the water. It is possible, of course, for a place to have 
so rapid a current that it would cause a shifting of the bottom, and 
perhaps wash the quahaugs from their burrows, but such a current is 
found in but few localities in which one would think of planting. 

There are several other factors which do not influence the growth 
directly but at the same time have more or less influence upon the 
productive qualities of the grant. 

(c) Pollution. — It is hardly necessary to more than mention the 
danger to public health and the depreciation in the value of the mar- 
keted quahaugs when it is publicly known that the grant is situated 
in contaminated waters. For purely business reasons the planter should 
ascertain the purity of the water in the locality of his proposed grant, 
as in the future the public will demand the closure of all polluted 
waters and discountenance the sale of shellfish from such sources. 

(d) The proximity of localities where seed quahaugs may be readily 



68 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

obtained should be considered, as the cost of obtaining the necessary 
stock is an important item. If the grant can be situated in the vicin- 
ity of a natural quahaug bar, where seed can be obtained from the 
natural set, it will prove advantageous. If a method of artificial 
hatching of the seed, either from the egg or by spat collecting, is suc- 
cessfully placed on a commercial basis, such a precaution will not be 
necessary, as the quahaug culturist, like the oysterman, will be able 
to raise his own seed. 

(e) Closely connected with the study of the food of the quahaug 
comes the question of flavor of the meat, an important item in mar- 
keting. It is a well-known fact that quahaugs from various localities 
have different flavors, and in the future there will be a greater use of 
trade names and special brands, based on this fact. The flavor of a 
quahaug depends upon its environment, and, although it has not been 
absolutely proved, evidence points to the fact that the different flavors 
are due to the different kinds of plant food. In the future, when 
more practical knowledge is obtained about the food of these animals, 
it may be possible to supply special flavors by artificial cultures 
of food. Another factor determining the condition of the meats is the 
presence of oils, chemicals, etc., from factory wastes, which sometimes 
renders the shellfish unsavory. The soil and the silt in the water may 
also influence the flavor. 

(/) The grant should be chosen in a well-protected locality. Nat- 
ural conditions, such as loose sand, exposure to winds and choppy 
seas, increase both the loss of stock and difficulty of labor. Masses of 
floating eelgrass in some places are strewn over the bottom by storms, 
interfering with the growth and increasing the labor. Fortunately, the 
quahaug is hardy, and is not affected to any great extent by the ele- 
ments, except when the grant is located between the tide lines. A 
grant between the tide lines or close to low-water mark is an uncer- 
tain investment, as there is always danger of destruction during a 
severe winter, either by the ice or frost. The danger is not so much 
in the freezing of the quahaug as it is in the sudden thawing. If 
frozen quahaugs are slowly thawed out they will assume normal func- 
tions, as if nothing had happened, but when thawed out quickly many 
perish. From observation it can be said that in a fairly protected 
locality, where the grant is not too high between the tide lines, the 
chances of loss from winter will not be more than one case out of 
seven. 

In some localities there may occur a slight loss from the winkle, a 
natural enemy of the quahaug. The culturist can, by more or less 
labor, according to their abundance, keep them off his property. As 
the winkle is valuable for bait, the actual loss of time will be mini- 
mized, and even if unmolested the damage will be slight. 

The rule for choosing a grant should be: bottom of a mixture of 
mud and sand (exact nature of soil not important) ; clear of eelgrass, 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 69 

especially thick eelgrass; water the depth of 3 feet or more at low 
tide; a good current; and such facilities for work as best suits the par- 
ticular planter. 

Obtaining the Seed. — Nature has not provided so abundant a means 
of stocking the quahaug farms as is the case with the clam. The set 
of quahaugs is more scattering and apparently less abundant. In 
nature this is not necessary, because the young quahaugs after once 
they have taken refuge in the sand, are more hardy than the young 
clams, which perish in great numbers. Occasionally natural sets will 
be found in limited localities, as Stony Bar, Wellfleet; Mill Pond, Chat- 
ham; Acushnet River, etc. From these places the seed must be 
obtained. At the present writing Acushnet River and Tuckernuck 
Island have large beds of seed, which the inhabitants are industriously 
shipping to planters outside the Commonwealth. As these beds vary, 
occurring in different sections in succeeding years, the natural seed 
must be purchased from the specially favored localities. Small qua- 
haugs can also be obtained from Prince Edward Island, and probably 
from the southern States. 

The planters might experiment in catching seed by simulating the 
natural conditions of the seed bars on their grants, and turn their 
grounds into spat collectors. By the combined efforts of interested 
planters it would not be many years before a practical method of 
spat collecting could be devised. As the object of most planters would 
be the production of " little necks/' the size for planting would be 
under the maximum market " little neck." 

Planting. — The grant needs little preparation for planting. After 
the bounds are marked according to the regulations, thick eelgrass, stones 
and other debris which would interfere with the raking, and enemies 
such as winkles, should be gradually removed, either before planting 
or in the work of harvesting. The planting of the small quahaugs is 
a simple matter. It should take place preferably before May 1, when 
the quahaug begins its summer growth, but as seed is scarce, the planter 
will probably plant whenever he can procure the young. The quahaugs 
should be scattered evenly from a boat by shovels such as the oyster 
planters use, or it can be done in any way most convenient for the 
culturist. Ordinarily the quahaugs will burrow in the sand in a short 
time after they settle to the bottom. As their activity depends to a 
great extent on the temperature of the water, it is not advisable to 
plant in cold weather, as the quahaugs, instead of burrowing, will lie 
exposed on the surface, where they are in danger of perishing. The 
amount of seed that can be planted on any given area depends upon 
the natural conditions, chiefly the current. As many as 20 to the square 
foot can be bedded when the circulation is good, while the number 
should be decreased or increased according to the speed of the current. 
The planter, after a year or two, will be able to determine the exact 
number he can plant on his grant to the best advantage. 



70 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Working the Grant. — The work of caring for the grant will entail 
but slight labor. No cultivation of the ground is required, as in the 
upland farm, and the quahaug is left undisturbed until it has attained 
marketable size. A certain amount of oversight will be necessary to 
keep off poachers, and time must be given to destroy enemies and clean 
away any dead seaweed that drifts upon the grant, but further pre- 
cautions are unnecessary. 

Harvesting. — The principal labor comes in the harvesting of the 
crop, which must be done by raking or tonging. The location and 
natural conditions of the grant make this a variable factor, as depth 
of water, hardness of bottom and exposure to rough weather increase 
the difficulty of raking. While a certain portion of the crop may be 
taken at any season, the greater part will be marketed in the fall, 
when the season of raking on the natural beds is nearing a close, in 
order to get the advantage of the full summer's growth and the better 
winter prices. The fall work will apply only to the more protected 
grants which permit work in rough weather. The planter will have his 
grant divided into sections according to the size of the planted seed, 
which will be assigned in lots according to size and length of time 
before marketing. By dividing the ground into three or more parts, 
planted with quahaugs of different sizes, the culturist will have a sort 
of rotation of crops, cleaning up and replanting one-third of his prop- 
erty each year. In this way the planter will be able to place a uniform 
size on the market and receive a proportionately better price for his 
goods. There will be less labor in culling, and the " little necks " can 
be shipped directly in barrels or bags to special customers. 

The Value of a Quahaug Farm. — An acre of " little-neck " quahaugs 
has a high market value. A conservative estimate of 10 per square foot 
gives an annual yield of 600 bushels of 2 1 / 4-hich quahaugs per acre. 
This assumes that 120 bushels of l^-inch quahaugs were planted to 
the acre. The price paid for the same, at the high price of $5 per 
bushel, would be $600. The price received for the same, at $3 per 
bushel, would be $1,800, or a return of $3 for every $1 invested. This 
is a conservative estimate on all sides. Quahaugs could be planted 
two or three times as thick, seed might be purchased for less money, 
more money might be received for private shipments, and faster growth 
can be obtained. Practically the only labor necessary is gathering the 
quahaugs for market. The quahaug farm requires no such care as the 
agricultural farm, and offers far more profit. 

Perhaps the greatest advantage to the fisherman, next to the amount 
of quahaugs he can produce from his grant, is the fact that he is inde- 
pendent of the market. The value of the present quahaug industry 
lies chiefly in the production of " little necks/' which could be made 
a specialty under a cultural system. The planter can market his qua- 
haugs at whatever size and whatever time he desires, and is not forced 
to ship during periods of low prices, as he can leave his quahaugs 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

bedded on his grant. At the present time the quahaugers, except in 
a few towns where there are " bedding rights/' are forced to ship their 
catch as soon as taken, and receive often a low market price. In this 
way the planters could regulate, to a great extent, the market price 
for their own benefit. 

Advantage of a Uniform Size. — At the present time there is much 
dissatisfaction among the quahaug fishermen who rake on the natural 
beds because they receive poor prices. From the fisherman's stand- 
point the dealer is to blame, as it is claimed that he is continually try- 
ing to increase the middleman's profits. From the point of view of the 
shellfish dealer the fault seems to be with the fisherman, who does not 
carefully select his stock for market. A dealer is bound to pay better 
prices for uniform and selected stock. The common practice is to ship 
as " little necks " quahaugs of all sizes from l 1 /^ to 3 inches, large and 
small promiscuously scattered through the barrel, or first a barrel of 
large, then small, with the result that in most cases the dealer knows 
not what to expect, and naturally gives a minimum price. Perhaps 
with more care on the part of the quahauger this circumstance might 
be improved to some extent; but the fault lies rather in the present 
method of fishing. The logical method of increasing the price is the 
steady shipment of uniform selected stock. This is entirely impossible 
under free-for-all fishing. Steady orders cannot be filled when raking 
is irregular; a uniform size cannot be shipped, owing to the varied 
yield of the natural beds; and the quahaugs, unless bedded as in 
Orleans, Wellfleet and Eastham, must be shipped for whatever price 
is offered. Quahaug culture with its grant system offers a remedy, and 
furnishes to the quahauger a means of controlling the market. In 
contrast to the free fishery, the yield from the quahaug farm is steady 
instead of irregular; only quahaugs of the maximum market size, nec- 
essarily uniform, need be shipped, and the best prices obtained for 
them, while the quahauger is not forced to ship at a low price, but 
can wait until the market reaches his figure. As an illustration of the 
difference in price between ordinary shipped " little necks " from the 
natural fishery and uniformly selected stock from leased area, the 
following case is cited : from a locality on Cape Cod in 1909 quahaugs 
were shipped to market, the selected stock bringing $18 a barrel to the 
planter at any season, the ordinary stock, ranging from iy 2 to 3 
inches, only $10. No other proof is needed to show the advantage of 
a uniformly selected stock, such as can be obtained only by quahaug 
farming. 

THE INDUSTRY. 

From the standpoint of the fisherman the methods of capture and 
preparation of the quahaug for the market need no explanation; but 
the average reader, perhaps unfamiliar with the practical side, may 
find the following pages of interest. In order to give a complete 



72 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

report upon the quahaug fishery, owing to the fact that such data may 
be of use in later years for comparative purposes, it has been neces- 
sary to include special parts of the mollusk report of 1909. 

The Fishing Grounds. 

The quahaug is essentially a southern or warm-water mollusk and 
Massachusetts practically marks the northern range of the fishery, 
although quahaugs are taken in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. As shown 
on the accompanying map (Fig. 30), only the southern waters of the 
Commonwealth are included in this fishery. For greater detail the 
reader is referred to the " Mollusk Report " of 1909. 

The quahaug like the scallop territory can be arbitrarily separated 
into four main divisions: (1) the north side of Cape Cod; (2) the 
south side of Cape Cod; (3) Buzzard's Bay; (4) the Islands of Nan- 
tucket and Martha's Vineyard. 

North Side of Cape Cod. — In this section Plymouth marks the 
northern range, as a few quahaugs are found in this harbor. Passing- 
south, small beds are found in Barnstable harbor, while from Brewster 
north, in the waters of Orleans, Eastham and Wellfleet, the largest 
quahaug fishery of the Commonwealth is carried on. A few quahaugs 
are also found in Provincetown harbor and along the Truro shore. 
The chief characteristics of this section are: the great rise and fall of 
the tide, averaging about 10 feet, which leaves large areas of exposed 
flats; the swiftness of the tides, causing a shifting of the sand bars; 
and the great depth of the water over the quahaug beds. 

Quahaugs are found both on the flats and in all depths of water, 
although the commercial fishery is carried on mostly in the deep water, 
with rakes ranging from 30 to 60 feet in length. The best beds are in 
the deep water, as the other localities have been fished out, the qua- 
hauging gradually extending to the deeper or the more exposed waters. 
Unfortunately, quahaugs can be taken only on moderate days, as rough 
water interferes with raking, and the quahauger who can average four 
working days a week is considered fortunate. In this section the 
basket rake shown in Fig. 59 is used. Quahaugs are taken also with 
ordinary clam or garden rakes on the flats at low water, especially in 
the harbors during the low course tides. About 8,000 acres are included 
in this section. 

(a) Barnstable Harbor. — In Barnstable harbor, on the north side 
of the town, a few quahaugs are found in isolated patches, which are of 
small commercial importance. In the future the vast barren flats may 
be made productive of quahaugs as well as clams, although at present 
the total area of the quahauging grounds is hardly 5 acres. 

(&) Orleans and Brewster. — The fishery is conducted in the deep 
water, with the basket rake. The area comprises about 1,000 acres 
in Cape Cod Bay, and about 500 in Pleasant Bay, on the east side of 
the two towns. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 73 

(c) Eastham. — The quahaug territory comprises about 4,000 acres, 
extending from the shore for a distance of nearly 3 miles. While 
scattering quahaugs, largely blunts, are found over the entire area, the 
fishery is conducted only at certain places. In 1910 a thickly set bed 
of quahaugs was discovered south of Billingsgate Island. The question 
of town jurisdiction over this bed has caused the towns of Wellfleet 
and Eastham much legal dispute, court expense and hard feeling — 
another instance of the inefficiency of the present method of town shell- 
fish regulation. 

(d) Wellfleet. — The quahaug territory of Wellfleet comprises about 
2,500 acres, and approximately takes up all the harbor, wherever there 
are no oyster grants, running from the " Deep Hole," between Great 
Island and Indian Neck, southward to the Eastham line. Outside these 
limits a few quahaugs are found on the flats of Duck Creek and along 
the shore. They are more abundant on the north side of Egg Island, 
where they are taken in shallow water with ordinary hand rakes. The 
best quahauging is found in the channel, extending from an imaginary 
line between Lieutenant's Island and Great Beach Hill south to Bil- 
lingsgate and beyond. Here the greatest depth at low tide is 4% 
fathoms, with a general average of 3 fathoms. Raking is done with 
long-handled basket rakes. 

(e) Provincetown. — No commercial fishery is carried on. A few 
quahaugs, chiefly little necks, are found in the tide pools among the 
thatch on the northwestern side of the harbor. 

South Side of Cape Cod. — This section, comprising the towns on 
the south side of Cape Cod from Chatham to Falmouth, ranging in 
order, from east to west, Chatham, Harwich, Dennis, Yarmouth, Barn- 
stable, Mashpee and Falmouth, has less territory, about 5,000 acres, 
and produces only one-fifth of the yield on the north side of the Cape. 
While this section is favorable for the scallop, quahaugs are not found 
in any great numbers on the exposed waters on the Sound side, and 
the grounds are mostly confined, except in the case of the Common 
Flats of Chatham, to the enclosed bays and harbors, such as Pleasant 
Bay, Lewis Bay, Osterville Bay, Waquoit Bay, etc. Natural conditions 
are somewhat different than on the north side, as the rise and fall of 
the tide is slight, about 2 feet, and, owing to the sheltered conditions, 
raking can be carried on at all times during the summer months. The 
shallow water permits easier raking and the use of shorter handled 
rakes. Basket, claw and garden rakes are used, although the greater 
part of the commercial fishery is conducted with the basket type. 

(a) Chatham. — Chatham is favorably situated in regard to the qua- 
haug fishery, as this shellfish is found in the waters on the north and 
south sides of the town. The grounds are extensive, covering about 
2,000 acres, the greater part of which consists of the vast area south 
of the town, known as the Common Flats. The quahauging grounds 
are in four localities: (1) Pleasant Bay; (2) Mill Pond; (3) Stage 
harbor; (4) Common Flats. 



74 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

( b ) Harwich. — Harwich shares with Chatham and Orleans the qua- 
haug fishery of Pleasant Bay, but has a more limited territory, as only 
a small portion of Pleasant Bay lies within the town limits. Practi- 
cally all this territory, comprising 100 acres, is quahauging ground, 
though the commercial quahauging is prosecuted over an area of 10 
acres only. Scattering quahaugs are found over an area of 100 acres. 
In the southern waters of the town, on the Sound side, scattering qua- 
haugs are found in certain localities, but are not of any commercial 
importance. The most important of those localities are off Dean's 
Creek and in Herring River, where quahaugs are dug for home con- 
sumption. 

(c) Dennis and Yarmouth. — The quahauging grounds, about 200 
acres in area, are practically all in Bass River, where Dennis and Yar- 
mouth have equal fishery rights. 

(d) Barnstable. — The greater part of the quahaug industry is con- 
ducted on the south shore of the town, which is especially adapted, with 
its numerous inlets, for the growth of this shellfish. The principal 
fishery is in Cotuit harbor and West Bay, and is chiefly shared by the 
villages of Osterville, Marston's Mills and Cotuit, which lie on the east, 
north and west sides, respectively, of the bay. The principal area for 
quahauging is a flat along Oyster Island, comprising about 70 acres 
of sandy bottom, while directly west, in the center of the harbor, is a 
strip of 80 acres of mud and eelgrass where scallops and quahaugs 
abound. Scattering quahaugs are found in Osterville harbor, West 
Bay, Poponesset River and East Bay, comprising a total of 1,650 
acres, of which part only is productive. At Hyannis the grounds are 
confined to Lewis Bay, where they cover an area of 800 acres. Qua- 
haugs are found in scattered patches over this area, but in no place 
is quahauging especially good. 

(e) Mashpee. — The best grounds are found in Peponesset Bay and 
river, where a territory of 200 acres includes several oyster grants, 
which are worked but little. On the east side of Waquoit Bay scatter- 
ing quahaugs are found in Mashpee waters. 

(/) Falmouth. — There is practically no quahaug industry in Fal- 
mouth. Hardly 100 bushels are dug annually, and those only for home 
consumption. A few quahaugs are perhaps shipped by the oystermen. 
Quahaugs are found mostly in scattering quantities over a large area 
in Waquoit Bay, and in small quantities on the north and west side 
of Great Pond, comprising a total of nearly 400 acres. Not all this 
ground is capable of producing quahaugs, but many parts could pro- 
duce good harvests. 

Buzzard's Bay. — The Buzzard's Bay section comprises the towns 
bordering on the bay, and includes the towns of Falmouth, Bourne, 
Wareham, Marion, Mattapoisett, Fairhaven and New Bedford, covering 
an area of about 8,000 acres of quahauging territory. This section is 
naturally well adapted for the quahaug, as conditions are especially 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 75 

favorable for its habitation. The numerous inlets and bays, the medium 
rise and fall of the tide, the influx of the water as it courses in and 
out of the little bays and estuaries, together with its warmth and the 
abundance of food forms, renders Buzzard's Bay extremely well sit- 
uated for the growth and propagation of the quahaug. This section 
shows the greatest effects of overfishing, as part of the beds have 
been almost exhausted and the remainder are under a severe strain. 
The quahaug can never be exterminated completely, as when the supply 
becomes scarce the number of men engaged in the fishery diminish, 
but it is comparatively easy to ruin the commercial industry. The 
natural adaptability of Buzzard's Bay will never fully be utilized until 
a system of quahaug planting is inaugurated, whereby nature will be 
assisted in the restocking of the depleted areas. Fishing is carried on 
with a variety of rakes, from an ordinary garden to the large basket 
rake. 

(a) Falmouth. — Small patches of good quahaugs are found at 
North Falmouth, Squeteague Pond, West Falmouth harbor on the 
southeast side, and a few in Hadley harbor, Naushon. 

(b) Bourne. — Situated at the head of Buzzard's Bay, and sep- 
arated from the adjacent town of Wareham by Cohasset Narrows, 
Bourne has many advantages for a profitable quahaug industry. It 
possesses nearly twice as much quahaug territory as Wareham, but, as 
most of this is unproductive, has a smaller annual output. The terri- 
tory includes over 2,500 acres of ground, most of which consists of 
flats of mud, sand and eelgrass, covered with shallow water. It is very 
sparsely set with quahaugs. Outside the oyster grants practically the 
entire stretch of coast from Buttermilk Bay to Wing's Neck is qua- 
hauging territory. Other grounds lie between Basset's Island, Scraggy 
Neck and Handy's Point. 

(c) Wareham. — Quahaugs are found over practically the entire 
territory, and comprise a total area of about 1,300 acres. Although 
much of this area is barren, the commercial fishery is maintained by 
small isolated beds which occur here and there. The two principal 
centers of the industry are in Wareham River and Onset Bay. At 
Onset the whole bay, except the oyster grants, as included between the 
southeast end of Mashnee Island and Peter's Neck, is used for qua- 
hauging. A few quahaugs are found in Broad Cove, and fair digging 
is obtained in Buttermilk Bay and Cohasset Narrows. The Wareham 
River, outside the oyster grants, and a narrow shore strip from 
Weweantit River to Tempe's Knob, comprise the rest of the territory. 
In Onset channel a fine bed exists in deep water, 2 to 4 fathoms, but 
the ground is so hard that not much digging is done. 

(d) Marion. — The quahaug territory, comprising a total of 400 
acres, is chiefly confined to Marion harbor, running in a narrow strip 
parallel to the shore from Aucoot Cove all along the coast to Planting 
Island. Almost all the head of the harbor and all of Blankenship's 



76 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and Planting Island Cove is quahaug area. Small grounds are also 
found at Wing's Cove and in the Weweantit River. 

(e) Mattapoisett. — Quahaugs are very unevenly distributed over 
800 acres. The best quahaugs are found in Aueoot Cave and at 
Brants. In the main harbor scattering quahaugs are found. 

(/) Fairhaven. — Some 3,000 acres are more or less bedded with 
quahaugs. Of this, probably not more than one-tenth is very produc- 
tive. The best quahauging is in Acushnet River, where digging for 
market has been forbidden because of sewage pollution (see New Bed- 
ford), and in Priest's Cove as far as Sconticut Neck. In these grounds 
" little necks " are numerous. The grounds around West Island and 
Long Island, once very productive, are now largely dug out. Little 
Bay and the east coast of Sconticut Neck are fairly productive, while 
the west coast yields only a small amount. Most of the quahaugs dug 
for food come from the deep water west-southwest of Sconticut Neck. 

(g) Neiv Bedford. — Good beds of quahaugs, particularly "little 
necks," exist in Acushnet River and Clark's Cove, but can be taken 
only for bait. As several sewers run into the Acushnet River, and the 
public health was endangered by the consumption as food of the qua- 
haugs taken from the river and the waters near its mouth, nearly 400 
acres of quahaug territory were closed by the State Board of Healths 
What little available territory there is outside the proscribed area, off 
Clark's Point, is free to all. 

The Islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. — This section 
comprises valuable territory, especially in the production of " little 
necks." The grounds, approximating 7,000 acres, are found princi- 
pally in Katama Bay, Edgartown, Nantucket harbor and near the Island 
of Tuckernuck. Conditions here resemble closely the south -side of 
Cape Cod, as regards exposure, rise and fall of the tide, and depth of 
water. 

(a) Nantucket. — Nantucket is especially adapted for quahaugs, as 
Nantucket harbor, Maddequet harbor and the Island of Tuckernuck 
possess extensive territory. The quahauging territory of Nantucket 
is divided into three sections: (1) Nantucket harbor; (2) Maddequet 
harbor; and (3) Tuckernuck. In Nantucket harbor quahaugs are 
found over an area of 2,290 acres, both scattering and in thick patches. 
Maddequet harbor, on the western end of the island, has approximately 
300 acres suitable for quahaugs, running from Broad Creek to Eel 
Point. On the eastern end of Tuckernuck Island is a bed of quahaugs 
covering about 200 acres; while on the west side, between Muskeget and 
Tuckernuck, is a large area of 2,500 acres which is more or less pro- 
ductive. The Tuckernuck fishery is largely " little necks," and it is 
from here that the shipment of small seed quahaugs has been made. 

(b) Edgartown. — The finest "little neck" fishery in Massachusetts 
is found in Katama Bay, in the town of Edgartown. Two-fifths of 
the entire catch are " little necks." The most productive grounds are 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 

situated in the lower part of Katama Bay, while quahaugs are also 
found in Edgartown harbor and in Cape Poge Pond, the total area of 
these localities comprising 1,800 acres. 

Industrial Practices. 

Methods of Capture. — Several methods of taking quahaugs are in vogue 
in Massachusetts, some simple and primitive, others more advanced and 
complex, but all modifications of simple raking or digging. These methods 
have arisen with the development of the industry, and record the historical 
changes in the quahaug fishery, as each new fishery or separate locality 
demands some modification of the usual methods. 

(a) "Treading." — The early settlers in Massachusetts quickly learned 
from the Indians the primitive method of " treading " quahaugs, which re- 
quired no implements except the hands and feet. The " treader " catches 
the quahaug by wading about in the water, feeling for them with his toes 
in the soft mud, and then picking them up by hand. Nowhere in Massachu- 
setts is it used as a method of commercial fishery. 

(&) Tidal Flat Fishery. — Often quahaugs are found on the exposed tidal 
flats, where they can sometimes be taken by hand, but more often with 
ordinary clam hoes or short rakes. Owing to the scarcity of quahaugs 
between the tide lines, this method does not pay for market fishing, and 
is resorted to only by people who dig for home consumption. 

(c) Tonging. — In most parts of Buzzard's Bay and in a few places on 
Cape Cod quahaugs are taken with oyster tongs. This method is applicable 
only in water less than 12 feet deep, as the longest tongs measure but 16 
feet. Four sizes of tongs are used, 8, 10, 12 and 16 feet in length. Tonging 
is carried on in the small coves and inlets, where there is little if any rough 
water. A muddy bottom is usually preferable, as a firm, hard soil increases 
the labor of manipulating the tongs, which are used in the same manner 
as in tonging oysters. 

(d) Baking. — The most universal way of taking quahaugs is with rakes. 
This method is used in every quahaug locality in Massachusetts, each town 
having its special kind of rake. Four main types of rakes can be recog- 
nized : — 

(1) The Digger. — In some localities, chiefly in Buzzard's Bay, the ordi- 
nary potato digger or rake, having four or five long, thin prongs, is used. 
Usually it has a back of wire netting, which holds the quahaugs when caught 
by the prongs. As the digger has a short handle of 5 feet, it can be used 
only in shallow water, where the quahauger, wading in the water, turns 
out the quahaugs with this narrow rake. This method yields but a scanty 
return, and is more often used for home consumption than for market. 

(2) The Garden Bake. — The ordinary garden rake, equipped with a 
basket back of wire netting, is in more general use in shallow water, either 
by wading or from a boat, as it has the advantage of being wider than the 
potato digger. 

(3) The Claw Bake. — This type of rake varies in size, width and length 
of handle. It is used chiefly at Nantucket. The usual style has a handle 
6 feet long, while the iron part in the form of a claw or talon is 10 inches 
wide, with prongs 1 inch apart. Heavier rakes with longer handles are 



78 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

sometimes used for deep water, but for shallow water the usual form is the 
short-claw rake. 

(4) The Basket Bake. — The greater part of the quahaug productiou is 
takeu from deep water, with the basket rake. These rakes have handles 
running from 23 to 65 feet in length, according to the depth of water over 
the beds. Where the water is of various depths, several detachable handles 
of various lengths are used. At the end of these long handles is a small 
cross-piece, similar to the cross-piece of a lawn mower; this enables the 
quahauger to obtain a strong pull when raking. The handles are made of 
strong wood, and are very thin and flexible, not exceeding 1*4 inches in 
diameter. The price of these handles varies according to the length, but 
the average price is about $2. As the long handles break very easily, great 
care must be taken in raking. 

Three forms of the basket rake are used in Massachusetts. These rakes 
vary greatly in form and size, and it is merely a question of opinion which 
variety is the best, as all are made on the same general principle, — a 
curved, basket-shaped body, the bottom edge of which is set with thin steel 
teeth. 

The Wellfleet and Chatham rake is perhaps the most generally used for 
all deep-water quahauging on Cape Cod, and finds favor with all. It con- 
sists of an iron framework, forming a curved bowl, the under edge of which 
is set with thin steel teeth varying in length from 2 to 4 inches, though 
usually 2 ^ -inch teeth are the favorite. Formerly these teeth were made of 
iron, but owing to the rapid wear it was found necessary to make them of 
steel. Over the bowl of this rake, which is strengthened by side and cross 
pieces of iron, is fitted a twine net, which, like the net of a scallop dredge, 
drags behind the framework. An average rake has from 19 to 21 teeth, 
and weighs from 15 to 20 pounds. 

The basket rake used at Edgartown and Nantucket is lighter and some- 
what smaller than the Wellfleet rake. The whole rake, except the teeth, is 
made of iron. No netting is required, as thin iron wires y 3 inch apart en- 
circle lengthwise the whole basket, preventing the escape of any marketable 
quahaug, and at the same time allowing the mud to wash out. This rake 
has 16 steel teeth, 1% inches long, fitted at intervals of 1 inch in the bottom 
scraping bar, which is 16 inches long; the depth of the basket is about 8 
inches. Shorter poles, not exceeding 30 feet in length, are used, and the 
whole rake is much lighter. The price of this rake is $7.50, while the poles 
cost $1.50. 

The third form of a basket rake is a cross between the basket and claw 
rakes. This rake is used both at Nantucket and on Cape Cod, but is not so 
popular as the other types. The basket is formed by the curve of the prongs, 
which are held together by two long cross-bars at the top and bottom of the 
basket, while the ends are enclosed by short strips of iron. This rake ex- 
emplifies the transition stage between the claw and basket types, indicating 
that the basket form was derived from the former. Handles 20 to 30 feet 
long are generally used with these rakes. 

Shallow v. Deep Water Quahauging. — Two kinds of quahauging are found 
in Massachusetts, — the deep and the shallow water fisheries. This arbitrary 
distinction also permits a division of localities in regard to the principal 
methods of fishing. Although in all localities there exists more or less 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 79 

shallow-water fishing, the main quahaug industry of several towns is the 
deep-water fishery. In all the Buzzard's Bay towns except Fairhaven and 
New Bedford the shallow- water fishery prevails ; this is also true of the south 
side of Cape Cod. On the north side of Cape Cod the opposite is true, as 
the quahauging at Wellfleet, Eastham, Orleans and Brewster is practically 
all deep-water fishing. At Edgartown and Nantucket, although there is 
considerable shallow-water digging, the deep-water fishery is the more im- 
portant. 

The deep-water fishery is vastly more productive than the shallow-water 
industry, furnishing in 1907 118,500 bushels, compared to 23,227 bushels, 
or more than five times as much. The deep-water fishery, i.e., the basket-rake 
fishery, is the main quahaug fishery of the State, and each year it is increas- 
ing, because of the opening of new beds. On the other hand, the shallow- 
water grounds are rapidly becoming barren from overfishing. The deep-water 
quahauging is harder work, requires considerable capital but has fewer 
working days. Naturally the earnings from this fishery should surpass those 
of the shallow-water industry. The deep-water quahauger averages from 
$5 to $8 for a working day, while the shallow-water fisherman earns only 
from $2 to $3 per day. 

Both power and sail boats are used in deep-water quahauging, though 
power is gradually replacing the old method of sailing, because of its in- 
creased efficiency and saving of time. "When the quahaug grounds are 
reached, the boat is anchored at both bow and stern, one continuous rope 
connecting both anchors, which are from 500 to 600 feet apart, in such a 
way that the bow of the boat is always headed against the tide. A sufficient 
amount of slack is required for the proper handling of the boat, which can 
be moved along this anchor " road " as on a cable, and a large territory 
raked. The rake is lowered from the bow of the boat, the length of the 
handle being regulated by the depth of the water, and the teeth worked into 
the sandy or muddy bottom. The quahauger then takes firm hold of the 
crosspiece at the end of the handle, and works the rake back to the stern of 
the boat, where it is hauled in and the contents dumped on the culling board 
or picked out of the net. In hauling in the net the rake is turned so that 
the opening is on top, and the mud or sand is washed out before it is 
taken on board. The long pole passes across the boat and extends into the 
water on the opposite side when the rake is hauled in. This process is 
repeated until the immediate locality becomes unprofitable, when the boat 
is shifted along the cable. The usual time for quahauging is from half 
ebb to half flood tide, thus avoiding the extra labor of high-water raking. 
Deep-water raking is especially hard labor, and six hours constitute a good 
day's work. 

Boats. — Nearly all kinds of boats are utilized in the quahaug fishery, 
and are of all values, from the $10 second-hand skiff to the 38-foot power 
seine boat, which costs $1,500. The shallow-water industry requires but 
little invested capital. Dories and skiffs are the principal boats, costing 
from $10 to $25. Occasionally a sail or power boat may be used in this 
fishery. The deep-water industry requires larger and stronger boats. These 
are either power or sail boats, often auxiliary "cats," and their value runs 
anywhere from $150 to $1,500. The average price for the sail boats is $250, 
while the power boats are assessed at $350. At Orleans several large power 



80 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



seine boats, valued at about $1,500, are used in the quahaug fishery. These 
seine boats are 30 to 38 feet over all, have low double cabins, and are run 
by 8 to 12 horse-power gasolene engines. The ordinary power boats have 
gasolene engines from 2 to 6 horse-power. In this Avay each method of 
quahauging has its own boats, which are adopted for its needs. 

Dredging. — So far as known, dredging is never used in quahauging in 
Massachusetts, although it is sometimes used on sea-clam beds. It has been 
tried, but without success, chiefly because of the uneven nature of the 
bottom. The invention of a suitable dredge is necessary, and there can be 
little doubt that in the future, if this difficulty is overcome, dredging will 
be used in the quahaug fishery. In 1879 Ingersoll (8) reports in Ehode 
Island the use of a quahaug dredge similar in structure to our rake. Evi- 
dently this form was never especially successful, possibly because these 
dredges could not be dragged by sail boats. 

Outfit of a Quahaug er. — The implements and boats used in quahauging 
have already been mentioned. The outfit of the average quahauger in each 
fishery is here summarized: — 



Deep-water Quahauging. 

Boat, $300 

2 rakes, 20 

3 poles, ..... 6 



S326 



Shallow^water Quahauging. 

Boat, $20 

Tongs or rakes, ... 3 

Baskets, ..... 2 



$25 



Season. — The quahaug fishery is essentially a summer fishery, and little 
if any is done during the winter. The season in Massachusetts lasts for 
seven months, usually starting the last of March or the first of April, and 
ending about the first of November. The opening of the spring season 
varies several weeks, owing to the severity of the weather; and the same is 
true of the closing of the season. 

As a rule, the Buzzard's Bay industry, where digging is done in the 
shallow waters of protected bays and coves, using short rakes and tongs, 
has a longer season than the quahaug industry of Cape Cod, where the 
fishery is carried on in deep and open waters. With the former, the cold 
work and hardship alone force the quahaugers to stop fishing, a 'long time 
after storms and rough weather have brought the latter industry to an end. 

The actual working days of the deep-water quahauger number hardly 
over 100 per season, while those of the shallow- water fisherman easily out- 
number 150. The deep-water quahauger's daily earnings are two or three 
times the daily wages of the shallow- water quahauger, but the additional 
number of working days in part makes up this difference. 

The quahaug season can be divided arbitrarily into three parts: (1) 
spring; (2) summer; (3) fall. The spring season lasts from April 1 to 
June 15, the summer season from June 15 to September 15, and the fall 
season from September 15 to November 1. These seasons are marked by 
an increase in the number of quahaugers in the spring and fall. The 
men who do summer boating quahaug in the spring before the summer 
people arrive, and in the fall after the summer season is over. The opening 
of the scallop season, in towns that are fortunate enough to possess both 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 81 

industries, marks the closing of the quahaug season. These two industries 
join so well, scalloping in the winter and quahauging in the summer, that 
a shellnsherman has work practically all the year. 

Marketing. — The principal markets for the sale of Massachusetts qua- 
haugs are Boston and New York. In 1879 the Boston market, according to 
Ingersoil (8), sold comparatively few. At the present time the Boston 
market disposes of many thousand bushels annually, but nevertheless the 
greater part of the Massachusetts quahaugs are shipped to New York. This, 
again, is due to the better market prices offered by that city. Besides pass- 
ing through these two main channels, quahaugs are shipped direct from the 
coast dealers to various parts of the country, especially the middle west. 
This last method seems to be on the increase, and the future may see a 
large portion of the quahaug trade carried on by direct inland shipments. 

(a) Shipment. — Quahaugs are shipped either in second-hand sugar or 
flour-barrels or in bushel bags. The latter method is fast gaining popularity 
with the quahaugers and dealers, owing to its cheapness, and is now steadily 
used in some localities. When quahaugs are shipped in barrels, holes are 
made in the bottom and sides of the barrel, to allow free circulation of air 
and to let the water out, while burlap is used instead of wooden heads. 

(b) "Culls." — Several culls are made for the market. These vary in 
number in different localities and with different firms, but essentially are 
modifications of the three "culls" made by the quahaugers: (1) "little 
necks;" (2) "sharps;" (3) "blunts." The divisions made by the firm of 
A. D. Davis & Co. of Wellfleet are as follows: (1) "little necks," small, 
\y-2 to 2*4 inches; large, 2% to 3 inches; (2) medium "sharps," 3 to 3% 
inches; (3) large "sharps," 3% inches up; (4) small "blunts;" (5) large 
" blunts." 

(c) Price. — The prices received by the quahaugers are small, compared 
with the retail prices. " Little necks " fetch from $2.50 to $4 per bushel, 
sharps and small blunts from $1.10 to $2, and large blunts from 80 cents 
to $1.50, according to the season, fall and spring prices necessarily being 
higher than in summer. The price depends wholly upon the supply in the 
market, and varies greatly, although the " little necks " are fairly constant, 
as the demand for these small quahaugs is very great. To what excess the 
demand for " little necks " has reached can best be illustrated by a compari- 
son between the price of $3 paid to the quahauger per bushel, and the actual 
price, $50, paid for the same by the consumer in the hotel restaurants. 

(d) Bedding Quahaugs for Market. — By town laws in Orleans, Eastham 
and Wellfleet, each quahauger may, upon application, secure from the select- 
men a license, giving him not more than 75 feet square of tidal flat upon 
which to bed his catch of quahaugs. While no positive protection is guaran- 
teed, public opinion recognizes the right of each man to his leased area, 
and this alone affords sufficient protection for the success of this communal 
effort, which is the first step by the people toward quahaug farming. 

The quahauger needs only to spread his catch on the surface, and within 
two tides the quahaugs will have buried themselves in the sand. Here they 
will remain, with no danger of moving away, as the quahaug moves but 
little. The quahauger loses nothing by this replanting, as not only do the 
quahaugs remain in a healthy condition, but even grow in their new en- 
vironment. 



82 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The result of this communal attempt at quahaug culture is beneficial. 
While the market price for " little necks " is almost always steady, the price 
of the larger quahaugs fluctuates considerably, and the market often becomes 
" glutted."' This would naturally result in a severe loss to the quahauger 
if he were forced to keep shipping at a low price. As it is, the fortunate 
quahauger who possesses such a grant merely replants his daily catch until 
the market prices rise to their proper level. An additional advantage is 
gained by the quahauger, who at the end of the season has his grant well 
stocked, as higher prices are then offered. As many as 1,000 barrels are 
often held this way at the end of the season. 

History of the Fishery. — Although reckoned inferior to the soft clam 
(My a arenaria), the quahaug was dug for home consumption for years in 
Massachusetts, and but little attempt was made to put it on the market. 
The commercial quahaug fishery started on Cape Cod, about the first of 
the nineteenth century, growing in extent until about 1860. From 1860 
to 1890 the production remained about constant. The production in 1879 
for Massachusetts, as given by A. Howard Clark, totalled 11,050 bushels, 
valued at $5,525. It is only in the last fifteen to twenty years that the 
actual development of the quahaug fishery has taken place. The present 
production of Massachusetts is 144,044 bushels, valued at $194,687. To 
the popular demand for the " little neck " can be attributed the rapid de- 
velopment of the quahaug industry during the last ten years. This develop- 
ment has furnished employment for hundreds of men, and has given the 
quahaug an important value as a sea food. What it will lead to is easily 
seen. The maximum production was passed a few years ago, constant over- 
fishing caused by an excessive demand is destroying the natural supply, and 
there will in a few years be practically no commercial fishery, unless measures 
are taken to increase the natural supply. Quahaug farming offers the best 
solution at the present time, and gives promise of permanent success. 

Not only has there been an increase in production, but also an increase 
in price, which has more than doubled between 1888 and 1902, and has 
alone supported a declining fishery in many towns, making it still profitable 
for quahaugers to keep in the business, in spite of a much smaller catch. 
The advance in price is due both to the natural rise in the value of food 
products during the past twenty-five years and also to the popular demand 
for the " little neck," or small quahaug. 

Statistics of the Quahaug Fishery. — In the following table the towns are 
arranged in alphabetical order, and the list includes only those towns which 
now possess a commercial quahaug fishery. In giving the number of men, 
both transient and regular quahaugers are included. In estimating the 
capital invested, the boats, implements, shanties and gear of the quahauger 
are alone considered, and personal apparel, such as oil-skins, boots, etc., are 
not taken into account. The value of the production for each town is based 
upon what the quahaugers receive for their quahaugs, and not the price 
they bring in the market. The area of quahaug territory given for each 
town includes all ground where quahaugs are found, both thick beds and 
scattering quahaugs. 



1910.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



83 







Number 
of Men. 


Capital 

in- 
vested. 


Number 

of 
Boats. 


Number 

of 
Dories 

and 
Skiffs. 


1907 Production. 


Area in 
Acres. 


Value 


Town. 


Bushels. 


Value. 


of Yield 

per 

Acre. 


Barnstable, 


25 


$850 


- 


25 


2,500 


13,700 


950 


$3 95 


Bourne, 


46 


1,000 


- 


45 


5,400 


8,400 


2,500 


3 36 


Chatham, 




50 


5,750 


25 


25 


6,700 


10,000 


2,000 


5 00 


Dennis, 




15 


150 


- 


10 


500 


950 


200 


4 75 


Eastham, 




25 


8,000 


12 


- 


10,000 


11,500 


4,000 


2 87 


Edgartown, 




70 


12,000 


42 


18 


20,000 


32,000 


1,800 


17 77 


Fairhaven, 




115 


5,000 


11 


100 


15,000 


16,500 


3,000 


5 50 


Falmouth, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


100 


115 


400 


29 


Harwich, 




7 


200 


- 


7 


1,500 


2,550 


100 


25 50 


Marion, 




19 


250 


- 


19 


800 


1,500 


400 


3 75 


Mashpee, 




7 


70 


- 


5 


250 


285 


400 


71 


Mattapoisett, 


28 


500 


- 


28 


800 


1,500 


750 


2 00 


Nantucket, 


48 


6,750 


30 


10 


6,294 


8,487 


5,290 


1 60 


Orleans, 


75 


25,000 


30 


25 


33,000 


41,350 


1,500 


27 56 


Wareham, 




50 


1,000 


- 


50 


6,000 


10,500 


1,300 


8 08 


Wellfleet, 




145 


27,500 


100 


- 


33,000 


41,350 


2,500 


16 54 


Yarmouth, 




20 


240 


- 


10 


2,200 


4,000 


1,000 


4 00 


Totals, 


745 


$94,260 


250 


378 


144,044 


$194,687 


28,090 


$6 93 " 



i Average. 



The Laws. 

In the past there has been a scarcity of quahaug legislation as there 
has been little demand for the protection of this mollusk; but within a 
few years the legal regulation of the quahaug fishery will become a most 
important part of the shellfish legislation of Massachusetts. The qua- 
haug industry is entering upon a new phase of existence, the cultural 
stage, and the development of the industry along such lines will neces- 
sarily entail numerous laws governing the leasing, planting, pollution 
and sale of quahaugs. For this reason it may be well to consider what 
has already been done in a legislative way for the protection of the 
quahaug fishery. 

Little direct quahaug legislation has been passed, as the quahaug usu- 
ally has been included in general laws with other commercial shellfish. 
The reason for the lack of legislation is probably due to the recent 
growth of the quahaug fishery, which has only in the past fifteen years 
developed into an important industry. 

Previous to 1904 the quahaug, with the clam, oyster and scallop, 
came in the general acts under the term shellfish. The general acts were 
of several kinds: (1) town regulation; (2) permits; (3) seizure in 



84 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

vessels; and (4) protection of the shellfisheries by limiting the catch, 
place and time of taking. 

In 1874 occurs the first mention of the word quahaug in a legislative 
act " to regulate the shellfisheries in the waters of Mount Hope Bay 
and its tributaries," whereby the selectmen of the towns bordering on 
Mount Hope Bay were permitted to grant licenses for the cultivation 
of clams, quahaugs, scallops and other shellfish to any inhabitant. It 
seems strange that such an advanced and beneficial act should have been 
passed at that early period, since it was clearly before its time, as is 
shown by its repeal the following year. It is only within the last two 
years that similar legislation has been passed for the quahaug, as 
illustrated by the act of 1909, which permits the granting of leases for 
the growing of quahaugs by the selectmen provided the town meeting 
has voted to adopt the general law. The act of 1874, although it 
applied only to the Narragansett Bay section of Massachusetts, brings 
out clearly the fact that the cultivation of shellfish is no new project 
as it was considered of practical importance thirty-five years ago. 

In 1880 the word quahaug again appears in the general act whereby 
the Commonwealth gave to the towns and cities their present oversight 
and power " to control and regulate the taking of eels, clams, quahaugs 
and scallops." This act was later amended by the Acts of 1889, but 
the general terms were not changed, and the present law differs but 
slightly. As the seacoast towns hold their control over the shellfish- 
eries as a direct trust from the Commonwealth, it is their duty to 
preserve the fisheries, while the Commonwealth should see that the 
towns take the proper care of their natural shellfish resources. Cer- 
tain towns should be deprived of the rights which they are abusing 
in neglecting one of the great resources of the public wealth, which 
belongs not only to the inhabitants of the seashore communities but 
to every resident of this Commonwealth. At the present time, owing 
to a certain self-satisfaction and fear of outside influence, the ma- 
jority of fishermen prefer the present system of town control, no 
matter if the shellfisheries suffer, and until public opinion is favorable 
for the utilization of the quahaug fishery for every inhabitant of the 
Commonwealth, both fishermen and consumer, State control is not 
desirable. 

In 1900 occurred the first special quahaug legislation, in the form 
of an act forbidding in the towns of Swansea and Somerset the capture 
of quahaugs less than 1% inches across the widest part. Since that 
time five other laws relating to the quahaug fishery have been enacted, 
in all three town and three general. The following features are illus- 
trated by these acts : — 

Limiting the Size of Quahaugs captured. — The capture of quahaugs 
under l 1 /^ inches across the widest part was forbidden by law in 1900 
in the towns of Swansea and Somerset, in 1901 in Berkley, in 1903 
in Edgartown, and in 1904 in Eastham, Orleans and Wellfleet. This 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 85 

law lias also been adopted by other towns under the regulation of the 
selectmen, and is to be commended for the protection afforded to the 
home industries, as the gain for leaving the small quahaugs is many 
times the profits on the small seed. In this connection attention is 
again called to the shipment in the past of the small seed from Nan- 
tucket, Chatham and New Bedford to localities outside the State, where 
they are replanted, with a return, in one year's time, of about 5 
bushels for every bushel planted. 

Permits. — In Eastham, Orleans and Wellfleet the selectmen are em- 
powered to issue permits for the capture of the quahaug, while in 
Edgartown, Berkley, Swansea and Somerset the permits are issued 
for shellfish in general. Often the towns are very slack about the 
enforcement of requiring permits, although Edgartown is to be highly 
commended for the excellent manner of regulating, by inspectors, her 
shellfish permits. These permits are given at the discretion of the 
selectmen, and are supposed to require six months' residence in the 
town. Different prices are charged for these permits: in Edgartown, 
$2; in Wellfleet, $1; in Berkley, although empowered by the Acts of 
1901, no permits are given; in Somerset and Swansea only clam per- 
mits are given. The provisions of the Edgartown permit limit the 
catch to 4 bushels from sunrise to sunset, no more than 2 of which 
can be " little necks." The Wellfleet permits limit the daily catch to 
4 barrels per man. 

Bedding Quahaugs. — In Eastham, Orleans and Wellfleet the select- 
men may give, for a period not over two years, under such conditions 
as they may deem proper, to any inhabitant of the respective towns, 
licenses to bed quahaugs in any waters, flats or creeks where there 
is no natural quahaug bed, not covering more than 75 feet square 
in area, and not impairing the private rights of any person or ma- 
terially obstructing any navigable waters. The object of this law was 
to make possible the advantage of a favorable market, as the qua- 
hauger could bed his catch until the market brightened and the price 
went up, otherwise he would be compelled to ship at a low figure. 
Undoubtedly the originators of this act did not foresee that in this 
way they had taken the first step toward quahaug farming, as the 
success of bedding quahaugs has demonstrated to the quahaugers of 
this section the practical benefits which would be derived from quahaug 
culture. 

Contaminated Waters. — One of the detrimental results of civiliza- 
tion has been the pollution of the public waters in Massachusetts, 
which appears- to us most unfortunate, as in the light of present-day 
knowledge, such a state of affairs could be readily avoided. The ten- 
dency of the past has been to dispose of sewage, manufacturing wastes 
and other refuse by allowing it to flow into the nearest streams. In this 
way some of the finest rivers in the Commonwealth, the Merrimac, Con- 
necticut, Taunton, Charles and Mystic, have had their fisheries ruined. 



86 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Pollution has not been confined to the fresh water alone, but has 
for commercial purposes ruined the shellfish beds of many salt-water 
harbors. In several cases, particularly at Boston, Lynn and New Bed- 
ford, certain parts of the harbors have been closed by the State Board 
of Health in the interest of the public health. 

For years the relation of the oyster from infected beds to epidemics 
of typhoid fever has been known and definitely traced. The same is 
true of the clam and quahaug, particularly the "little neck," which is 
consumed raw. The quahaug, when feeding, acts as a living filter, 
since all the microscopic forms in the water, taken through the incur- 
rent siphon, are strained out by the cilia on the gills. Thus, if the 
typhoid bacilli are present in the water, as is the case when sewage 
from the houses of typhoid patients empties near the shellfish beds, 
they are collected by the feeding quahaug. The person partaking of 
a raw quahaug from this locality would be ingesting a concentrated 
collection of germs, with perhaps serious results. Cooked quahaugs are 
more free from germs, and if thoroughly cooked are possibly whole- 
some, as a certain temperature is fatal to the bacillus. Unfortunately, 
cooking cannot always be relied upon to reach the requisite temperature. 

In 1901 it was enacted that the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries 
and Game (now the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game), whenever 
so requested in writing by the State Board of Health, should prohibit 
the taking of oysters, clams, scallops and quahaugs from the tidal waters 
or flats of any part of the Commonwealth for such period of time as 
the board of health might determine. The penalty for violation was, 
for first offence not less than $5 and not more than $10, and not less 
than $50 nor more than $100 for each subsequent offence. Unfortu- 
nately the beneficial effect of this law, namely, the protection of the 
public health by the closing of sewage-polluted areas, was rendered 
void by the passage of a bill in 1907 permitting the taking of shell- 
fish from these areas for bait, upon securing permits from the board 
of health. Although the law provides heavy penalties for buying and 
selling, experience has shown the impracticability of effective enforce- 
ment on account of the ease with which (1) proofs are destroyed by 
the violator, and (2) the difficulty of tracing any lot of polluted shell- 
fish to prove that their ultimate destination, perhaps a week or two 
hence, is human food and not fish bait. Very few quahaugs are used 
for bait, and the absurdity of the situation is shown when in the case 
of the Acushnet river over 1,100 permits to take quahaugs for bait 
have been issued by the New Bedford Board of Health. In such cases 
as the Acushnet River, where seed quahaugs are abundant, a means 
should be found to permit the sale of the seed for planting purposes 
within the Commonwealth by the passage of a special act for the town 
of Fairhaven and city of New Bedford. But until the laws permit 
the planting of such quahaugs it is impossible to adequately solve the 
question of obtaining seed from the polluted areas. Transplanted 



1910. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



87 



to pure water these mollusks will readily purify themselves from all 
contamination. 

Biological Investigation. — In 1905 the Commissioners on Fisheries 
and Game were empowered to make a biological investigation and 
report as to the best methods, conditions and localities for the propaga- 
tion of quahaugs. The results of that investigation are embodied in 
this report. 

Planting, Cultivation and Bedding of Quahaugs.- — In 1909 the select- 
men of towns or the mayor or aldermen of cities, provided the act is 
approved by the city council or by the voters of the town at an annual 
or special town meeting, are empowered to issue written licenses for 
the purpose of planting and cultivating quahaugs upon and in the flats 
and creeks below mean low-water mark, for a term of not more than 
ten and not less than five years. The important fact that up to the 
present time no town has taken advantage of this act, which permits 
practical quahaug culture being carried on, is another proof of the 
inability of the coast towns to properly adjust their point of view 
toward the practical means not only of preserving their natural supply 
from extinction but also of building up an extensive and profitable 
business for the inhabitants. 



Date. 


Kind. 


Provisions. 


1900, . 


Special town, . 


No quahaugs less than li inches to be taken in Swansea 
and Somerset. 


1901, . 


Special town, . 


No quahaugs less than 1§ inches to be taken in Berkley. 


1901, . 


State, 


No quahaugs to be taken from the waters closed by the 
State Board of Health. 

No quahaugs less than 1| inches to be taken in Eastham, 
Orleans and Wellfleet. 


1903, . 


Special town, . 


Selectmen of these towns empowered to grant permits 

for taking quahaugs. 
For bedding quahaugs, grants not exceeding 75 feet square, 

given on the flats and creeks. 


1905, . 


State, 


Biological investigation of quahaug fishery by the Fish and 
Game Commission. 


1909, . 


State, 


Planting, cultivation and bedding of quahaugs. 



The Food Value. 
The market value of the quahaug except in the case of " little necks," 
depends rather upon the quality of the meat than on the appearance 
of the shell. In the growth experiments the ratio of the meats to the 
shell, in other words, the "fattening," has been little considered. 
While an increase in shell naturally presupposes a corresponding in- 
crease in the soft parts, it does not always follow that the quality of 
the soft parts has improved. Oyster planters bed oysters to obtain 
rapid growth, and then transplant the stock to other waters to " fatten " 
for the market, because localities of rapid growth are not always suit- 
able for fattening purposes. Naturally the ratio between shell and 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



meat varies in the different localities, owing to the environment, food, 
amount of lime in the water, etc. The prospective quahaug culturist 
should therefore determine not only the growing property of his grant 
but also the quality of the product. 

Owing to the heavy shell the actual amount of food is but a small 
per cent, of the total weight of the quahaug. To find the ratio between 
the meat and shell, a series of determinations on various sized quahaugs 
were made in three localities, Buzzard's Bay, the Islands and the north 
side of Cape Cod. For this purpose quahaugs were taken from Fair- 
haven, Nantucket and Wellfleet. Four sizes of " sharps," 10 each, 
measuring 55, 65, 75 and 85 millimeters, were taken for comparative 
purposes in each locality. Whenever possible the weight of " blunts " 
of similar sizes was also recorded for comparison with the " sharps." 
The method of work consisted in (1) obtaining the correct sizes from 
the fresh catch, care being taken to select no deformed specimens; (2) 
the determination of the total weight; (3) the removal of the meats and 
fluid; (4) determination of the weight of the meats; (5) records of 
the natural conditions of the beds where the quahaugs were taken; 
(6) determination of the volume of the different parts by water dis- 
placement to serve as a check on the weighing. 

Chemical Composition. — As a food the quahaug ranks next to the 
scallop and ahead of the oyster in proteins, carbohydrates and min- 
erals. The following figures are from the tables of Professor Atwater, 
rearranged by Langworthy (15). The food value of the quahaug in 
the shell, removed from the shell and canned is compared with the 
scallop, oyster and clam. 











© 

o 

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o 

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Ph 


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IS 




(A 


w 


bs 


P4 


P*H 


o 


§ 


H 


h 


Oysters, solids, 


- 


- 


88.3 


6.1 


1.4 


3.3 


.9 


11.7 


235 


Oysters, in shell, .... 


83.3 


- 


15.4 


1.1 


.2 


.6 


.4 


2.3 


40 


Oysters, canned 


- 


- 


85.3 


7.4 


2.1 


3.9 


1.3 


14.7 


300 


Scallops, 


- 


- 


80.3 


14.7 


.2 


3.4 


1.4 


19.7 


345 


Soft clams, in shell, .... 


43.6 


- 


48.4 


4.8 


.6 


1.1 


1.5 


8.0 


135 


Soft clams, canned, .... 


- 


- 


84.5 


9.0 


1.3 


2.9 


2.3 


15.5 


275 


Quahaugs, removed from shell, 


- 


- 


80.8 


10.6 


1.1 


5.2 


2.3 


19.2 


340 


Quahaugs, in shell, .... 


68.3 


- 


27.3 


2.1 


.1 


1.3 


.9 


4.4 


65 


Quahaugs, canned, .... 


- 


- 


83.0 


10.4 


.8 


3.0 


2.8 


17.0 


285 


Mussels, 


49.3 


- 


42.7 


4.4 


.5 


2.1 


1.0 


8.0 


140 


General average of mollusks (exclu- 


60.2 


_ 


34.0 


3.2 


.4 


1.3 


.9 


5.8 


100 


sive of canned). 





















1910. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



89 



The Meat. — The entire solid contents of the quahaug is used for 
food, whereas with the scallop only the adductor muscle or " eye " 
is taken. The meat is either eaten raw, when the quahaugs are served 
as " little necks " on the half shell, or cooked in various ways. 

With advancing age, as is shown by the increase in the weight of 
the meat of the " blunt " when compared with the same sized " sharp," 
the flesh becomes tough and of a yellow color, which renders it less 
edible than the tender " little neck." 

Comparison by Localities. — In the following table the average qua- 
haug of 70 millimeters (2% inches) for Wellfleet on Cape Cod, Nan- 
tucket on Vineyard Sound, and Fairhaven on Buzzard's Bay is shown. 
The per cent, by weight of the different parts was determined by the 
average of the four sizes, as described above. The important factor 
is the per cent, by weight of the solid contents. 

The average gives the value for the 70-millimeter quahaug for the 
State. From 100 pounds of quahaugs by weight the consumer would 
obtain 13.57 pounds of meat. 





Locality. 


Total (Per 
Cent.). 


Shell (Per 
Cent.). 


Solid 

Contents (Per 

Cent.). 


Fluid 

Contents (Per 

Cent.). 


Wellfleet 

Nantucket, .... 
Fairhaven 


100 
100 
100 


62.98 
63.09 
61.33 


12.12 
13.53 

15.07 


24.90 
23.38 
23.60 


Average, .... 


100 


62.47 


13.57 


23.96 



The Food Value of the Quahaug and Scallop. — In comparing the 
food value of the scallop and quahaug by weight it is necessary to 
eliminate the fluid in the shell from consideration, as it is variable with 
the scallop. Again, only the adductor muscle is eaten in the scallop, 
while the entire solid contents of the quahaug is consumed. When the 
weight of the shell and the edible portion are considered, it is interest- 
ing to note that the amount of edible materal in both shellfish is 
practically the same in per cent, by weight, being 17.85 per cent, for 
the quahaug, and 17.77 per cent, for the scallop. Since the weight 
of the quahaug's shell is 82.15 per cent, and the scallop's but 49.43 
per cent., the non-edible soft parts of the scallop amount to 32.80 per 
cent. 

Shell. — The amount of lime in the water and age of the quahaug 
determine the weight of the shell, although the character of the soil 
appears to have an indirect effect upon the nature of the lime structure. 
Likewise, the rate of growth is important, as the slow-growing quahaugs 
apparently have thicker shells than those in more favorable localities. 
As the size of the quahaug increases from 55 to 85 millimeters the 
w T eight of the shell in per cent, of the total weight increases .06 per 
cent, for each millimeter gain in length, the meats .04 per cent., while 



90 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the fluid contents decreases .1 per cent. The shell of a " blunt " weighs 
over one and one half times that of a " sharp " of the same size. 

Unlike the scallop the quahaug is seldom put through the process of 
" soaking/' as it is usually shipped to market in the shell. Occasionally 
when " shucked " the volume is increased by judicious " feeding " with 
fresh water. The small quahaugs are more responsive to " soaking " 
than the old tough specimens, but as they are generally served on the 
half shell this process is seldom used. 

" Soaking " is accomplished by placing the quahaug meats in fresh 
water, thereby causing a swelling of the tissues, which increases the 
bulk about one-third. The principal change is attributed to osmosis, 
which distends the tissues. It was found that after twenty-four hours 
of soaking the tissues lost the water and gradually returned to their 
normal weight. 

THE RATE OF GROWTH. 

Object. — The experiments on growth were conducted with the fol- 
lowing objects: (1) to ascertain the normal rate of growth; (2) to find 
the average length of life; (3) to determine the length of time neces- 
sary for the production of a marketable quahaug; (4) to discover 
practical methods of artificial culture and propagation in order to 
replenish the barren flats and to check the decline of the natural supply; 
(5) to obtain information of value to prospective quahaug culturists. 

General Plan. — The principal results of these experiments have 
already been given in previous reports and this paper merely presents 
the work in detail showing the general method of obtaining the data. 
With the limited appropriation available $500 per year it was impos- 
sible to conduct the investigation in as extensive and comprehensive a 
manner as could have been desired. In order to obtain satisfactorily 
the general growth for Massachusetts and the effect of environment, 
such as soil, current, tide, depth of water, etc., it was necessary to have 
a large number of experimental plots. As means were limited, the 
greater part of these beds were of small size, less than }iooo of an acre, 
since it was considered advisable to plant a large number of small plots, 
covering a variety of conditions, rather than a few large costly beds, 
as small areas seem to furnish, for all practical purposes, a true index 
of growth in any locality. In accordance with this plan 187 small 
experimental beds were planted along the Massachusetts coast, and 
records of their growth were taken at stated intervals over a period of 
five years. By planting quahaugs which were five years old, as well 
as younger ones, at the beginning of the investigation the growth of 
the quahaug has been determined not only for the five years but for a 
much longer period. The growth experiments of Kellogg (2) were 
taken as a basis for this investigation, and the work carried out upon 
the lines indicated by that investigator. The experiments have been 
conducted on a practical commercial basis, as the main object was the 
increasing of the natural supply. 



1910.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 91 



Methods of Work. 

Localities. — Five places on the Massachusetts coast were chosen as 
representative localities: (1) the island of Nantucket; (2) Monument 
Beach on the shore of Buzzard's Bay; (3) Plymouth harbor, repre- 
senting the northern commercial range of the quahaug; (4) Wellfleet 
harbor, the center of the greatest quahaug area in the Commonwealth; 
and (5) Monomoy Point, in the town of Chatham, as representing the 
south side of Cape Cod. As it seemed best to concentrate the work as 
much as possible, the greater part of the experiments were conducted 
in the last two localities, only a few beds being planted in the other 
three. These two places, "Wellfleet and Monomoy, may be considered 
as fairly representative of the two great quahaug areas, — the north 
and south sides of Cape Cod. 

Experimental Beds. — The first experimental plots were laid out in 
terms of the acre, %ooo of an acre being the usual size. The later beds 
were made even smaller, %ooo of an acre. The number of quahaugs 
corresponded to the size of the bed, and in most cases they were thinly 
planted as only in special instances was crowding necessary for experi- 
mental purposes. The planted quahaugs if they were fortunate enough 
to escape the raids of fishermen and summer residents, were measured 
annually, and the rate of growth recorded as long as the bed escaped 
destruction by man or nature. The beds were marked by stakes and 
protected by signs, which stated briefly that the enclosed plot was under 
control of the Commonwealth for experimental purposes, as provided 
by chapter 327, Acts of 1906. Less difficulty was found in protecting 
the quahaug experiments than similarly planted clam beds, which were 
often destroyed through human agency. The first beds were laid out 
in the form of pens, made by sinking boards in the soil so that they 
projected slightly above the surface. Owing to the difficulty of sink- 
ing the boards, the use of this type of bed was limited to shallow 
water. Later, when records of the migration of the quahaug were 
obtained, such precautions were found unnecessary, as the quahaug 
generally remains where planted. 

The method of planting was extremely simple, the quahaugs being 
evenly distributed over the surface of the bed where, in a short time, 
according to the temperature of the water, they would burrow in the 
soil. In shallow-water beds and in special cases where greater accuracy 
was desired the quahaugs were buried by hand in the soil. 

Owing to the impossibility of obtaining by raking all the quahaugs 
in beds such as above described, a factor which would make for inaccu- 
racy, a method of planting was tried in which boxes of various sizes, 
filled with sand, were used with excellent results. The mollusks, placed 
in these boxes, could be lowered to any depth in the desired locality, in 
such a manner that they could readily be taken up and all the qua- 
haus-s obtained. 



92 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The beds were divided into two classes, below low-water mark aud 
between the tide lines. Each bed was designed to illustrate a particular 
point in regard to conditions, favorable or unfavorable, which influ- 
ence the growth of the quahaug, and for this reason different locations 
were tried. A record of each bed w T as kept, giving all facts about its 
natural location, records of growth, etc. By a comparison of these 
beds, the favorable and unfavorable conditions for quahaug culture 
could be ascertained. The beds were put in both good and poor places, 
■on natural quahaug ground and on barren area, as often through the 
failure of a bed the cause may be discovered and a remedy suggested. 

The Seed. — All sizes of quahaugs were planted in order to obtain 
data on the growth of the animal for a long period and to arrive at 
some conclusion as to the length of life. In general, the smallest obtain- 
able were used, the usual size being 1 to IV2 inches. To satisfactorily 
obtain a complete record of the growth of this animal it was necessary 
to have quahaugs extremely small. Although " little necks " and even 
slightly smaller quahaugs could be procured at Edgartown, no qua- 
haugs of small size could be obtained at the regular quahauging places 
in sufficient numbers for planting. This was due not so much to the 
lack of quahaug seed as to the impossibility of raking them in any 
great depth of water. This difficulty was encountered only at the 
start, as later the small quahaugs were caught in the spat boxes at 
Monomoy Point. In the fall of 1905, by a fortunate chance a place 
was found at Nantucket where quahaugs of extremely small size, run- 
ning from 6 to 8 millimeters, could be obtained as late as November 1. 
The seed thus obtained furnished the nucleus for the growth experi- 
ments at Monomoy Point, and in 1906 another stock was obtained from 
the same place. 

The following description of the locality at Nantucket where the 
small quahaugs were obtained in 1905 and 1906 is taken from notes 
made at that time : — 

Coatou Point, consisting of a narrow strip of sandy beach, lies directly 
across the harbor from the village of Nantucket. On one side is a salt-water 
pond, connected with the harbor by a stream through which the tide flows 
into the pond. The stream has a bed of coarse sand and is protected by 
a sand bar at its mouth. The sand in the lower part of the stream, which 
extends for about 50 yards in a crooked course, is fine and clear white. Half 
way up there is a stretch of fine gravel and above this coarse sand. At 
the upper part of the stream, where it nears the pond, the sides rise abruptly 
in banks lined with heavy thatch, and are heavily set with the ribbed mussel 
(Modiola plicatula), while large bunches of the common mussel (Mytilis 
edulis) lie in the bed of the stream. In this part of the creek the quahaugs 
were abundant, and could be exposed by raking the surface of the sand. 
Many of these small quahaugs had a bit of green algae attached to the beak 
of the shell, and were especially numerous in the clumps of mussels. Qua- 
haugs could be obtained as large as 1% inches, but no larger, while the 



i9io.] public document—No. 25. 93 

majority were small (6 to 8 millimeters). The locality is evidently one of 
slow growth, judging from the appearance of the quahaugs and from the 
fact that no increase in growth between August and the following spring 
could be noticed. The method of gathering these small quahaugs was by 
hand and by sifting the sand through fine mesh screens, a slow process, as 
only 200 could be gathered per hour by one person. 

In the following year, 1906, the seed under IY2 inches was obtained 
at Edgartown in Katama Bay. The quahaugs were raked in the usual 
manner with a basket rake of the Edgartown type; but instead of 
washing the mud and sand from the rake when it was drawn to the 
surface of the water, as is customary, the contents were dumped at 
once on the culling board, where the small quahaugs, which otherwise 
would have slipped through the meshes of the rake, were separated 
from the debris. 

Another method of obtaining seed was by means of the box spat col- 
lectors on the raft at Monomoy Point. The subject of spat collecting 
has already been discussed, and the method of obtaining the young 
quahaugs described. It was possible to obtain the desired sizes, even 
very small specimens. In this way a study of the early life history 
proved advantageous for the cultural experiments, as quahaugs could 
be hatched for planting purposes. 

Measuring the Quahaugs. — For convenience the measurements were 
taken in the metric system. Three methods of measuring were used: 
(1) rule; (2) callipers and rule; (3) triangular measuring instru- 
ment, such as pictured in the report on the " Scallop Fishery," 1910. 
The first two were used only for a short time at the beginning of the 
work and soon gave place to the third method, which proved more 
satisfactory in speed and accuracy. This instrument consists of an 
inverted triangle, formed by two strips of metal welded together at 
the apex of the triangle and joined at the base by a short cross-piece. 
The whole structure is made of brass, except the braised joint, and 
can be made as light as desired, although there is danger of a heavy 
blow rendering a light instrument inaccurate. Several sizes are used in 
the work, the most convenient having a base measuring 3 inches. The 
sides of the triangle are scaled in the metric system on one face and in 
fractions of inches on the other, the divisions corresponding to the milli- 
meter markings on the ordinary rule, being about 5 millimeters apart, 
thus enabling the operator to make easier and more accurate readings. 
When measuring, the triangle is held with the base away from the 
body, and the object is brought down the narrowing sides until it 
strikes, at which point the measurement is read. 

Three measurements were made of each quahaug, length, along the 
anterior posterior axis ; width, from the umbones to the edge of the shell, 
along the dorso-ventral axis; and thickness, from valve surface to 
valve surface, along the lateral axis. After a sufficient number of 



94 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

measurements were taken, a table was formulated by which the corre- 
sponding' width and thickness for any given length might be calculated. 
The use of this table eliminated the necessity of taking more than the 
length measurements. 

An easy method of recording the growth of the planted quahaugs 
consisted in notching the edges of the shell with a file. The mark thus 
made would remain permanently on the shell, showing the increase in 
growth. This efficient method was originally used by Dr. A. D. Mead 
of the Rhode Island Commission of Inland Fisheries in his experiments 
on the soft clam (Mya), and has proved very satisfactory in our 
quahaug experiments. It has been used not only as a check upon other 
measurements, but, in connection with the table of length and width, has 
provided a permanent record for successive yearly growths. 

Tne simple statement of the gain in length does not adequately 
express the actual increase in the bulk of the quahaug, which should 
be indicated in terms of volume. A quahaug which grew in one year 
from a length of 1 inch to a length of 2 inches, a gain of 1 inch, does 
more than merely double in size, as the figures would seem to indicate. 
When the gain in volume is considered by comparing the water dis- 
placement of the two sizes, it is found that the volume of the 2-inch 
quahaug is over seven times that of the 1-inch, which gives the true 
increase. The quahaug shuts its shell closely enough to be water 
tight, and it is relatively an easy matter to accurately obtain its 
water displacement, a process impossible with the soft clam and scal- 
lop, which have more or less open shells. A table (see Table 3) of 
volume by water displacement and number per quart was made for 
each length from 1 to 88 millimeters, several hundred specimens being 
used for each size, except for the sizes under 6 millimeters. The indi- 
vidual quahaugs vary greatly, some being thick, others thin, some nar- 
row, others wide. For this reason it was necessary to use a large 
number of quahaugs of each size, and after plotting the results on 
co-ordinate paper to form a uniform curve for the volume. 

Monomoy Experiments. 
During the period from 1905 to 1910 growth experiments were con- 
ducted in the Powder Hole, a sheltered harbor of salt water situated 
at Monomoy Point, Chatham, at the elbow of Cape Cod. In former 
years the Powder Hole was a spacious harbor where a hundred vessels 
could anchor, but the sand bars have so shifted that at the present time 
nothing remains but an almost enclosed body of water, of perhaps 3 
acres, connected with the ocean on the bay side by a narrow opening 
through which a dory may enter at high tide. The opening changes 
constantly, owing to the shifting nature of the sand, and has succes- 
sively worked from the south to the north side, closed and re-opened 
again at the south at intervals of one and a half years. A large part 
of the original harbor is now either dry land or salt marsh, while on 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 95 

the north and west side is a sand flat of 3 acres, which up to 1910 con- 
tained an abundant quantity of soft clams. The harbor itself is slowly 
diminishing in size, due to the encroachment of the sand, and will 
doubtless eventually become a small pond, not connected with the ocean. 
By referring to Fig. 31 the location of the flats and experiments can 
be seen. 

The water on the north and west sides averaged from 15 to 18 
feet in depth, gradually shoaling to the south and east. In the shallow 
water the soil was covered with an abundant growth of eelgrass. The 
rise and fall of the tide was about V/2 feet on the average, but ex- 
tremely erratic, as the force and direction of the wind and the posi- 
tion of the opening were important in determining the amount of water 
passing through the narrow inlet. The location and depth of the 
opening made it possible for the clam flat to be constantly under water 
for weeks, while at other times several days might pass with the water 
barely covering the flats. At such times the water was over the flats 
for only a brief period, probably not averaging much over five hours 
out of the twenty-four. Naturally, the amount and frequency of the 
tidal flow affected the salinity of the water, which varied somewhat 
with the influx of the tide. The amount also varied with the high 
or low running tides, as a certain height had to be reached before 
water would flow through the inlet. 

The Powder Hole, which was taken by the Commonwealth for exper- 
imental lobster hatching, proved an excellent locality for experiments 
on the life and growth of the quahaug, as it was a natural breeding 
ground. In addition to the quahaugs naturally bedded in this body of 
water, additional seed was planted for experimental purposes. A small 
laboratory was erected on the shore, and a raft 20 feet long by 10 feet 
wide (see report on the " Scallop Fishery," 1910) was securely moored 
in the deepest part of the harbor. 

Box Experiments. — Two main classes of experiments were under- 
taken, (1) bed and (2) box, which differ only slightly, the box form 
being a more convenient modification of the experimental bed previously 
described. This form consisted of small grocery boxes filled with sand and 
supplied with rope handles, by which they could be let down in any depth 
of water, either suspended from the raft or placed on the bottom in any 
part of the Powder Hole, where they could be raised by a line or a 
long hooked pole whenever desired. The advantage of the experimental 
box over the bed lay first, in greater accuracy, as it permitted the 
operator to obtain each time the same number of quahaugs that he 
planted, a thing that it is almost impossible to do in a planted bed, where 
the quahaugs must be raked under water; secondly, it furnished a con- 
venient means of handling; and thirdly, it permitted the planting of 
numerous small beds, equally as efficient from a practical standpoint, 
under a variety of natural conditions in the different parts of the 
Powder Hole. 



96 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The box experiments were divided into four classes: (a) rack boxes 
placed on posts; (b) boxes in the shallow water near the shore, at a 
depth of from 1 to 5 feet; (c) boxes in deep water, 10 to 18 feet; and 
(d) boxes suspended by ropes from the raft. In all cases, especially 
on the raft, the boxes were made as strong as possible to withstand 
the strain of lowering and taking up. The boxes could be used only 
one year, as the ship worms (Teredo) render the wood unfit for 
service. 

The method of planting a box experiment is comparatively simple. 
Rope handles are stretched diagonally from end to end, the number 
of the experiment carved on the side of the box, and the box filled 
one-half to two-thirds full of clean sand from the shore. The dimen- 
sions of the box and the height of the sides above the sand are 
recorded. The quahaugs, which have previously been measured and 
notched by a file on the edge of the shell, are either placed on the 
surface of the sand and allowed to burrow when the box is under 
the water, or are placed in their natural position under the sand. 
The box is then lowered at the desired locality. 

(1) Rack Boxes. — This group comprises the first box experiments, 
which were started in October, 1905, and continued until October, 1908. 
These experiments have been grouped together as they comprise all 
the box experiments of 1905. During the first ten months these boxes 
were not on the raft, but were located in a different part of the 
Powder Hole, under circumstances which will be briefly described as 
follows : — 

Wooden boxes of the same length and as nearly as possible the same 
size were arranged so as to slide between two upright posts about 8 feet 
long driven firmly in the bottom in from 5 to 6 feet of water. At inter- 
vals on the posts were wooden pins, so adjusted that they could be 
withdrawn at will. These pins furnished a resting place and support 
for the boxes. Thus the boxes could be raised or lowered for examina- 
tion at any time. The posts were driven down so that the tops were 
from IV2 to 2 feet below the surface of the water at low tide, to pre- 
vent their being carried away by the ice. To the ends of the boxes 
were attached galvanized iron handles 3 by 4 inches, which, passing 
over the posts, made the runners for the boxes. Considerable difficulty 
was encountered in putting down the posts in getting them the right 
distance apart, so the boxes would slide easily. One box was used to 
set the posts and the others lowered after the posts were in position. 
The boxes were placed in sets of two and three, the former being 
found more advantageous. 

The natural conditions of the quahaugs which were planted in these 
boxes were especially favorable. The location was in the northeast 
end of the Powder Hole, as is shown in Fig. 31, at the edge of the deep 
water, or where the old channel once existed. The bottom was mud 
covered with thin eelgrass, while the depth of the water at low tide 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 97 

averaged b l ,2 feet. The sand in the boxes was taken from the exposed 
flats of the Powder Hole, and was coarse and firm. Raised as they 
were from the bottom at various heights, the quahaugs were entirely 
free from the influence of the dead eelgrass, and were able to get a 
better circulation of water than if resting on the bottom. The sand 
in the different boxes did not extend flush with the top, but varied from 
1% to 5 inches from the top of the box, leaving a projecting rim. 
When taken up the sand in the boxes had a muddy appearance at the 
surface, due to the settling of matter floating on the water. The depth 
of water over the boxes varied with their location, since all the racks 
were below low-water mark, and were never exposed. No means were 
at hand for obtaining the exact rate of current over these experiments, 
but the circulation was good, and while perhaps not as swift as at the 
raft was all that could be desired by the quahaug planter. The den- 
sity varied with the influx of the tide from 1.021 to 1.025. 

(2) Shallow-water Boxes. — The boxes were somewhat larger than 
the deep-water boxes, as they could be more easily handled. These 
boxes were located principally on the south and east sides of the 
Powder Hole, both on clear bottom and in eelgrass. It is interesting 
to note that the rate of growth in the boxes was more rapid than for 
quahaugs in the natural soil in the same locality. 

(3) Beep-water Boxes. — These boxes were of small size, for con- 
venience in raising. Two methods of raising them were tried. Where 
the water was sufficiently shallow to permit the box being seen, the 
pole with hook was used. In the deeper water a rope and small 
wooden buoy were attached to the box. 

(4) Baft Boxes. — A raft, 20 feet long by 10 wide, was moored in 
the Powder Hole near the flat on the north side, where the deepest 
water and best circulation were obtained. It was provided with a cen- 
tral well and four trap-doors, by means of which the boxes could be 
lowered to any depth up to 18 feet. The raft was used only during 
the summer months, and was hauled on land for the winter, the box 
experiments being transferred for winter to water deep enough to 
escape the ice. During the winter of 1906 to 1907 a heavy rope frame 
on posts was placed under the water at a depth of 2 x /2 feet from the 
surface. On this framework, primarily intended for wire scallop cages, 
were suspended a number of quahaug boxes, while others were placed 
on the ground in the same locality at a depth of 11 feet. 

The natural conditions on the raft were especially favorable for 
quahaug growth, and extremely good results were obtained. The posi- 
tion of the raft was such as to receive the full benefit of the incoming 
tide as it passed through the opening over the flat, bringing with it the 
abundant diatomous food accumulated on the sand. In this way the 
circulation of the water in the vicinity of the raft was the best in 
the Powder Hole, and accounts for the better growth in the raft boxes. 

In addition to the box experiments, quahaugs were also placed in 



98 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

wire cages or baskets, and their growth obtained out of the sand. 
These cages were made of various sized wire mesh, from ^4 to 1^4 inch, 
according to the size of the quahaugs, and usually measured 1% by 
1 by V2 feet. They were suspended from the raft in the same manner 
as the boxes. For the very small quahaugs a series of jars were sus- 
pended, a few quahaugs in each jar. 

Experimental Beds. — The experimental beds can be divided into 
two classes, (1) between the tide lines, (2) below low-water mark. 
The tidal beds were located in the different parts of the clam flat in 
connection with clam experiments (Fig. 31). The first of these beds 
was put out in October, 1905, and the last taken up in 1910. The 
main results are shown by the comparison of growth between the 
tide lines only one-fifth of the time under water and on the raft under 
nearly the same conditions. The first of these beds were in the form 
of pens made by sinking boards into the sand, but the later ones were 
planted without bounds of any sort, as it was found that the quahaugs 
did not travel far. 

The beds below low-water mark were mostly confined to the east and 
south side of the Powder Hole, in shallow water from 2 to 4 feet 
deep, both in clear spaces and on eelgrass bottom. The entire number, 
six, planted in 1905 and 1906, were in the form of pens, and varied 
in size from %ooo to Koo of an acre. In all these beds the rate of 
growth was slow. 

The growth experiments at Monomoy, as already shown, were grouped 
into the raft and bed classes. The two kinds of experimental beds, 
between the tide lines and below low-water mark, were continued from 
1905 to 1910. The raft experiments, however, were separated into 
two series, the first during the four years from 1905 to 1908, when 
the main laboratory was at Monomoy Point, and the second during 
1909 and 1910. The object of the first series was to determine the 
average rate of growth and methods of planting; the second, the 
growth of old quahaugs and blunts. 

Plymouth Experiments. 
Three beds of quahaugs, Nos. 118, 186 and 187, were planted on the 
flats of Plymouth harbor in connection with experiments on the soft 
clam (Mya arenaria). The experimental beds, situated between the 
tide lines, were located on Grey's and Egobert's flats in the town of 
Kingston, on the western side of the harbor. Plymouth harbor pre- 
sents a vast area of flats more or less covered with eelgrass, with a 
great variety of soils. Three towns, Duxbury, Kingston and Plymouth, 
share the fishing rights of this harbor. The general and natural con- 
ditions are: (1) large rise and fall of tide; (2) good circulation of 
water, due to the swift currents, except on the shore flats of the west- 
ern side; (3) high flats with long exposure; (4) variety of soils from 
a shifting sand to a soft mud; (5) great area of eelgrass flats. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 99 

Egobert's, the larger of the two Kingston flats, has an area of about 
275 acres, covered by thick eelgrass except for a triangular piece on 
the mid-southern section, which comprises about 80 acres of smooth, 
unshifting sand. The greater part of this section is barren, although 
a few clams are scattered along the edge near the channel. Grey's flat, 
situated to the west of Egobert's, is of an entirely different type. It is 
a long flat, with a uniform width of 100 yards. It runs throughout 
its length parallel to the shore, while on the east side it is separated 
from Egobert's by a 300-foot channel. Like Egobert's, it is covered 
for the most part by eelgrass, but is essentially different in the nature of 
its soil which is mud throughout. Although the total area of the flat 
is about 115 acres, an irregular section of mud on the southeastern 
section, comprising 30 acres, is the only available clam territory. This 
area is composed of soft mud on the north and the south, but the 
middle section contains several acres of hard mud. Bed No. 118 was 
planted on the southwest side of Grey's, in the soft mud; the other 
two on Egobert's, — No. 187 in the eelgrass, No. 186 on the clear sand, 
with seed obtained at Marion. 

The results, as will be seen by reference to the general table, were 
briefly as follows: on Egobert's the bed in the eelgrass showed a 
slower growth than the bed on the bare sand, due to difference in 
circulation of water. The averages for Grey's and Egobert's flats were 
about the same, showing that, where the current is the same, the soil, 
whether soft mud or hard sand, makes little difference in the growth of 
the quahaug. Growth between the tide lines, with a good circulation 
of water, even when the feeding period is limited to ten hours out of the 
twenty-four, is often better than in beds constantly under water, where 
there is less circulation of water. Culture on these flats is advisable 
only through the summer months, a gain of 2.4 bushels for every 
bushel of inch quahaugs planted being recorded for these two flats, as 
the planter runs the risk of losing his quahaugs in a severe winter. 
There are places where quahaugs could be safely bedded in deeper 
water in Plymouth harbor and Duxbury Bay, and there is reason to 
look forward to a combination of quahaug and clam culture on these 
flats. Along the western shore of the harbor the growth would be so 
slow as to render any culture on those shore flats impracticable, but 
in other parts of the harbor growth may be faster. As the growth 
is accomplished only during the summer months, the planter should 
buy large seed in the spring and sell the "little necks" in the fall, 
thereby not risking a winter loss. 

Wellfleet Experiments. 

The harbor of Wellfleet Bay, some 4 miles long and nearly 2 miles 

wide, contains approximately 2,500 acres of quahauging ground. The 

greater part of this territory is under water, ranging from a few feet 

in depth to upwards of 5 fathoms at low tide. Particularly in the 



100 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

channel, where the water is deepest, quahaugs flourish in the greatest 
abundance. As the mean rise and fall of the tide is 10 3 /4 feet, the 
currents flow with great swiftness, both on the ebb and flow of the 
tide. This may well be considered the natural home of the quahaug, 
as TVellfleet is the foremost town in the State in the production of this 
shellfish. Consequently, it seemed particularly fitting that this place 
should be made the scene of investigations of this nature. 

The experiments were conducted during the summer of 1908, from 
the last of June till the first of December. All the beds in this harbor 
were planted between the tide lines. It was impossible to conduct 
experiments under water, as was done at Monomoy, owing to the fact 
that the tides and currents were so strong at Wellfleet as to make any 
raft experiments practically out of the question. Furthermore, the 
large fleet of quahaug boats which was engaged in the industry at this 
place constantly fished over the whole territory, and might have inter- 
fered with such experiments. 

The beds were divided into two general divisions: (1) beds planted 
on staked areas in the sand or mud; (2) beds planted in boxes. The 
total number of the planted beds was 146, but only 84 were taken up. 
They were distributed along the coast from a point south of Smalley's 
bar on the west to a point south of Lieutenant's Island, near the East- 
ham line, on the east. 

The size of these beds was small, usually not over 3 or 4 square feet. 
The main reason for this was the fact that the large territory to be 
studied necessitated the planting of a great number of beds, which 
could not, therefore, owing to our limited time, be of large size. Our 
custom was to drive a stake a foot long, more or less, firmly into the 
soil for about half its length at each corner of the bed. In addition 
we placed a sign beside the bed, describing the experiment as one con- 
ducted by the State. In the area enclosed by these stakes 50 quahaugs, 
averaging 25 millimeters in size, which had originally been obtained 
from the region known locally as Stony Bar, just south of Jeremy's 
Point, were planted by hand. These quahaugs were filed on the edge 
of the shell and accurately measured, so that the increase in length 
could be readily ascertained when they were taken up in the fall. 
"When these beds were examined after an interval of several months 
the quahaugs were dug out of the sand with an ordinary clam hoe, 
their lengths measured, their new edges refiled, and on each the distance 
from the old to the new file marks accurately taken. This distance 
registered the increase in width, from which, by means of tables, we 
could easily compute the increase in length. They were then replanted 
in the same manner as at first, for comparison at some future date. 

The 146 beds fall readily into ten divisions which are fairly well 
defined and easily separable. These divisions, beginning at the south- 
westernmost point in the harbor and extending around the circuit of 
the coast, are, taking them in order, as follows: (1) Smalley's bar, 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 101 

(2) the Meadows, (3) Sow Rock bar, (4) Herring River, (5) Egg 
Island, (6) Indian Neck, (7) the north shore of Blackfish Creek, (8) 
the south shore of Blackfish Creek, (9) the west shore of Lieutenant's 
Island, (10) the south shore of Lieutenant's Island, and the neighbor- 
ing region to the Eastham line. 

Results. 

General Growth. — The shell of the quahaug is taken as the standard 
in recording growth, as any increase in the soft parts causes a pro- 
portional enlargement of the shell. Of course, this does not take into 
account the quality of the meat, so important to the dealer, but no inves- 
tigation along this line has been practicable at the present time. 

The rate of growth of the quahaug is largely determined by its 
environment. While this accounts for much of the variation, it is true 
that individual differences do occur in the same bed under identical con- 
ditions, thus indicating that power of assimilation and growth varies 
with the individual. As a rule, the growth in any bed is fairly uni- 
form, especially when large numbers are planted. The quahaug dif- 
fers from the higher animals, in that its growth appears to be directly 
proportional to the amount of food consumed. Curiously enough its 
automatic feeding apparatus is constantly at work whenever the ani- 
mal is taking water through its extended siphons, thus causing an almost 
constant feeding. The food consists of microscopic plant forms, called 
diatoms, which are distributed through the water. Naturally, the 
abundance of diatoms in any locality and the circulation of water are 
the two principal factors in growth. 

Growth of the Young. — The growth of the young quahaug from the 
time of set or attachment was observed only at Monomoy Point, in the 
raft spat boxes. Here the small quahaugs were followed during the 
summers of 1906, 1907 and 1908, until the boxes were taken up in 
October and November. In 1908 the young quahaugs were visible to the 
naked eye as early as July 24, but in 1906 and 1907 they were not noticed 
until the second week in August. Contrary to expectations the small 
quahaugs in the spat boxes showed a slower growth than larger quahaugs 
under the same conditions. The average size of 276 quahaugs taken from 
these boxes by December 1 was only 4.9 millimeters, which seemed 
rather a slight five months' growth. The general average was proba- 
bly lowered by the late set of certain quahaugs, since a few of the 
early set, when suspended from the raft in jars, showed an average 
gain of 3.4 millimeters per month, which would give a 9-millimeter 
quahaug on December 1. From these figures the arbitrary length of 
5 millimeters has been adopted as the average size of the six-month 
quahaug on January 1. 

The form of the young quahaug from the time of set is practically 
that of the adult. The only important difference is found in the prom- 
inent raised ridges, which readily enable the observer to distinguish 



102 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the young from other small mollusks of similar shape. On a 1-milli- 
meter quahaug as many as 12 of these ridges could be counted (Fig. 
28). As the quahaug grows these ridges appear at regular periods, 
evidently intervals of time rather than growth, and, as the animal 
grows older, gradually disappear. 

Growth of Old and Young. — As can be seen from Table 2, the 
actual increase in length as well as the relative increase in volume con- 
stantly diminishes as the quahaug increases in size. In other words, 
the older and larger a quahaug becomes the more slowly it grows. By 
placing a series of quahaugs from 1 to 95 millimeters in boxes sus- 
pended from the raft under similar conditions as regards sand, depth 
and current, sufficient data were obtained to plot a curve of the year's 
growth and formulate a table for each sized quahaug from 1 to 100 
millimeters. It was found from this experiment that a 14-millimeter 
quahaug evidenced the greatest gain in length, and that above this size 
the yearly growth for the larger quahaugs steadily diminished with 
advancing age. When a 14-millimeter quahaug showed a yearly gain 
of 27.7 millimeters, a 20-millimeter Avould give 25.2 millimeters; a 30- 
millimeter, 20.8 millimeters; a 40-millimeter, 17 millimeters; a 50-milli- 
meter, 13.9 millimeters; a 60-millimeter, 11 millimeters; a 70-milli- 
meter, 8.1 millimeters; an 80-millimeter, 5.1 millimeters; a 90-milli- 
meter, 2.5 millimeters; a 100-millimeter, .6 millimeters. After the qua- 
haug reaches a certain age or size the gain in thickness of the shell 
surpasses that of increasing length and width, with the result that the 
old quahaug becomes what is known by the fishermen as a blunt. 

Blunts. — Quahaugs with shells thickened at the edges or lips, a sort 
of retrogressive growth typical of old age, are often taken from the 
fishing grounds. The size alone does not always indicate the age, as 
the conditions of its environment may be such as to cause a small- 
sized quahaug to become a blunt. In many respects slow growth is 
similar to old age, and may cause a thickening of the edges. Retro- 
gressive growth occurs by a gain in thickness of the shell without a 
corresponding advance at the edge. Evidently the soft parts of the 
animal have attained their full development, and therefore the mantle 
cannot secrete new material for the extension of the shell. 

Our experiments did not substantiate the statement of many qua- 
haugers that olunt quahaugs, when placed in a favorable condition will 
become sharps, i.e., attain once more a thin lip. Blunts of various 
thicknesses and sizes were obtained at Wellfleet and placed in the raft 
boxes at Monomoy Point, where conditions were favorable for rapid 
growth. Control experiments of small quahaugs were conducted at the 
same time. Part of the same lot of quahaugs were planted near the 
shore, where the conditions were less favorable for rapid growth. The 
experiments lasted from May 17 to Sept. 14, 1909. The results were 
briefly as follows: in the raft boxes, five classes were arbitrarily made, 
the first two irrespective of length and width, the last three of thickness 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 103 

of lips. (1) Thick blunts; (2) thin blunts; (3) large blunts, 3% 
inches; (4) medium-sized, about 3 inches; (5) small, 2% inches. 

(1) The thick blunts were divided between three boxes, containing-, 
respectively, (a) broad blunts with ridge in center of edge; (b) square- 
edged blunts; (c) round-edged blunts. Box (a) showed an increase 
of 1.8 millimeters in width, as compared with a thickening of 3.22 mil- 
limeters, giving a ratio of 1.8 millimeters to 3.22 millimeters; box 
(b) 1.3 millimeters to 2.15 millimeters; and box (c) 1.5 millimeters to 
2.35 millimeters, making an average ratio of 1.53 millimeters to 2.57 
millimeters. None of the three boxes showed any definite indication of 
sharpening, although box (b) showed a thin raised edge of growth. 

(2) The box of thin-lipped blunts showed a true blunting tendency, 
giving a typical rounded growth at the edge. These showed an in- 
crease in width of 1.6 millimeters, compared with a thickening of 4 
millimeters. 

(3) The large blunts were placed in three boxes, in classes of wide, 
medium and fine edges. The average of the three boxes gave a ratio 
of .7 millimeters to 2.55 millimeters, showing a slower growth for the 
large than the small and medium sized blunts. The large blunts with 
the thick lips showed the slowest gain. 

(4) Two boxes of medium-sized blunts showed a ratio of 2.51 mil- 
limeters to 4.94 millimeters, one box showing a fairly good ring of 
growth, which might be considered an attempt at sharpening. 

(5) The two boxes of small blunts showed a ratio of 1.7 millimeters 
to 3.6 millimeters, indicating that the shell thickened twice as fast as 
they increased in size. 

The results in the shore experiments were as follows: the blunts 
placed under poor-growing conditions showed even slower growth, 
a gain of .22 millimeter in width, than on the raft boxes, and a corre- 
spondingly greater thickening. Also, the large blunts showed a slower 
growth than the small. Experiments were also tried in the opposite 
direction, i.e., growing blunts from sharps. The sharps over 3 inches 
showed little gain and great thickening tendencies, but did not evi- 
dence any decided blunting. Twelve boxes were used on the raft and 
in the shore beds, the small sharps giving greater gain than the large. 

Length of Life. — Owing to the impracticability of carrying on work 
for a sufficient period to determine the length of life of any particular 
set of quahaugs, any statements regarding the period of existence must 
necessarily be more or less of an estimate. Nevertheless, by means 
of Table 2 it is possible to give approximately close figures for the 
age of any given quahaug up to 4 inches in length. On the raft 
boxes at Monomoy Point, a very favorable place for growth, the fol- 
lowing figures were obtained, starting with a 5-millimeter (% inch) 
quahaug on January 1 at the age of six months. The size of 51.9 
millimeters (slightly over 2 inches) was obtained in two and one-half 
years; 74.25 millimeters (slightly less than 3 inches) in four and one- 



104 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

half years; 89.5 millimeters (slightly over 3% inches) in seven and 
one-half years; 96 millimeters (slightly over 3% inches) in ten and 
one-half years; and 101.3 millimeters (about 4 inches) in sixteen 
and one-half years. The growth during the last six years is more or 
less a matter of conjecture, but up to the tenth year is approximately 
correct. In this case the quahaug was under favorable growing con- 
ditions. There are places where the growth is four times as slow as 
in the raft boxes, which would place the age of a large quahaug over 
fifty years. Where the growth was slow, the quahaugs would probably 
show blunting before they reached the size of 4 inches. Blunts are 
older than sharps, and their age is still more a matter of guess work, 
a decided blunt ranging from twenty-five years to an indefinite age. 

The Little Neck. — The culturist who desires to raise the most profit- 
able shellfish will inquire the length of time necessary for producing 
a marketable quahaug. The following answer, while general, will not 
apply in every case, since the rate of growth varies according to cur- 
rent, tide and other conditions of environment. In favorable sur- 
roundings the quahaug will reach a size of 2 inches in two and one- 
half years after birth, and at the same rate of growth will attain over 
2V2 inches in three and one-half years. In exceptionally favorable 
situations the size of 2*4 inches may be obtained in two and one-half 
years, and that of 2% inches in three and one-half years; but such 
rapid growth is seldom found, and more often is less than that 
indicated by the first set of figures. In one of the unfavorably sit- 
uated experiments, where thick eelgrass cut off the circulation of water, 
it would have taken four times as long to produce the same size 
quahaug. 

The Growing Months. — The quahaug, like the scallop (Pecten irra- 
dians) , increases in size only during the summer months, no shell for- 
mation taking place during the cold weather. Its annual life consists 
of a period of active growth in the summer and a period of winter 
rest, during which the animal lies practically dormant. As with 
the scallop, growth begins about May 1, when the temperature of the 
water has reached 49° F., varying with the seasonal changes of the 
different years, and ceases during November, when the temperature has 
fallen below 45°. For all practical purposes growth ceases about 
November 1, at a temperature of 49°, which is especially true of the 
exposed Wellfleet flats, but at Monomoy Point there is a slight Novem- 
ber growth. The decrease in the microscopic food forms (diatoms) in 
the water about December 1 is not sufficient to explain the cessation of 
growth, which is due rather to the inactivity or sluggishness of the 
quahaug during the cold weather. By monthly measurements of the 
quahaugs in the raft boxes and in the shore beds at Monomoy Point, 
the comparative value of the different summer months was determined 
in terms of the gain per cent, as follows: considering the entire year 
as 100 per cent., May received 3.78 per cent.; June, 10.81 per cent.; 



1910." 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



105 



July, 19.02 per cent.; August, 25.56 per cent.; September, 26.24 per 
cent.; October, 12.85 per cent., and November, 1.74 per cent. 

Growth on Barren Flats. — There are few areas, no matter how 
adverse the natural conditions, where quahaugs will not live, but their 
rate of growth will depend entirely upon the environment. There are 
many barren flats on which they will grow, if planted, but on which 
certain conditions prevent the natural set. In the future it will be 
possible to utilize such areas for quahaug culture and to make produc- 
tive localities now practically worthless. 

Comparison of Localities. — The growth experiments were conducted 
chiefly at Wellfleet and Monomoy Point, a few beds being planted at 
Plymouth, Nantucket and Monument Beach. Adult quahaugs were 
planted for spawning purposes in the Essex and Ipswich rivers, but 
no record of their growth was taken. These quahaugs, one year after 
planting, were in a thriving condition, but showed no evidence of prop- 
agation. Nevertheless, under the prevailing conditions of rapid growth 
in these rivers, in spite of the inability to obtain a natural set, it should 
pay to plant quahaugs. The following table gives a comparison of the 
growth in the various localities. From a practical standpoint only the 
Monomoy and Wellfleet comparisons are of interest, as the other beds 
are too few in number. 







as 

o 

1 


o 

a 
5 


t 

a o 
a « 

8 


Wellfleet. 


Monomoy. 




Beds. 


Boxes. 


Raft 
Boxes. 


Shore 
Boxes. 


Shore 
Beds. 


Flat 
Beds. 


Number of beds, 
Annual growth, 
Increase in volume (per cent.) , 


1 

8.48 

132 


3 

9.41 

149 


l 

10.15 
163 


80 

9.69 

155 


4 

28.62 

783 


48 

24.02 

574 


32 

12.60 

216 


6 

11.16 

183 


3 

7.63 
117 



The Monomoy experiments afforded a comparison for the four years 
1906 to 1910 in the raft boxes and in the shore beds. On the raft the 
standard growth was as follows: in 1906, 22.84 millimeters; in 1907, 
24.21 millimeters; in 1908, 18.72 millimeters; in 1909, 24.92 milli- 
meters. In the shore beds the growth was 5.06 millimeters in 1906; 
13.27 millimeters in 1907; 10.01 millimeters in 1908, and 17.43 milli- 
meters in 1909. The slow growth for the shore beds in 1906 is partly 
due to the effects of transplanting, in 1908 to the closure of the outlet, 
which for several months interfered with the circulation in the Powder 
Hole. 

A comparison of the various parts of the Powder Hole gives the 
following figures for the average growth : raft boxes, 24.02 millimeters ; 
edge of clam flat near raft, 19.38 millimeters; clam flat, 7.63 milli- 
meters; eastern part, 17.53 millimeters; east side, 8.92 millimeters; 
south side, 12.15 millimeters. 



106 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



Natural Conditioxs. 

There is no more convincing illustration of the influence of environ- 
ment upon the life of the quahaug than the effect of the surrounding- 
conditions upon its growth. Chief among these natural agents may 
be enumerated current, tide, soil, depth and salinity of the water, 
arranged in order of individual importance, yet so closely interwoven 
that their separate actions cannot always be clearly demonstrated. 
Their various combinations form a favorable or unfavorable environ- 
ment for the growth of the quahaug. and govern largely the rapidity of 
its development. A discussion of these conditions involves their sep- 
arate treatment, but the reader should realize that there are few, if any, 
instances where the pure uncomplicated action of a single natural con- 
dition can be obtained. 

Current. — The most essential condition for shellfish growth is a 
good current, not necessarily an exceedingly swift flow, but rather a 
fair circulation of water. Current performs a threefold service: (1) 
it determines the supply of food for the body and lime for the shell; 
(2) it governs the supply of oxygen for the gills; and (3) finally, it 
acts as a sanitary agent. 

(1) The food of the quahaug. as already stated, consists of micro- 
scopic forms, chiefly diatoms, in the water. The growth of the qua- 
haug, as with lower animals, is directly proportional to the amount of 
food, and the animal situated in a current naturally receives a greater 
supply than one in still water. For all practical purposes current 
means food, and. within limits, increase in current indicates increase 
in the amount of food, thus furnishing an index of the growth. The 
amount consumed likewise depends upon the quantity in the water, the 
feeding power or capacity of the quahaug, and the absence of silt or 
other material in the water, which would interfere with the mechanical 
feeding process of the animal. In a similar way, current aids shell 
formation by increasing the supply of available lime salts. 

(2) Intimately associated with its value as a food carrier is the no 
less important service of affording a good supply of oxygen. The 
quahaug, like man. needs a definite amount of oxygen to perform the 
normal functions of life, — to transform food into body tissues and 
energy. Current supplies fresh oxygen, and a quahaug with a good 
circulation of water is able to assimilate more food and grow faster 
than one in the still water. 

(3) The work of sanitary agent is performed by carrying away all 
products of decomposition, thus preventing contamination in thickly 
planted beds. 

From the standpoint of the culturist, circulation of water is most 
important, and in choosing a grant selection should be based upon the 
current. Nearly all our growth experiments, directly or indirectly, indi- 



1910.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



107 



cate its value. A few cases are cited to show the direct experimental 
relation between current and growth. 

A comparison of the growth in sand boxes at Monomoy Point was 
made in three parts of the Powder Hole: (a) the raft, which had a 
good circulation, gave an annual gain of 24.5 millimeters (612 per 
cent, gain in volume) ; (b) the south side, in front of the laboratory, 
where there was only a slight flow of water with the rise and fall of 
the tide, gave a gain of 16.18 millimeters (305 per cent, gain in vol- 
ume) ; (c) the east side, where eelgrass cut off practically all circu- 
lation, showed a gain of 13.62 millimeters (241 per cent, gain in 
volume). 

Wire mosquito netting was placed over part of the jars in which 
small quahaugs were suspended from the raft. A month later the 
quahaugs in the jars without netting showed a gain of 3.4 millimeters, 
compared with 1.21 millimeters for the netting jars, illustrating the 
effect on growth by restricting the circulation. 

The channel connecting the Powder Hole and the ocean became 
blocked during the summer of 1908, with the result that there was a 
stagnation of water in the Powder Hole during part of the growing 
months. The shore beds showed a slow growth of 10.01 millimeters in 
1908, as compared with 13.27 millimeters in 1907 and 17.43 millimeters 
in 1909. 

In our experiments in Wellfleet Bay the greatest growth occurred in 
Herring River, Blackfish Creek and on Egg Island, which get both 
the backward and forward sweep of the tide. The various local groups 
of beds are here arranged in order of rapidity of growth : — 



Per Cent. 




Per Cent, 


Herring Biver, . . . .100 


West of Lieutenant's Island, 


. 52 


Egg Island, .... 75 


Blackfish Creek (north side), 


. 51 


Blackfish Creek (south side), . 72 


Sow Eock bar, . 


. 33 


Indian Neck, .... 68 


South of Lieutenant's Island, 


. 15 


The Meadows, . . . .55 


East side of Great Island, 


9 



Tide. — Quahaugs are found between the tide lines, but in less abun- 
dance than beneath low-water mark, their natural habitat. This cir- 
cumstance may be the result of exposure to severe winters, since the 
quahaug lies near the surface of the soil and not at a depth, as the 
soft clam. The principal effect of exposure, as demonstrated by experi- 
mental beds between the tide lines at Plymouth and Wellfleet, is the 
retardation in growth from loss of feeding time. The quahaug can 
feed only when covered with water, and exposure from four to twelve 
hours daily materially lessens the amount of food consumed, assum- 
ing that the quahaug feeds continually when under water. Experi- 
ments have demonstrated that the longer the exposure, the slower the 



108 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

growth. Eighty experimental beds between the tide lines at Wellfleet 
were classified as low, medium and high, according to the length of 
exposure (Fig. 36). The low beds, 32 in number, having a better 
circulation and longer feeding period, gave an annual growth of 12.5 
millimeters (.49 of an inch) ; the 27 medium gave 7.82 millimeters 
(.31 of an inch) ; and the 21 high beds showed a gain of 7.17 milli- 
meters (.28 of an inch). Considering the growth of the low beds as 
100 per cent., the medium would show 61.53 per cent, and the high 
57.39 per cent. While this evidence is open to the criticism that the 
faster growth of the low beds was due to a better circulation of water, 
it is confirmed by an experiment at Monomoy Point, where the annual 
growth was 24.02 millimeters in the raft boxes, as compared with 7.63 
millimeters on the near-by clam flat under the same conditions, except 
for the exposure of the flat. 

Planting between the tide lines entails considerable loss. Only 84 out 
of 154 beds were recovered at Wellfleet, over 50 of the remaining 70 
having been washed away, buried or destroyed by cockles, the greatest 
loss occurring in the exposed portions of the bay, especially near Lieu- 
tenant's Island. After three months only 42 per cent, of the planted 
quahaugs were found in the 84 good beds. Life between the tide lines 
is a difficult existence for the quahaug, especially for the smaller animal, 
which is forced to maintain a continual struggle against adverse con- 
ditions. 

Depth. — The depth of water over the grant is of practical interest 
to the culturist, who desires rapid growth and at the same time easy 
facilities for harvesting. Owing to the better circulation of water, the 
average growth in the deep water will exceed that in the shallow; but 
in localities where the current is approximately the same, any depth 
beyond 3 feet at low tide (for protection during the winter) gives no 
increased growth and affords a distinct disadvantage to the planter 
in taking up his crop. The quahaug appears to live equally well at 
any depth, and is occasionally raked in 50 feet of water on the north 
side of Cape Cod. 

The relation of depth to growth could not be experimentally deter- 
mined on a large scale owing to the cost and difficulty of planting in 
deep water. A few observations regarding the rate of growth at vari- 
ous depths were made from the raft at Monomoy Point, but these apply 
more to the study of circulating layers of water in the Powder Hole. 
In 1909, in IS feet of water, boxes containing quahaugs of the same 
size were suspended from the raft at 5, 10 and 15 feet. The gain in 
these boxes in terms of the standard for four and one-half months was 
536 per cent., 554 per cent, and 438 per cent., respectively. The max- 
imum growth occurred between 5 and 10 feet, and is intimately asso- 
ciated with the circulation in the Powder Hole, only the upper layer of 
water, above 10 feet, being disturbed by the inflowing tide. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 109 

Soil. — The quahaug is found in nearly every kind of soil, — gravel, 
sand and mud all seem alike to this mollusk. It is found in hard soil, 
into which it is difficult to force a rake, and in soft mud, where the 
gatherer sinks ankle deep. The best soil, if such can be designated, is 
a mixture of sand and mud, sufficiently loose to permit easy raking. 
The important consideration is the effect of the various soils on the 
growth and condition of the quahaug, rather than whether the animal 
can live. Organic acids in certain soils affect the composition of the 
shell, and through their irritating influence retard the growth by 
increasing the repairing processes. The kind of soil also affects the 
composition and shape of the shell, coarse, gravelly soil, especially 
in the case of the soft clam, giving a heavy, rough shell, in contrast to 
the thin paper-shell variety of the fine sand clam. In one instance 
quahaugs on a soft mud bottom had developed an elongate shell. In 
general, the soil has little influence upon the growth of the quahaug, 
and acts only as a resting place. The popular idea that the quahaug 
procures its nourishment from the soil, like a vegetable, is entirely 
erroneous, as the animal obtains its food from the water. The nature 
of the soil indirectly modifies the food supply, as certain soils are more 
prolific breeding grounds of the microscopic forms which make up the 
food of the quahaug. 

(1) Growth in Wire Cages. — Kellogg (2) first described the growth 
of quahaugs in wire racks out of sand. Our experiments along this 
line were made with the view of developing a method of keeping qua- 
haugs for the market without bedding in the sand. Wire cages, IV2 by 
1 by y± feet, of ^4 to 1^4 inch mesh, were suspended in 1906 and 1907 
from the raft at Monomoy Point. The annual growth was 12.87 milli- 
meters, as compared with 23.53 millimeters for quahaugs in the sand 
boxes under the same conditions. A greater difference was found in 
1909 with larger quahaugs (69 millimeters), which showed one-fourth 
the gain of the quahaugs in the sand boxes. The slower growth in 
the wire cages was due to the unnatural environment, which interfered 
with the natural feeding habits, and to the encrusting of the shells with 
barnacles, Serpula, Anomia, Crepidula and oysters, which use the same 
food. The experiment demonstrates that soil has little effect on shell 
formation, the quahaug obtaining its food and mineral salts from the 
water; and that quahaug culture in wire cages is impracticable, because 
it yields poor returns and is an expensive method of holding the catch 
for market. 

(2) Mud v. Sand. — A comparison of the growth in mud and sand 
under similar conditions was made at Monomoy Point by suspending 
quahaugs of the same size from the raft in two boxes, one containing 
a sticky, black mud, the other clean, coarse sand. The increase in volume 
for the mud was 342 per cent, and 424 per cent, for the sand, which 
shows that the actual type of soil is of little consequence. 



110 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

(3) Eelgrass. — The soil exerts an indirect influence on growth by 
the abundance or scarcity of eelgrass, which if thick prevents the free 
circulation of water over the bed. In addition to the examples cited 
under " Current/ 7 a comparison of experiments Nos. 186 and 187 on 
Egobert's Flat, Plymouth harbor, gives an annual growth of 11.73 mil- 
limeters for the clear and 7.43 millimeters for the eelgrass, although 
both beds were near together. The presence of eelgrass is not nec- 
essarily an indication of slow growth, as it only becomes a detriment 
when thick enough to interfere with the circulation. 

Salinity. — The amount of salts in solution, although it may influ- 
ence the spawning, does not materially affect the growth of the qua- 
haug. Experimental beds, located in densities from 1.009 (less than 
one-half the ordinary salt content) to 1.026 (fairly high salt content), 
have shown no appreciable effects. In the laboratory, quahaugs have 
been kept alive in tanks in which the water, by evaporation, reached a 
salinity of 1.035. They have also been found in rivers with a daily 
variation in density from 1.015 to 1.022. Salinity, however, indirectly 
affects growth by modifying the food supply, brackish waters being 
more productive of diatoms. 

Dwarf Quahaugs. — Quahaugs, like the higher animals, vary in their 
individual growth. Occasionally a specimen exhibits a consistently 
slow growth, either from an unfavorable position or from impaired 
feeding power. In case of defective nutrition shell formation will be 
slow for a number of years, and even for life. In one experimental 
bed a dwarf quahaug showed an annual growth of 6 millimeters, com- 
pared with an average of 9.35 millimeters in 1907; 4 millimeters, with 
8.33 millimeters in 190S; and 5 millimeters, with 7.83 millimeters in 
1909, which was less than two-thirds its normal growth. 

Growth under Adverse Conditions. — In localities where conditions 
are at all unfavorable, 30 to 40 millimeter quahaugs grow more rapidly 
than smaller sizes, in direct contrast to growth under favorable con- 
ditions, where the 15-millimeter quahaug exhibits the greatest growing 
power. In the shore beds at Monomoy Point, where the environment 
proved a hindrance to rapid growth, 1,700 measurements gave a gain 
of 3.93 millimeters for quahaugs between 24 and 30 millimeters, com- 
pared with 4.93 millimeters for quahaugs between 30 and 40 milli- 
meters. This difference is best explained by the ability of the larger 
quahaugs to combat the adverse conditions. 

Growth in Thickly Planted Beds. — Nature regulates thick sets of 
clams or quahaugs by the simple process of gradually forcing out the 
superfluous shellfish, and leaving only the maximum number per square 
foot that the soil will support. If the bed has a poor circulation of 
water an overpopulation may cause an insufficient food supply and 
slower growth than if less thickly planted. The number per square 
foot which will give the best growth in any locality can be determined 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. Ill 

only by experiment, the planter gradually increasing his stock until 
the maximum production is reached. In the boxes at Monomoy Point 
various numbers of l^-inch quahaugs, from 7 to 90 per square foot, 
gave uniform results. The box containing 90 to the square foot, 
which was so crowded that several were forced out of the sand, showed 
about two-thirds the growth of the others. This experiment only illus- 
trates the effect of crowding, and has no practical bearing on the max- 
imum production of a large. grant, which is entirely a question of the 
food supply. 

Transplanting. — Transplanted quahaugs do not at first exhibit their 
usual rate of growth, as they take some time to become accustomed to 
their new environment. In planting between the tide lines at Well- 
fleet, where the quahaugs are exposed to the action of the waves and 
shifting sand, a sufficient time, about one month, is necessary for the 
regulation of the feeding habits. This fact should be borne in mind 
in determining the growth for any locality, as described under 
" Tables," and no less than two months be taken for the test. It is an 
advantage to plant in April, which affords an opportunity for the 
quahaugs to become accustomed to their surroundings before growth 
begins, May 1. The period of acclimatization is an extremely variable 
factor, depending on the size of the quahaugs, the date of planting 
(the period being longer in the fall), length of time out of water, and 
the change in environment. The decrease in growth from a complete 
change in environment and late planting is shown in the wire cages in 
1906 and 1907. The quahaugs were placed in their new surroundings 
Sept. 18, 1906. The calculated rate of growth for 1906, 6.41 milli- 
meters, was only one-half that of 1907, 12.87 millimeters, owing to the 
subnormal growth during September and October. Similarly, quahaugs 
transplanted from Nantucket to the raft boxes at Monomoy Point gave 
a calculated rate of 16.58 millimeters for 1906, as compared with 23.13 
millimeters for 1907. 

Groivth in Boxes. — From a comparison of sand boxes and beds 
under the same condition it was found that growth was invariably 
faster in the boxes. The same results had been recorded in clam exper- 
iments on the Plymouth flats, where faster growth was obtained in 
boarded beds raised above the flat. Near Egg Island, Wellfleet, 3 
box beds averaged an annual gain of 29.12 millimeters, compared with 
12.06 millimeters for 13 ordinary beds. The idea that drainage was 
the cause was disproved by similar results being obtained below low- 
water mark at Monomoy Point. Boxes with sides of different heights 
were tried, to determine if these in some way aided the feeding, and 
boxes large and small, without sides, with and without bottoms, were 
used, but no appreciable difference was found ; yet in every case growth 
was faster in the boxes than in the control beds. Also, the distance 
from the bottom, as demonstrated by a series of boxes arranged in the 



112 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

form of steps, made no difference. An explanation, which in part 
accounted for this curious result, arose from the situation of these beds. 
In all cases the beds at certain times were exposed to wave action, 
which caused a slight shifting of sand, presumably enough to interfere 
with the feeding. The quahaugs in the boxes were protected from this 
action and were given better opportunity for feeding. 

TABLES. 

The following tables, which were formulated during the investigation, 
are presented for the use of the quahaug culturist in determining the 
productivity of new ground. The last, Table V, gives the summarized 
results from 187 experimental beds. 

The method of procedure in determining the growth on a prospective 
grant for a series of years by means of these tables is as follows : — 

(1) The culturist must obtain the growth for a definite period of not 
less than two months by planting a small experimental bed with qua- 
haugs of a known size. The simplest way is to notch the edges with a 
file and the new growth can readily be measured when the quahaugs 
are taken up. The reasons for having the growing period no less than 
two summer months is due to the slow growth immediately after trans- 
planting, as described under " Transplanting." The planter then has 
at hand the following data: (1) size planted; (2) gain in length for a 
certain known time, i.e., 40-millimeter quahaugs grew to 48.92 milli- 
meters, a gain of 8.92 millimeters from July 1 to September 1. 

(2) By means of Table I. (monthly values) we find that the growth 
during July and August is 44.58 per cent, of the total yearly growth, 
which is therefore 20 millimeters. 

(3) Table II. reduces the gain of a 40-millimeter quahaug to that of 
a 25-millimeter, which is used as a uniform standard in the experiments 
of this department, by multiplying with the factor 1.353, and in this 
example the result will be 27.06 millimeters. 

(4) By Table III. the gain in volume is obtained by dividing the 
water displacement or number per quart of a 52.06-millimeter quahaug 
by that of a 25-millimeter, which gives 709 per cent., or 8 quarts for 
every quart planted. 

(5) By Table IV. the growth on the grant can be calculated to five 
and one-half years. In the case of a gain of 20 millimeters for a 
25-millimeter quahaug, the figures would read % year 5 millimeters; 
1%, 28.30 millimeters; 2V 2 , 46.98 millimeters; 3V 2 , 59.85 millimeters; 
4V2, 69.46 millimeters; 5^2, 76.64 millimeters (25.4 millimeters equal 
1 inch). 

Value of the Different Months. — The quahaug only increases the size 
of the shell during the summer months, and at a variable rate, the 
months of August and September showing the fastest growth. The table 



1910. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



113 



is taken from the monthly measurements of quahaugs from the raft 
boxes and beds at Monomoy Point, and the value of the various months 
is presented in terms of the gain for a standard quahaug of 25 milli- 
meters. Each month is given a number representing the gain in per 
cent., the entire year being considered as 100 per cent. 



Table I. 



Month. 


Per Cent. 


Month. 


Per Cent. 


January, 

February 

March, 

April, 

May, 


3.78 
10.81 
19.02 


August, 

September, 

October, ..... 
November, ..... 
December, 


25.56 

26.24 

12.85 

1.74 


June, 

July 


100.00 



Size and Growth. — In recording the growth of a large number of 
various sized quahaugs under the same conditions in the raft boxes at 
Monomoy Point sufficient data were obtained to formulate a table giving 
the comparative annual increase in length for quahaugs from 1 to 100 
millimeters in size. If, for example, a 25-millimeter quahaug, which is 
taken as a standard size in our experiments, gained 23 millimeters, 
a 50-millimeter quahaug would gain 13.9 millimeters, and a 75-milli- 
meter quahaug 6.6 millimeters in the same time. From these measure- 
ments factors were obtained which by multiplication would transform 
the growth of any sized quahaug into terms of the standard 25-milli- 
meter quahaug. This table was of great assistance in reducing the 
experimental data to uniform figures when it was impossible to obtain 
the standard size for planting. 

According to the table the size of 14 millimeters gives the best growth, 
all larger sizes gradually decreasing. Theoretically, as shown in the table, 
the sizes below 14 millimeters reversely exhibit slower growth, but prac- 
tically this is somewhat offset by the increase in velocity, as the quahaug 
grows toward 14 millimeters in size, i.e., a 5-millimeter quahaug prac- 
tically would gain 26.80 millimeters, although theoretically its initial 
growing power would only be 20.02 millimeters at the same rate accord- 
ing to the table. 



114 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Table II. 



Su 

MlLLI 


:e in 

METERS. 


Factor. 


Size in 
Millimeters. 


Factor. 


Size in i Wo „ + _ 
Millimeters. Factor - 


1, . 




2.875 


35 


1.223 


69 2.738 


2, . 






1.840 


36, . 






1.243 


70, 








2. 840 


3, . 






1.474 


37, . 






1.271 


71, 








2 949 


4, . 






1.278 


38, . 






1.299 


72, 








3.067 


5, . 






1.139 


39, . 






1.329 


73, 








3.194 


6, . 






1.046 


40, . 






1.353 


74, 








3.333 


7, . 






.979 


41, . 






1.377 


75, 








3.485 


8, . 






.931 


42, . 






1.411 


76, 








3.651 


9, . 






.895 


43, . 






1.438 


77, 








3.S33 


10, . 






.868 


44, . 






1.465 


78, 








4.035 


11, . 






.849 


45, . 






1.494 


79, 








4.259 


12, . 






.836 


46, . 






1.523 


80, 








4.510 


13, . 






.830 


47, . 






1.554 


81, 








4.792 


14, . 






.830 


48, . 






1.586 


82, 








5.055 


15, . 






.833 


49, . 






1.620 


83, 








5.349 


16, . 






.849 


50, . 






1.655 


84, 








5.679 


17, . 






.865 


51, . 






1.691 


85, 








6.053 


18, . 






.881 


52, . 






1.729 


86, 








6.479 


19, . 






.895 


53, . 






1.769 


87, 








6.970 


20, . 






.913 


54, . 






1.804 


88, 








7.541 


21, . 






.927 


55, . 






1.840 


89, 








8.215 


22, . 






.947 


56, . 






1.886 


90, 








9.200 


23, . 

24, . 

25, . 

26, . 

27, . 

28, . 

29, . 

30, . 

31, . 

32, . 






.962 
.979 
1.000 
1.022 
1.046 
1.065 
1.085 
1.106 
1.127 
1.150 


57, . 

58, . 

59, . 

60, . 

61, . 

62, . 

63, . 

64, . 

65, . 

66, . 






1.933 

1.983 
2.035 
2.091 
2.140 
2.191 
2.289 
2.347 
2.421 
2.500 


91, 
92, 
93, 
94, 

95, . 

96, . 

97, . 

98, . 

99, . 
100, . 








10.000 
10.952 
12.105 
13.143 
14.839 
16.788 
17.500 
23.000 
28.750 
38.333 


33, . 






1.174 


67, . 






2.570 






34, . 






1.198 


68, . 






2.644 







1910. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



115 



Size and Volume. — The mere statement of the gain in length does 
not adequately express the actual increase, which should be stated in 
terms of volume. The tight shell of the quahaug makes easy the exact 
determination of the volume by water displacement. A quahaug 25 
millimeters (about 1 inch in length) displaces 3 cubic centimeters of 
water, while 51 millimeters (about 2 inches in length) is not merely 
twice as large, as the measurements indicate, but, displacing 22.8 cubic 
centimeters, has a volume of 7.6 times the first, a true index of the 
actual increase. In preparing the following table the water displace- 
ments of a large number of quahaugs from 1 to 88 millimeters were 
taken. Owing to the variation in the individual quahaugs, several 
hundred were used to obtain the displacement for each size, except in 
the cases of the quahaugs below 10 millimeters, which were difficult 
to obtain. From this table the gain in volume for any size and growth 
can be readily determined. 

Table III. 



Size in Millimeters. 


Volume 
in Cubic 

Cen- 
timeters. 


Number 

per 
Quart. 


Size in Millimeters. 


Volume 
in Cubic 

Cen- 
timeters. 


Number 

per 
Quart. 


1, 








.007 


100,714 


25, ... 


3.000 


235 


2, 








.013 


54,231 


26, 










3.400 


207 


3, 








.021 


33,572 


27, 










3.820 


185 


4, 








.032 


22,031 


28, 










4.250 


166 


5, 








.043 


16,396 


29, 










4.700 


150 


6. 








.056 


12,589 


30, 










5.170 


136 


7, 








.072 


9,790 


31, 










5.670 


124 


8, 








.091 


7,747 


32, 










6.180 


114 


9, 








.133 


5,299 


33, 










6.700 


105 


10, 








.191 


3,691 


34, 










7.250 


97.25 


11; 








.255 


2,764 


35, 










7.800 


90.35 


12, 








.313 


2,252 


36, 










8.400 


83.92 


13, 








.393 


1,794 


37, 










9.050 


77.90 


14, 








.490 


1,439 


38, 










9.750 


72.31 


15, 








.600 


1,175 


39, 










10.500 


67.14 


16, 








.718 


982 


40, 










11.300 


62.39 


17, 








.848 


831 


41, 










12.000 


58.75 


18, 








.998 


706 


42, 










12.900 


54.65 


19, 








1.210 


583 


43, 










13.800 


51.09 


20, 








1.440 


489 


44, 










14.800 


47.63 


21, 








1.680 


420 


45, 










15.800 


44.64 


22, 








1.970 


358 


46, 










16.900 


41.72 


23, 








2.270 


310 


47, 










18.000 


39.17 


24, 








2.600 


271 


48, 










19.000 


37.11 



116 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Table III. — Concluded. 



Size in Millimeters. 


Volume 
in Cubic 

Cen- 
timeters. 


Number 

per 
Quart. 


Size in Millimeters. 


Volume 
in Cubic 

Cen- 
timeters. 


Number 

per 
Quart. 


49 


20.200 


34.90 


69, ... 


55.200 


12.77 


50, 








21.500 


32.79 


70, 




57.700 


12.22 


51, 








22.800 


30.92 


71, 








60.100 


11.73 


52, 








24.200 


29.13 


72, 








63.000 


11.19 


53, 








25.600 


27.54 


73, 








65.700 


10.73 


54, 








26.900 


26.21 


74, 








68.400 


10.31 


55, 








28.300 


24.91 


75, 








71.100 


9.92 


56, 








29.800 


23.66 


76, 








74.200 


9.50 


57, 








31.300 


22.53 


77, 








77.300 


9.12 


58, 








33.000 


21.36 


78, 








80.400 


8.77 


59, 








34.600 


20.38 


79, 








83.900 


8.40 


60, 








36.300 


19.42 


80, 








87.300 


8.08 


61, 








38.200 


18.46 


81, 








90.900 


7.76 


62, 








40.300 


17.49 


82, 








95.000 


7.42 


63, 








42.400 


16.63 


83. 








99.500 


7.09 


64, 








44.500 


15.84 


84, 








104.200 


6.77 


65, 








46.600 


15.13 


85, 








109.000 


6.47 


66, 








48.700 


14.48 


86, 








114.000 


6.18 


67, 








50.900 


13.85 


87, 








118.700 


5.94 


68, 








53.000 


13.30 


88, 








123.000 


5.73 



Standard Growth. — The growth in millimeters up to five and one- 
half years is given for various annual rates of growth, from 1 to 30 
millimeters, of a standard 25-millimeter quahaug. Knowing the annual 
growth for a 25-millimeter quahaug, the reader can determine the size 
at any period up to five and one-half years by referring to the other 
columns. 

Table IV. 



Annual Rates in Milli- 




Size in 


Millimeters at Various Ages. 




meters for a 25 -Millime- 
ter Quahaug. 


Year. 


Years. 


2H 
Years. 


3K 
Years. 


Years. 


5M 
Years. 


1, 


5 


5.89 


6.84 


7.85 


8.92 


10.03 


2, 


5 


6.93 


9.01 


11.29 


13.67 


16.08 


3 


5 


8.13 


11.49 


15.08 


18.68 


22.05 


4, 


5 


9.19 


13.68 


18.50 


23.00 


27.16 



1910. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



117 





Table 77.— Concluded. 








Size in Millimeters at Various Ages. 


METERS FOR A 25-MlLLI- 
METER QUAHAUG. 


Year. 


Years. 


2H 
Years. 


3^ 
Years. 


4^ 
Years. 


Years. 


5, 


5 


10.39 


16.34 


22.21 


27.47 


32.21 


6 


5 


11.63 


18.86 


25.57 


31.50 


36.78 


7, 


5 


12.90 


21.33 


28.78 


35.26 


40.96 


8, 


5 


14.19 


23.83 


32.03 


38.98 


45.00 


9, 


5 


15.48 


26.19 


34.96 


42.32 


48.66 


10 


5 


16.65 


28.29 


37.63 


45.39 


52.03 


11 


5 


17.82 


30.35 


40.23 


48.32 


55.20 


12, 


5 


18.98 


32.39 


42.74 


51.13 


58.20 


13, 


5 


20.14 


34.35 


45.11 


53.80 


61.03 


14 


5 


21.31 


36.31 


47.49 


56.41 


63.75 


15 


5 


22.48 


38.19 


49.68 


58.80 


66.21 


16 


5 


23.64 


40.08 


51.88 


61.17 


68.62 


17 


5 


24.81 


41.88 


54.07 


63.47 


70.81 


18, 


5 


25.97 


43.59 


55.97 


65.52 


72.83 


19 


5 


27.14 


45.27 


57.92 


67.52 


74.80 


20 


5 


28.30 


46.98 


59.85 


69.46 


76.64 


21 


5 


29.47 


48.65 


61.76 


71.40 


78.41 


22 


5 


30.64 


50.29 


63.50 


72.99 


79.88 


23 


5 


31.80 


51.88 


65.22 


74.44 


81.21 


24, 


5 


32.97 


53.43 


66.81 


76.20 


82.71 


25, 


5 


34.13 


54.94 


68.54 


77.81 


84.07 


26, 


5 


35.30 


56.45 


70.08 


79.22 


85.25 


27 


5 


36.46 


57.95 


71.58 


80.52 


86.31 


28 


5 


37.63 


59.36 


72.98 


81.75 


87.36 


29 


5 


38.79 


60.72 


74.36 


82.92 


88.40 


30 


5 


39.96 


62.15 


75.75 


84.06 


89.32 



The Experimental Beds. — This table gives a summary of the ex- 
periments of this department. The current is represented by numbers 
from 1 to 5, according to its velocity, 1 indicating still water and 5 a 
rapid flow. The average annual growth and increase in volume is 
given in terms of a 25-millimeter quahaug, which has been taken as an 
arbitrary standard for the sake of comparison. The size, in terms of 
the length, at various ages is given in yearly intervals from one-half 
to five and one-half years, starting with the average length of 5 milli- 
meters. 



118 



FISH AND GAME. 



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1910. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



119 



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120 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



T3 
33 

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1910.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



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128 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1. Kellogg, J. L. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Mor- 

phology of Lamellibranchiate Mollusks. Bulletin United States 
Fish Commission, 1890. 

2. Kellogg, J. L. Feeding Habits and Growth of Venus mercenaria. 

New York State Museum Bulletin No. 71, Zoology, 10, 1903. 

3. Kellogg, J. L. Notes on the Marine Food Mollusks of Louisiana. 

Gulf Biological Station Bulletin No. 3, 1905. 

4. Kellogg, J. L. Observation on the Life History of the Common 

Clam, Mya arenaria. Bulletin United States Fish Commission, 
1899. 

5. Krause, A. K. Preliminary Report on the Habits and Life History 

of the Quahaug. Rhode Island Commission of Inland Fisheries, 
1903. 

6. Pelseneer, P. A Treatise on Zoology, Part V., Mollusea. Edited 

by E. Ray Lankester, London, 1906. 

7. Kellogg, J. L. Shellfish Industries, 1910. Henry Holt & Co. 

8. Ingersoll, E. The Clam ^Fisheries. In the Fisheries and Fishing 

Industries of the United States, United States Fish Commission 
and Tenth Census, 1887. 

9. Verrill, A. E. Report upon the Invertebrate Animals of Vineyard 

Sound. United States Fish Commission Report, 1871-72. 

10. Von Zittel, K. A. Text-book of Palaeontology, London, 1900. 

11. Gould, A. A. Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts, 1870. 

12. Ryder, J. A. The Byssus of the Young of the Common Clam 

(Mya arenaria, L.). American Naturalist, January, 1889. 

13. Williamson, H. C. The Spawning, Growth and Movement of the 

Mussel. Twenty-fifth Annual Report of the Fishery Board for 
Scotland, 190G. 

14. Colton, H. S. How Fulgur and Sycotypus eat Oysters, Mussels 

and Clams. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, 1908. 

15. Langworthy, C. F. United States Department of Agriculture, 

Farmers' Bulletin 85, 1898. 

During the past four years the investigations at Wellfleet 
were carried on to determine the practicability of securing a 
" catch of oyster spat " in Wellfleet Bay. The catching of spat 
is a very important advantage to the oyster industry. 

The report of Mr. Belding follows : — 



1910.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 129 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE SET OF OYSTER SPAT IN 
WELLFLEET BAY. 

The future success of the Massachusetts oyster industry will de- 
pend not only upon producing oysters of good quality and accessible 
markets, but also upon the raising of seed oysters. At the present 
time the problem of obtaining small oysters is an important factor in 
the development of the industry, since the greater part of the seed is 
brought from Long Island Sound, the Massachusetts oysterman paying 
the added cost of transportation. By raising native seed other diffi- 
culties, such as the inability to obtain suitably small oysters for plant- 
ing and the prohibitive prices in years of poor set in Long Island 
Sound, will be eliminated, and the oyster industry in the Common- 
wealth placed on a more substantial basis. 

Owing to variable natural conditions the control of the oyster set, in 
spite of numerous investigations in this country and abroad, has 
proved a baffling problem, which, possibly, may never be satisfactorily 
solved. At the present time young oysters can be caught, with more 
or less uncertainty, by placing shells in the water during the spawning 
season, the planter having no means of foretelling whether he will get a 
good or a poor set, Except in Buzzard's Bay and the Taunton River, 
where there were once natural oyster beds, little attempt has been 
made to catch the natural set, the Cape Cod planters obtaining their 
seed outside the Commonwealth. The object of this paper is to pre- 
sent a few facts concerning spat collecting, with the hope that it 
may arouse renewed interest in the production of native oyster seed. 
The following observations in Wellfleet Bay, in spite of their limited 
scope, show that oyster spat can be collected artificially in localities 
commonly considered unproductive, and that similar results can be 
obtained in other sections where spat collecting has not been given a 
fair trial by the oystermen. 

The following report consists of an introductory section, briefly deal- 
ing with the natural history of the oyster in as far as it relates to 
general spat collecting, a description of the conditions in Wellfleet 
Bay, and the results obtained from an investigation of the spawning 
season and from experiments with spat collectors. The methods of 
work are described under each topic. 

Natural History. 
Spawning. — The American oyster (Ostrea virginica) is unisexual, 
whereas the European species (Ostrea edulis) is hermaphroditic, i.e., 
both sexes occur in the same animal. The ripe generative organs 
(Fig. 62), in either sex, surround the liver and intestine, giving the 
appearance of branching veins filled with creamy white contents. The 
eggs or spermatozoa, during the act of spawning, are extruded from 



130 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

two main ducts, opening, one on each side, below the large adductor 
muscle, and are swept from the mantle chamber into the water, where 
they unite with the spawn from another oyster of the opposite sex. 
The oyster ready to spawn is popularly said to be " in milk," owing 
to the white, milky appearance of the reproductive organs. In Massa- 
chusetts waters the oyster begins to spawn at the age of two years, 
but its greatest activity does not take place before the fourth or fifth 
year. 

Fecundation. — According to the late Prof. W. K. Brooks of Johns 
Hopkins University the average female oyster is capable of producing 
16,000,000 eggs per season. The extruded eggs, about 34oo of an inch 
in diameter, can be seen by the naked eye as tiny white specks, which 
under the microscope have a round opaque appearance, due to the 
yolk granules within the cell. The spawn of the male oyster has a 
uniform milky consistency, due to the great number of minute sper- 
matozoa, which mainly consist of a nucleated body and long slender 
tail. In this way nature has provided a division of labor, since the 
egg is the inactive form, which contains the nutriment, while the 
spermatozoon is modified for swimming in search of the egg. 

In order that the egg, which has been east off from the parent 
oyster, shall develop into a new individual, it must unite with a sper- 
matozoon, the act of fusion being known as fecundation or fertiliza- 
tion. In nature the meeting of these two is often a matter of chance, 
depending upon the simultaneous spawning of several oysters in the 
same locality, and probably numbers of eggs are never fertilized. 

Early Life History. — With the completion of spawning the adult 
oysters have fulfilled their parental duties and the developing embryo 
is at the mercy of the natural elements. In order to overcome such 
adverse conditions as sudden changes in temperature, cold rains, 
storms, freshets, as well as the active enemies of the young larvae, 
and in order to maintain the proper equilibrium in spite of this great 
destruction, nature has provided an enormous number of eggs for 
every female oyster. 

During the first few hours, if the temperature of the water is not 
below 70° F., the embryo develops by the usual method of unequal cell 
division, and passes successively through 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc., celled 
stages, until it finally becomes a mass of small cells surrounding a few 
large cells, which are to form the primitive digestive tract. In the 
course of a few hours these surface cells throw out fine hair-like proc- 
esses, cilia, which by their lashing enable the animal first to rotate 
and then to swim through the water. The body soon elongates; cilia 
are only visible on the front end; the primitive mouth is formed on 
the under surface; and the shell gland is developed opposite the mouth. 
Gradually a thin, transparent shell envelops the body, the cilia on the 
anterior end forming a thick pad, the velum or swimming organ, which 
permits the little shelled larva to lead a free-swimming existence. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 131 

The formation of a mouth, stomach, intestine and anus enable the 
young animal to digest minute organisms and to obtain its sustenance 
from the water. During this veliger period the oyster larvae can readily 
be taken by towings with the plankton net. 

Attachment. — About the sixth day, the length of the free-swimming 
period depending upon the temperature of the water, the embryo set- 
tles to the bottom, and, if fortunate, attaches itself to some hard clean 
surface by the edges of the mantle, a fleshy fold on the inside of the 
shell. This temporary attachment is soon replaced by a calcareous fixa- 
tion which firmly fastens the oyster by its left or deep valve to the 
object of support. The attachment is caused by a sticky secretion 
from the mantle which becomes impregnated with lime salts. Several 
instances have been observed on the gravel bar in Herring River, 
Wellfleet, where yearling oysters had made a second attachment at 
the edge of the shell, leaving an interval between the two pebbles 
(Fig. 68: 16). This fact indicates that the oyster at the age of one 
year still retains its power of attachment. 

Previous to the attachment the early straight-hinged veliger larva 
has changed in size and shape to an unequivalvular form, with prom- 
inent umbones pointing posteriorly, which is readily recognizable under 
the microscope. During the early attachment period the anterior ad- 
ductor muscle disappears, the gill filaments increase in number, and 
a different shell formation takes place. 

Spat Collecting. 

The present system of spat collecting developed from a study of the 
attachment habit in the young oyster, the pla